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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

Antoine Zalatan and Alfredo Ramirez Gaston

This article examines the emergence of the “soft‐ecotourism” market and measures the extend of familiarity with ecotourism and the willingness of resort travellers to…

Abstract

This article examines the emergence of the “soft‐ecotourism” market and measures the extend of familiarity with ecotourism and the willingness of resort travellers to substitute, partially or totally, their vacation with an ecotourism experience. education, income and age are positively associated with ecotourism, while women and singles are a more in favour towards a substitution to ecotourism. The study indicates that there is confusion as to what constitutes ecotourism and the authors suggest that tourism agencies should be more actively engaged in explaining ecotourism to their potential clients.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Ni Putu Bayu Widhi Antari and Daniel Connell

This study aims to assess whether Tukad Bindu, Bali, Indonesia is a good example of ecotourism or practice in greenwashing.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess whether Tukad Bindu, Bali, Indonesia is a good example of ecotourism or practice in greenwashing.

Design/methodology/approach

The characteristics of ecotourism to assess Tukad Bindu were identified through a review of the existing literature. This study used Honey’s argument to determine these characteristics and supplemented them with other experts’ views to understand the global and local contexts of ecotourism. Primary data were collected from interviews with stakeholders and observations. The Tukad Bindu Foundation provided secondary data.

Findings

This study reveals that Tukad Bindu is a good example of ecotourism because it involves travelling to natural destinations. It reduces the negative effects of tourism activities – specifically environmental – thereby raising environmental awareness among local communities, tourists and the public at large. Tukad Bindu produces direct financial benefits for conservation, for empowering local communities and providing financial benefits, reverence for local cultures and positively influences the democratic movement, especially strengthening stakeholders’ participation in ecotourism.

Research limitations/implications

To accelerate the development of Tukad Bindu as an ecotourism destination, research on factors that enable and obstruct ecotourism development is required. This will help the foundation and stakeholders to develop strategies that can achieve the goals of conservation, local communities’ livelihoods and environmental education.

Practical implications

This study also has practical implications in terms of managing environmental activities, enriching Tukad Bindu’s biodiversity and attractions, and maintaining ecotourism sustainability.

Originality/value

Tukad Bindu has applied unique ecotourism practices, in terms of developing and ownership of protected areas. While Honey’s framework of ecotourism is beneficial to elaborate on the nature of ecotourism, the characteristics in this framework are not mutually exclusive in the case of Tukad Bindu. This study also has practical implications in terms of managing environmental activities, enriching Tukad Bindu’s biodiversity and attractions, and maintaining ecotourism sustainability.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Nhung Thi Hoai Duong, Nguyen Khanh Chi, Hanh Thi Nguyen, Ngan Thi Kim Nguyen, Chi Phuong Nguyen and Uyen Thi To Nguyen

This study examines the impact of perceived value, materialism and tourist intention on willingness to pay a premium for ecotourism (WTPP).

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the impact of perceived value, materialism and tourist intention on willingness to pay a premium for ecotourism (WTPP).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected and conducted in Vietnamese National Parks. The dataset consists of 927 valid responses by domestic travelers. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the proposed relationships among perceived value, materialism, tourist intention and tourists' WTPP.

Findings

This study found a significant positive effect of perceived value on both tourist intention and their WTPP. The results also indicated that materialism is revealed to have a totally negative influence on WTPP for ecotourism; its indirect effect is transmitted through tourist intention. These findings highlight that tourists are mainly attracted when they received unique information about eco-destination. Therefore, they tend to participate in ecotourism and decide to pay for ecotourism.

Research limitations/implications

First, the study findings contribute strategies for tourism providers in their marketing activities by segmenting the target market which can be based on tourists with materialistic and nonmaterialistic. Second, ecotourism marketers need to focus on increasing the unique image of ecological sites. These efforts will create a favorable action for tourists. Third, ecotourism providers might increase the prospective customer base among consumers who have materialistic behaviors. Furthermore, they can provide ecotourism promotion materials for targeting customers. Finally, government needs to consider strategies designed to enhance the eco-destination places and environmental intention.

Practical implications

First, the study has not compared the efficacy of two different measures which are affective and cognitive items in perceived value construct. Second, this research does not discuss about the interrelationships among other factors influencing tourists' WTPP. Third, the customers' demographic characteristics in this study did not explore because the difference on gender may be perceived differently in analyzing advertising. Fourth, this study was conducted in Vietnam, not in different countries and other different cultures.

Originality/value

This study investigates the impact of perceived value and materialism on ecotourism intention and tourists' WTPP for ecotourism. This study reveals the understanding of how individuals' concern about the value of ecological sites and influences their intention to actual behavior in engaging ecotourism. Significant practical implications are also provided for ecotourism providers, marketers and government. In general, government needs to consider strategies designed to enhance the eco-destination places and environmental intention. Ecotourism marketers need to focus on increasing the unique image of ecological sites. These efforts will create a favorable action for tourists. Otherwise, ecotourism providers might increase the prospective customer base among consumers who have materialistic behaviors. Furthermore, they can provide ecotourism promotion materials for targeting customers.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Book part
Publication date: 14 September 2018

Agnes Nowaczek and Hitesh Mehta

Building on past debates and incorporating recent knowledge on the revised principles and definition of ecotourism as set out by the Global Ecotourism Network and The…

Abstract

Building on past debates and incorporating recent knowledge on the revised principles and definition of ecotourism as set out by the Global Ecotourism Network and The International Ecotourism Society, this chapter assesses consumptive activities, such as hunting and fishing, through a lens of authenticity. This examination of ecotourism extends to tourists’ predispositions, ethics, and motivations responsible for their choices of ecotourism destinations, activities, and observable behaviors, which often lead them to personal transformation. As the idea of authenticity gains momentum in marketing, certifications, and regulations, this chapter tackles its significance by drawing from literature on applied constructs such as Ecotourist Predisposition Scale and Ecotourist Ethics Scale, as well as fieldwork experience and research pointing to the historical roots of ecotourism philosophy and practice in Zambia.

Details

Authenticity & Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-817-6

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Azwindini Isaac Ramaano

This study evaluates prospects of using ecotourism industry to advance community livelihoods in Musina Municipality, Limpopo, South Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

This study evaluates prospects of using ecotourism industry to advance community livelihoods in Musina Municipality, Limpopo, South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

Using questionnaire surveys, interviews primarily, supplemented by focus group discussions and interviews, primary data has been collected reflective of the potentiality of ecotouristic activities in Musina Municipality. To a lesser extent, field observations contribute to these primary sources. Extra insights are obtained through documentary reviews (secondary sources). Data is analyzed using quantitative statistical techniques supplemented by qualitative approaches.

Findings

The study confirmed substantial ecotourism potential of the Musina Municipality and that this potential is manifest irrespective of geographic and demographic factors. However, the study reports a low current ecotourism impact in the Musina Municipality with consequential minimal benefits accruing to the enhancement of the standard of living in the local community. An inference is made that the key gap area impeding the realization of ecotourism potential in the Musina Municipality is the absence of a well-articulated tourism strategy linked to the sustainable economic development of the communities involved. Several fruitful initiatives for ecotourism consonant with local factor endowments are proposed.

Originality/value

Although, taken in topical isolation, matters of community livelihoods and sustainable development have been increasingly coming to the forefront of research on tourism, few studies have taken a holistic approach predicated on the integration of community livelihood and sustainable development roles of various forms of ecotourism in community development within many rural areas. This study represents the first case study employing an integrated approach to analyze ecotouristic potential of rural Musina Municipality, one of the driest areas in the far North of Limpopo Province, South Africa, characterized by low standard of living juxtaposed with high touristic potential.

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Elricke Botha and Willy Hannes Engelbrecht

The growth in the ecotourism industry has increased emphasis on sustainable practices. Despite the fact that ample research has been conducted on sustainable ecotourism

Abstract

Purpose

The growth in the ecotourism industry has increased emphasis on sustainable practices. Despite the fact that ample research has been conducted on sustainable ecotourism practices, many ecotourism destinations fail to become sustainable. The growth of the ecotourism industry and the global population has called for greener practices to be incorporated in developing ecotourism destinations. Waterwheel, located in the Limpopo province of South Africa, is faced with this green development challenge and serves as a case study (located at the end of the chapter) for this chapter.

Methodology/approach

This chapter gives a brief overview of the green principles associated with developing ecotourism destinations. Green ecotourism destination planning is explained within the context of the tourists’ experience to highlight aspects necessary for sustainable ecotourism destination development.

Findings

Even though the green market is still in its infancy, tourists are increasingly demanding green accommodation. A green, sustainable ecotourism destination can only be developed if green principles are incorporated from the input phase. The input phase (e.g., building materials and infrastructure systems for water and energy) determines the output phase (e.g., operational materials, activities, suppliers, activities, and marketing) and, subsequently, the level of sustainability. It is therefore crucial to plan for these aspects and the level to which the destination aims to adhere to these aspects, as they are costly.

Originality/value

Even though research on the green economy is not a new phenomenon it has only recently trickled down to ecotourism development. This explains the lack of research currently experienced in the literature of ecotourism and a gap that should be addressed urgently. Although this chapter only briefly discusses green ecotourism development, the aspects highlighted in the chapter provides other researchers with research opportunities to pursue in an effort to bridge the gap.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Vera Stanković, Ana Batrićević and Vladan Joldžić

This study aims to highlight the most important preventive measures that should be proposed by policymakers and adopted by (inter)national legislative bodies by changing…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to highlight the most important preventive measures that should be proposed by policymakers and adopted by (inter)national legislative bodies by changing existing or adopting new legal documents. The implementation of these measures should be performed by state bodies responsible for ecotourism, natural and cultural resources protection and ecotourism services users.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical legal approach was applied, based on a systematic review of international legally binding and non-binding documents related to ecotourism, adopted by relevant international organizations. Analysis of norms for preventive protection of natural and cultural values was done and followed by law-reform research in the form of recommendations that should be adopted as binding.

Findings

International legal documents relevant to ecotourism analysed in this paper are divided into two groups. The first regulates exclusively ecotourism issues, whereas the second deals with sustainable development and indirectly refers to ecotourism, as one of its segments. Analysed international legal documents require unambiguous norms regulating preventive protective measures in ecotourism by prescribing actual obligations and prohibitions for relevant subjects. Given recommendations are grouped into five types according to the subjects they are addressing (ecotourism experts, policymakers, legislators, natural and cultural conservationists, local communities, educators).

Originality/value

This study is the first that points to the need to amending international legal documents related to ecotourism through recommendations regarding natural and cultural values’ preventive protection.

目的

这项研究旨在通过改变现有法律文件或建立新的法律文件, 强调决策者应提出并由(国际)国家立法机构通过最重要的预防措施。这些措施应由负责旅游、自然和文化资源保护的国家机构以及生态旅游服务用户来实施。

设计/方法论/方法

在系统审查相关国际组织采用的与生态旅游有关的具有法律约束力和非法律约束力的文件的基础上, 采用理论的法律方法对自然和文化价值的预防性保护规范进行分析, 然后以建议的形式进行了法律改革研究, 这些建议应被采纳为具有约束力的法律条文。

研究结果

本文将与生态旅游相关的国际法律文件分为两组。第一组专门规范生态旅游的问题, 第二组则涉及可持续发展, 而生态旅游也将作为部分内容在这一组进行阐述分析。经过分析的国际法律文件要求明确规范生态旅游的预防性保护措施, 规定有关主题的实际义务和禁止事项。根据所提出的主题(生态旅游专家、政策制定者、立法者、自然和文化保护主义者、当地社区、教育工作者), 这些建议会被分为五类进行阐述和分析。

独创性/价值

本论文首次提出了通过修改与生态旅游有关的国际法律文件对自然和文化价值的预防性保护的必要性。

Objetivo

El presente estudio tiene como objetivo destacar las medidas preventivas más importantes que deberían proponer los formuladores de políticas y adoptar los órganos legislativos (inter)nacionales mediante la modificación de los documentos legales existentes o la adopción de nuevos. La implementación de estas medidas debe ser realizada por los organismos gubernamentales responsables del ecoturismo, la protección de los recursos naturales y culturales y los usuarios de los servicios de ecoturismo.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se ha aplicado un enfoque jurídico teórico, basado en la revisión sistemática de documentos internacionales legalmente vinculantes y no vinculantes relacionados con el ecoturismo, adoptados por las organizaciones internacionales pertinentes. Se ha realizado un análisis de las normas para la protección preventiva de los valores naturales y culturales, seguido de una investigación sobre la reforma legal en forma de recomendaciones que deberían adoptarse como vinculantes.

Hallazgos

Los documentos legales internacionales relevantes para el ecoturismo analizados en este documento se dividen en dos grupos. El primero regula exclusivamente los temas de ecoturismo, mientras que el segundo se ocupa del desarrollo sostenible y se refiere al ecoturismo indirectamente, como uno de sus segmentos. Los documentos legales internacionales analizados requieren normas inequívocas que regulen las medidas de protección preventiva en el ecoturismo estableciendo obligaciones y prohibiciones reales para los temas relevantes. Las recomendaciones dadas se clasifican en cinco tipos según los temas que abordan (expertos en ecoturismo, formuladores de políticas, legisladores, conservacionistas naturales y culturales, comunidades locales, educadores).

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio es el primero que apunta a la necesidad de modificar los documentos legales internacionales relacionados con el ecoturismo a través de recomendaciones sobre la protección preventiva de los valores naturales y culturales.

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Marta Massi and Alessandro De Nisco

Originally conceptualised as an innovative strategy for environmental conservation, ecotourism is now considered as one of the fastest growing segments of tourism…

Abstract

Originally conceptualised as an innovative strategy for environmental conservation, ecotourism is now considered as one of the fastest growing segments of tourism. Although many definitions of ecotourism have been provided over the years, the application of the concept is still inconsistent, shifting its focus from purely nature-based towards more sustainable and conservative activities. Research on ecotourism reveals that ecotourism marketing initiatives are mainly driven by the supply-side or government/environmentalist organisations’ perspective, without taking into account the demand side, i.e., individuals’ motivations for ecotourism. This chapter will provide recognition of the different definitions of the ecotourism concept in order to distinguish it from other similar forms of tourism, e.g., nature-based tourism, and will review the research to build an understanding of the various motivations pushing individuals to choose ecotourism offerings. It will also function as the basis for the development of an appropriate protocol to investigate a sample of ecotourism providers and the congruency of their marketing initiatives with established consumer motivations.

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Amare Wondirad

The purpose of this study is to systematically identify and examine the challenges and opportunities of ecotourism development in Wondo Genet and its vicinity, southern…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to systematically identify and examine the challenges and opportunities of ecotourism development in Wondo Genet and its vicinity, southern Ethiopia and thereby forward suggestions to pertinent ecotourism stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a mixed-method research approach and collects primary data from 412 research participants (400 survey respondents and 12 interviewees). Descriptive and inferential statistics and content analysis are used to analyze quantitative and qualitative data, respectively.

Findings

The research findings unfold several constraints that deter successful ecotourism development along with opportunities that can be used in future development. Ecotourism is suggested as a complementary form of tourism development in Wondo Genet and its vicinity, as the area is known for its natural and cultural resources.

Research limitations/implications

The findings offer substantive insights to policymakers, private investors and local communities about the existing challenges and opportunities of ecotourism development in the context of emerging destinations. Given time, budget and human resource are acute restraints in developing countries; the current study is relevant in terms of highlighting the most pressing challenges that demand urgent action to unleash the development of a sustainable tourist destination.

Practical implications

The findings of this study also provide crucial practical implications to various stakeholders about the complementary nature of ecotourism and sustainable placemaking to conserve destinations’ environmental resources while improving socioeconomic conditions.

Originality/value

Despite Wondo Genet's immense ecotourism resource potential as one of the prime destinations both in the country and in the region, a huge gap exists in the current literature, where the current study intends to bridge in a comprehensive manner.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Hanyoung Go, Myunghwa Kang and Yunwoo Nam

This paper aims to track how ecotourism has been presented in a digital world over time using geotagged photographs and internet search data. Ecotourism photographs and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to track how ecotourism has been presented in a digital world over time using geotagged photographs and internet search data. Ecotourism photographs and Google Trends search data are used to evaluate tourist perceptions of ecotourism by developing a categorization of essential attributes, examining the relation of ecotourism and sustainable development, and measuring the popularity of the ecotourism sites.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers collected geotagged photographs from Flickr.com and downloaded Google search data from Google Trends. An integrative approach of content, trend and spatial analysis was applied to develop ecotourism categories and investigate tourist perceptions of ecotourism. First, the authors investigate ecotourism geotagged photographs on a social media to comprehend tourist perceptions of ecotourism by developing a categorization of key ecotourism attributes and measuring the popularity of the ecotourism sites. Second, they examined how ecotourism has been related with sustainable development using internet search data and investigate the trends in search data. Third, spatial analysis using GIS maps was used to visualize the spatial-temporal changes of photographs and tourist views throughout the world.

Findings

This study identified three primary themes of ecotourism perceptions and 13 categories of ecotourism attributes. Interest over time about ecotourism was mostly presented as its definitions in Google Trends. The result indicates that tracked ecotourism locations and tourist footprints are not congruent with the popular regions of ecotourism Google search.

Originality/value

This research follows the changing trends in ecotourism over a decade using geotagged photographs and internet search data. The evaluation of the global ecotourism trend provides important insights for global sustainable tourism development and actual tourist perception. Analyzing the trend of ecotourism is a strategic approach to assess the achievement of UN sustainable development goals. Factual perspectives and insights into how tourists are likely to seek and perceive natural attractions are valuable for a range of audiences, such as tourism industries and governments.

摘要

研究目的本论文旨在探索生态旅游业在电子世界中是如何随着时间而显示出来的,文章样本为带有地理标记的图片和互联网搜索数据。本文使用生态旅游图片和谷歌趋势搜索数据来评估游客对生态旅游的感知,通过对关键要素的分类,审视生态旅游和可持续发展的关系,以及衡量生态旅游基地的受欢迎程度等方法。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文作者从Flickr.com上搜集地理标记图片以及从谷歌趋势上下载谷歌搜索数据。样本分析通过内容、趋势、空间上的综合分析,来开发生态旅游类别和游客对生态旅游的感知。首先,我们研究了社交媒体上的生态旅游地理标记图片以理解游客对生态旅游的感知情况,以此搭建了关键生态旅游要素的类别体系,和衡量生态旅游基地的受欢迎程度。第二,我们通过使用互联网搜索数据,检测了生态旅游如何与可持续发展相连接,以及研究了搜索数据中的趋势。第三,我们使用了GIS软件来操作空间分析,对图片的空间-时间改变和游客对世界的观点做了可视化处理。

研究结果

本论文确立了三项生态旅游感知的基本主题以及13项生态旅游要素类别。生态旅游互联网随着时间演化,根据谷歌趋势上的定义,被大致地展现出来。本论文研究结果表示生态旅游地理位置和游客足迹与生态旅游谷歌搜索的热门区域不全是完全吻合的。

研究原创性/价值

本论文使用地理标记图片和互联网搜索数据将生态旅游发展趋势近十年的变化描画出来。全球生态旅游趋势的评估对全球可持续旅游发展和实际游客感知方面做出重要见解启示。生态旅游趋势的分析作为一种战略方法,对UN可持续发展目标的时间起到评估作用。本论文针对游客的真实感知和意见,游客如何选择和感知自然景观,这对于很多群体,比如旅游行业和政府,都有着重要意义。

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