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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Judith Herrmann and Christina Cameron

This paper is based on a presentation given at the international World Heritage expert meeting on criterion (vi) held in Warsaw, Poland, in March 2012. Results were…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is based on a presentation given at the international World Heritage expert meeting on criterion (vi) held in Warsaw, Poland, in March 2012. Results were updated and adapted to scientific standards. The purpose of this paper is to understand the associative dimension in World Heritage by looking at the evolution and application of criterion (vi).

Design/methodology/approach

For this paper, historical and qualitative approaches were combined. An understanding of the evolution of the criterion (vi) wording was gained through historical analysis and the consultation of relevant World Heritage statutory documents. A selected number of criterion (vi) statements were analyzed in qualitative terms. Results were then discussed in relation to the evolution of criterion (vi) wording and the understanding of pertinent World Heritage concepts.

Findings

Criterion (vi) holds a special position. It addresses an associative dimension of cultural World Heritage sites. Due to its special character, its wording was subject to several changes. While its wording became ever more flexible, this development has not fostered the inscription of exceptional cases or the equal use of cultural associations. An inconsistent interpretation has also weakened the concept of Outstanding Universal Value.

Research limitations/implications

Only inscriptions were taken into consideration. They usually have a World Heritage Committee approved criterion (vi) statement. Limitations to this research result from this restriction.

Originality/value

The paper represents a comprehensive study of the application and interpretation of criterion (vi) that combines the understanding of the evolution of the criterion’s wording with the analysis of a large number of World Heritage inscriptions. It is of interest to the World Heritage community and contributes to the World Heritage discourse.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Rami Farouk Daher

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to provide a critical assessment of the trajectory and nature of the production of knowledge on cultural heritage on the Arab world

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to provide a critical assessment of the trajectory and nature of the production of knowledge on cultural heritage on the Arab world. This evaluation of the discipline or field of cultural heritage will focus on both a historic evolution and on current practices in order to understand the nature and politics of that evolution.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach and research methodology adopted for this paper depends primarily on a long-term critical literature review and content analysis that took place over the past 25 years concerning key reports, journal articles, books and other publications on cultural heritage on the Arab world.

Findings

The paper's main findings centers on presenting current practices/production on cultural heritage which are divided into two categories in terms of production of knowledge: an abundant engagement with a technical sphere dominated with concern for documentation and conservation technology of cultural heritage; and a scarce engagement with epistemological and theoretical spheres that delves into processes of cultural heritage definition, consumption and continuity in the Arab world.

Originality/value

The paper attempts to engage in and commence a much-needed wider discussion on the historical transformation concerning knowledge production on cultural heritage in the Arab world and its related practices and processes. The paper emphasizes the significance of this engagement with theoretical spheres of conservation and calls for an expansion of such engagement in order to elevate the discourse and debate on cultural heritage in the Arab world.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2010

Hiroko Yasuda

This paper aims to examine a conflict between local élites and local forest workers in relation to the designation of Kumano Kodo in Japan as a World Heritage site…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine a conflict between local élites and local forest workers in relation to the designation of Kumano Kodo in Japan as a World Heritage site. Aesthetics of landscapes are highly politicized, which creates conflicts for forest workers.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines two concepts of “heritage” and “authenticity,” that World Heritage emphasizes. Types of authenticity are compared, and a post‐structuralist's model of authenticity is developed. The study uses empirical research data to show a process of authentication of tourist sites.

Findings

The value associated with World Heritage, while proclaimed as “universal value”, represents a Eurocentric hegemonic power that local élites use symbolically. The construction of Kumano Kodo as a World Heritage site entails masking local histories and memories.

Originality/value

Many scholars discuss heritage sites from the viewpoint of a conflict between nationalism and globalism. This paper, however, views heritage tourism from multiple perspectives, such as globalism, cosmopolitanism and localism.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Ana Pereira Roders and Ron van Oers

This article aims to introduce the special issue of the journal Facilities on “World Heritage cities management”, together with the respective articles.

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Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to introduce the special issue of the journal Facilities on “World Heritage cities management”, together with the respective articles.

Design/methodology/approach

This introduction addresses the topic of world Heritage cities management and its relevance to science and society. In so doing, it indirectly points to the emerging field of cultural heritage management within facilities management.

Findings

Even though the management of cultural heritage assets is nothing new for facilities managers, cultural heritage management as a field of research can be considered at a younger stage of development than other related studies, such as the discipline of architectural conservation, which originated in the nineteenth century with the advent of modernity. The application of management practices to immovable cultural heritage assets emerged as recently as the 1990s. At a time in which the role of culture and heritage in processes of sustainable development is gaining more ground, this special issue can be seen as the first of more contributions to come, which aim to enhance the conservation and management of cultural heritage assets for the benefit of present and future generations.

Originality/value

This paper aims to make a contribution to the growing field of cultural heritage management and is of use to facilities managers, scholars and consultants who have responsibilities but limited knowledge in this field.

Details

Facilities, vol. 29 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Elizabeth Halpenny, Shintaro Kono and Farhad Moghimehfar

World Heritage sites (WHS) can play an important role in promoting visitation to emerging and remote destinations. Guided by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this…

Abstract

Purpose

World Heritage sites (WHS) can play an important role in promoting visitation to emerging and remote destinations. Guided by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this study aims to investigate factors that predict intentions to visit WHS.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey questionnaires were used to collect data from visitors (n = 519) to four Western North American WHS. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to identify three reflective models (attitude toward visiting World Heritage, perceived behavioural control and intention to visit WHS in the future), three formative models (attitude toward World Heritage designation, social influence (subjective norms) to visit World Heritage and World Heritage tourism brand equity) and a structural model.

Findings

World Heritage tourism brand equity and social influence were strong positive predictors of intentions to visit WHS in the future. Attitudes towards World Heritage designation, followed by World Heritage travel attitudes and perceived behavioural control, were progressively weaker, yet positive predictors. However, the latter two concepts’ impact was negligible.

Originality/value

This study addresses four deficiencies in tourism studies: TPB studies have failed to find consistent predictors of intentions to visit destinations; very few studies have attempted to verify the factors that predict visitation to WHS, despite the opportunities and costs that can arise from WHS-related tourism; few studies of tourists’ perceptions of World Heritage and related WHS travel intentions have been conducted in North America; and PLS-SEM was used to perform statistical methods not commonly used in tourism studies including formative models, importance-performance mapping and confirmatory tetrad analysis.

研究目的

世界遗址(WHS)对于提高新兴和偏远地区的游览率起到重要作用。本论文以计划行为理论(TPB)为理论基础,研究游览WHS的动机因素。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文采用问卷采样形式,519名游览四个美国西北部WHS公园的游客为问卷样本。本论文采用偏最小二乘回归(PLS-SEM)分析数据,(a) 确立三个反应性测量模型(WHS游览态度、感知行为控制、未来WHS游览意向),(b) 确立三个形成性测量模型(WHS游览态度、WHS游览的社会影响力(主观规范)、以及WHS旅游品牌资产),以及(c) 验证一个结构模型。

研究结果

世界遗产旅游品牌资产和社会影响力是未来游览WHS意向的有效动力。世界遗产目的地的态度,由世界遗产旅游态度和感知行为控制所主导,也有着对未来游览WHS意向的积极促进作用,但是作用相对较弱。然而,世界遗产旅游态度和感知行为控制并未发现对未来游览WHS意向有直接决定作用。

研究原创性/价值

本论文弥补了旅游研究中的四大不足:(a) TPB研究未能找出旅游目的地游览意向的一致的决定因素; (b) 几乎没有文献试图验证WHS游览意向决定因素,尽管这将对WHS相关旅游业的机遇和成本控制有着重大意义; (c) 有关世界遗产和相关WHS旅游意向的研究还尚未在北美地区开枝散叶; (d) 本论文借用PLS-SEM方法来分析数据,包括验证形成性测量模型、重要性-绩效画图分析法、以及四分子分析法等,这在旅游文献中不常见。

关键词

品牌态度,世界遗产,旅游意向,TPB,品牌资产,品牌忠诚度

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil and Eman Hanye Mohamed Nasr

The study aims to analyze the development of Omani heritage legislation against the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (WHC), 1972 and WHC Operational Guidelines (WHC-OGs…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to analyze the development of Omani heritage legislation against the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (WHC), 1972 and WHC Operational Guidelines (WHC-OGs) to predict the possible effects of the recent developments on the management of the World Heritage Site in Oman.

Design/methodology/approach

This study discusses the development of the heritage protection legislation in Sultanate of Oman since 1970; it analyses the Omani Cultural Heritage Law 35/2019 against the recommendations of the UNESCO WHC as well as the requirements of the World Heritage Operational Guidelines. Moreover, the research investigates the possible effects of the recent heritage legislation developments on the management of Bahla Fort and Oasis in Oman, which is the first Omani World Heritage Site and the only site with special management regulations.

Findings

The paper outlines the effects of both the Omani Cultural Heritage Law 35/2019 and the Special Management Regulations 81/2019 on the implementation of the Bahla Management Plan. Additionally, the research establishes how the customization of heritage legislation as a special heritage management regulation facilitates the implementation of national legislation to solve specific local problems.

Originality/value

The study establishes the significance of developing comprehensive legislation to protect and manage the rich Omani cultural heritage and World Heritage Sites in alignment with the WHC and the WHC-OGs.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Angela Pons, Ana R. Pereira Roders and Molly Turner

The purpose of this paper is to survey the sustainability of management practices followed by local authorities, and their impact on the preservation of World Heritage

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to survey the sustainability of management practices followed by local authorities, and their impact on the preservation of World Heritage cities, taking the Old City of Salamanca as a case study.

Design/methodology/approach

After a brief introduction to the difficult role of World Heritage properties in the sustainable development of cities, the main concerns of their management practices are presented. The paper then surveys the Old City of Salamanca: before, during and after nomination, using the Auditorium project as an illustration of the threat of new development to the outstanding universal value and the difficulty in regulating it. Finally, the paper discusses the risks of inefficient management practices of such properties.

Findings

This survey revealed the inexistence of any management practices uniformly followed by local authorities for the preservation of the Old City of Salamanca. As a result, new urban developments risk destroying the property's outstanding universal value.

Practical limitations/implications

This paper discusses the evidence that can help local authorities of the Old City of Salamanca to understand the impact of poor management practices on their World Heritage property. This should also be informative and helpful to local authorities from other World Heritage sites which are dealing with similar situations.

Originality/value

This survey contributes to the expert area of sustainable development and urban heritage preservation that is demanding attention from both academia and practice.

Details

Facilities, vol. 29 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2011

Jukka Jokilehto

The purpose of this paper is to examine the decision‐making process related to the inscription of properties on the World Heritage List.

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1491

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the decision‐making process related to the inscription of properties on the World Heritage List.

Design/methodology/approach

Consideration is given to the general framework provided by the 1972 World Heritage Convention, and elaborated by the World Heritage Committee in the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the Convention.

Findings

The paper examines the tasks and responsibilities of each partner to the World Heritage process, from the State Party to UNESCO and the Advisory Bodies. There is a panorama offered from the changes and trends that have impacted the decisions, including a number of cases as examples. Finally, the paper proposes some improvements to the system, taking into account the role of each stakeholder.

Originality/value

This is the first paper examining the theme concerned.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Wenhui Wang, Yin Zhang, Jing Han and Ping Liang

As one of the nearest and most important groups of resource guardians, local teenagers are an important force for current and especially future world heritage protection…

Abstract

Purpose

As one of the nearest and most important groups of resource guardians, local teenagers are an important force for current and especially future world heritage protection. Nurturing their awareness of world heritage protection is an important way to achieve the sustainable development of world heritage sites (WHS). The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of local teenagers of Tai’an city in China with the aim of examining how they have developed consciousness of their role as “world heritage guardians.”

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews are used to examine the awareness of 15 local teenagers on world heritage protection. The interview results are then qualitatively analyzed by using a systematic coding process.

Findings

The analysis shows that the formation of the guardianship role is realized through three dimensions: recognition, emotion, and action, which are subjected to role awakening, role identifying, and role strengthening stage by stage. The personal experiences of the interviewees, as well as the impact from surrounding groups both serve to influence the formation of their role as “world heritage guardians.”

Research limitations/implications

The framework constructed in this study on the development of teenagers’ role consciousness cannot only apply to world heritage and environmental contexts in terms of awareness of the need for conservation, but be used toward behavioral studies of other age groups.

Practical implications

The findings can be used as a practical guide for school teachers, government officials, and heritage managers to better carry out educational programs in terms of heritage tourism and sustainable development of WHS for teenagers.

Originality/value

The teenagers’ population is underrepresented in the literature in terms of community involvement with world heritage. This study is meaningful because the focus is on improving local teenagers’ awareness of the value and importance of world heritage and their preservation.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2011

Christina Cameron and Mechtild Rössler

In partnership with UNESCO's Oral Archives Initiative, the authors have set out to capture the voices of those who have played a significant role in the creation and early…

Abstract

Purpose

In partnership with UNESCO's Oral Archives Initiative, the authors have set out to capture the voices of those who have played a significant role in the creation and early development of the World Heritage Convention. The recorded interviews with the men and women who were active participants in this early period are designed to supplement the existing literature and voluminous documentation from the statutory and expert meetings. The uniqueness of this World Heritage research project is the important role that the voices of the pioneers will play in illuminating the successes and failures, the struggles and triumphs of the early years. This paper aims to share some of the findings.

Design/methodology/approach

The selection of the first group of interviewees has been made on the basis of the importance of the person's involvement in World Heritage matters, age, diversity of interests and geographical distribution. The interviews are structured with specific questions to identify key issues and cases that have affected the development of the World Heritage system. Topics are explored and teased out, adapting to the experience of each interviewee.

Findings

To date, the authors have interviewed 31 participants from all geographical regions of UNESCO. The interviews have created a rich and diverse tapestry of information, concepts and opinions on the early days of the World Heritage Convention. Participants in the project have been generous with their time and passionately candid in their views. In this paper, the authors offer a glimpse into the results of this research by presenting some samples from three interviews.

Originality/value

The interviews provide a unique and original viewpoint on the creation and early implementation of the World Heritage Convention. Preliminary results point to a deeper understanding of the forces that led to the creation of the convention and the leadership role played by certain individuals in transforming these ideas for international cooperation into reality. At the completion of the project, this data set of interviews will be deposited in the UNESCO Archives for consultation by future generations of researchers.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

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