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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2022

Yongtai Chen, Rui Li, En-yu Zeng and Pengfei Li

This study aims to analyze the relevance of the city spatial structure for smart city innovation from the perspective of agglomeration externalities, and discusses whether…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the relevance of the city spatial structure for smart city innovation from the perspective of agglomeration externalities, and discusses whether there is heterogeneity in innovation across different geographical areas and population scales of cities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors construct the centralization and concentration indexes to conceptualize the city spatial structure of 286 cities (prefecture-level) in China based on the LandScan Global Population Dataset from 2001 to 2016. A fixed-effects panel data model is employed to analyze the relationship between the spatial structure and the innovation ability of smart cities; the results were validated through robustness tests and heterogeneity analyses.

Findings

The study found that the more concentrated and more evenly the distribution of urban population, namely the more city spatial structure tends to be weak-monocentricity, the higher the level of innovation in smart cities. The relevance of the weak-monocentricity structure and smart city innovation varies significantly depending on their geographical location and the size of the city. This result is more applicable to cities in the eastern and central regions, as well as to cities with smaller populations.

Originality/value

The adjustment and optimization of the city spatial structure is important for enhancing smart city construction. Unlike previous studies, which mostly use a single dimension of “the proportion of population in sub-centres to the population of all central areas” to measure city spatial structure, the authors employed the spatial centralization and spatial concentration. It is hoped that this study can guide smart city construction from the perspective of the development model of city spatial structure.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 122 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

M. Kabir and M.S. Rahman

Knowledge about current size and structure of a country's population is needed for the formulation and implementation of policies and programs in almost all sectors of…

Abstract

Purpose

Knowledge about current size and structure of a country's population is needed for the formulation and implementation of policies and programs in almost all sectors of public life. The purpose of this paper is to provide population projection for Oman, using population census and family health survey data.

Design/methodology/approach

Component method is used for projecting future population of Oman. Population Census data of 2003 by sex and by five‐year age groups were used. The base life expectancy of Oman is assumed to be 73 years and the base total fertility considered as 5.1 children per woman.

Findings

Depending upon the achievement of replacement fertility by the year 2025 or 2030 or 2035 the population of Oman in 2050 will vary from 4.5 million to 5.0 million. The different scenarios of population projection indicate that the population of Oman will not be stabilized before 2100.

Research limitations/implications

Population projection depends on assumptions about mortality, fertility, base life expectancy and migration. If these assumptions change then the projections will also change.

Practical implications

Because of high fertility in the past, women in the reproductive ages will increase for up to several decades. Thus, population growth will continue because of momentum effect, even if Oman achieves replacement fertility say in 2030. The age at marriage will increase.

Social implications

The rapid socio‐economic development and increased women empowerment will create a new outlook and ideas about lifestyles, leading to a decline in fertility. The decline in fertility is strongly related to social, health, education, employment opportunities of women and economic development, which through a variety of mechanisms, reduces the fertility desired and increases the fertility regulation through contraception, birth spacing and increased age at marriage of females. Because of increase in life expectancy and falling birth rate, the absolute number of the elderly population will have enormous impact on health care needs and hospitalization.

Originality/value

This paper deals with the population projection of Oman. Timely and accurate information about population trends is crucial for the socio‐economic development of a country. Knowledge about current size and structure of a country's population is needed for the formulation and implementation of policies and programs in almost all sectors of public life such as health, education and employment.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Jiang Xiaorong and Zhang Wenxian

The economic law of population distribution and migration has beenstudied chiefly based on the Chinese situation. The distribution anddevelopment of productive forces…

Abstract

The economic law of population distribution and migration has been studied chiefly based on the Chinese situation. The distribution and development of productive forces decide the distribution and migration of population, and in turn, the latter influences the former. The population distributions in three different stages of social development, namely agricultural, industrial and information society, are described. A new concept in population economics is introduced, i.e. population economic density, which is different from the concept of population density. The formula of population economic density is P(population)/R(resources). Many kinds of migration are analysed, and it is believed that the main efficient cause of migration is economy.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Meghan Hufstader Gabriel, Danielle Atkins, Xinliang Liu and Rebecca Tregerman

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between ownership type and population health initiatives adopted by hospitals using the 2015 American Hospital…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between ownership type and population health initiatives adopted by hospitals using the 2015 American Hospital Association data.

Design/methodology/approach

Hospitals of various sizes, ownership structures and geographic locations are represented in the survey. The outcome variables of interest include measures of hospital population health activities.

Findings

Findings indicate that nonprofit hospitals are most likely to express commitment to population health and participate in population health activities, with for-profit hospitals being least likely. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

This study demonstrates that discrepancies in population health approaches exist across ownership status – particularly, nonprofit hospitals appear to be the most likely to be involved in population health efforts.

Practical implications

As we continue to push for population health management in the hospital setting, grappling with the definition and purpose of population health management will be essential.

Social implications

Overall, these results suggest that nonprofit hospitals are more likely to be implementing population health efforts than for-profit or government-owned hospitals.

Originality/value

Although there are several studies on population health in hospitals, this study is the first to investigate the relationship between ownership type and population health initiatives adopted by hospitals.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Wolfgang Lutz

The paper seeks to provide a comprehensive review of the most important current and future demographic trends around the world and to discuss their implications for…

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to provide a comprehensive review of the most important current and future demographic trends around the world and to discuss their implications for business schools. It aims to do so by going beyond the usual consideration of population size and also by focusing on the changing composition by age, sex and highest educational attainment.

Design/methodology/approach

Standard cohort‐component population projections are complemented with methods of multi‐state projections and probabilistic population projections.

Findings

The paper shows the likely end of world population growth together with massive anticipated population ageing in low fertility countries and continuing very high population growth in Sub‐Saharan Africa and parts of Western Asia. Because of past investments in education younger cohorts tend to be better educated. For business schools this presents challenges in terms of the composition of the student body and faculty as well as the content of teaching.

Originality/value

This is the first time that such multi‐state projections of population and human capital around the world are discussed in the context of challenges arising for higher education.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2009

Lu Caimei, Hao Yonghong and Wang Xuemeng

The purpose of this paper is to apply grey system theory to population system and project China's population.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply grey system theory to population system and project China's population.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies the GM(1,1) model to China's population projections. Two key aspects of the method are crucial for obtaining best accuracy of prediction. They are the choice of the length for the original data to be used in the model and the adoption of the GM(1,1) metabolic model in prediction. The former determines what initial data to be used while the latter describes an iteration process on how to proceed to predict.

Findings

The results show that in 2015 China's population will reach 1.37 billion and in 2050 it will be between 1.42 and 1.48 billion, which is in accordance with the latest projections from the UN. The findings show the GM(1,1) metabolic model is an effective mathematical means in population projections.

Research limitations/implications

The paper suggests that GM(1,1) metabolic model can provide an effective simulation model for complicated systems with uncertainty and can be used in many fields.

Practical implications

The paper provides useful advice for the department of population.

Originality/value

Most population projections have been based on assumptions about fertility, mortality, and migration. The paper considers the population system as a grey system and introduces the GM(1,1) metabolic model to population projections.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 38 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Magnus Andersson, Peter G. Håkansson and Inge Thorsen

This chapter examines observed regional inequalities and centralization tendencies in Norway. Small, rural, municipalities experienced a favourable population development…

Abstract

This chapter examines observed regional inequalities and centralization tendencies in Norway. Small, rural, municipalities experienced a favourable population development from 1970 to the mid-1980s. After this, the percentage population growth has been strongest in the largest municipalities/cities, and this tendency has accelerated during the last 10–15 years. Data post-1970 strongly support the reasonable hypothesis that population growth is positively related to centrality. The major source of changes lies within the labour market regions, whereas the changes between the regions are modest. Jobs have not become more centralized than households over the period.

A conceptual model is developed, offering a useful taxonomy of municipalities in three dimensions: the unemployment rate, the employment growth, and housing prices. This provides a classification that contributes to clarify the changes in the urban-rural divide. The discussion demonstrates that distinguishing between different categories is important, since different explanations of centralization and regional disparities call for different menus of policy instruments.

We study the relationship between population growth, unemployment rates, and employment growth in Norwegian municipalities, to distinguish between disequilibrium and equilibrium explanations of the situation in regional labour markets. At a national level our results indicate that neoclassical adjustments dominate weakly over amenity-based mechanisms. However, results from many regions support the hypothesis that amenity-based adjustments are dominant for municipalities within a labour market region. One possible explanation is that the diversity in job opportunities is considered as an amenity. A thicker labour market is better fit to meet the demand of workers with specific qualifications.

Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2014

Erik L. Carlton

The Affordable Care Act is transforming health care practice nationwide through emphasis on population health and prevention. Health care organizations are increasingly…

Abstract

Purpose

The Affordable Care Act is transforming health care practice nationwide through emphasis on population health and prevention. Health care organizations are increasingly required to address population health needs. However, they may be ill equipped to answer that call.

Design/methodology/approach

This study identified ways that health care organizations might better integrate public and population health efforts to better respond to this new emphasis on population health. Employing semi-structured key informant interviews, barriers to and facilitators of integration were explored and implications for health care and public health leaders were developed.

Findings

Participants (n = 17) – including senior hospital executives, group practice administrators, and health department officials – identified strategies for health care and public health leaders to more effectively integrate in order to achieve better performance and population health gains. These strategies and their implications are discussed.

Originality/value

The results of this study provide important value to health care administrators leading efforts to integrate population and public health.

Details

Population Health Management in Health Care Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-197-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 October 2017

Hugo Aguas

This is a demographical exploration of a wide variety of topics, which are as follows: gender, race, age, employment, substance abuse, mental illness, physical illness…

Abstract

This is a demographical exploration of a wide variety of topics, which are as follows: gender, race, age, employment, substance abuse, mental illness, physical illness, veteran status, government assistance, physical & sexual abuse, hunger, and space. All of these topics were explored in conjuncture to ascertain who the homeless are. To explore this topic, data from LAHSA (Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority) was utilized to calculate demographical aspects of the homeless population with a raw sample of 4,852. I coded this data to further find insight among the population. Throughout this study it was found that nearly 60% of the homeless population in Los Angeles County are unemployed, 50% of the population have been incarcerated, a third of the population is homeless by age 20, a quarter of the population are women, and a third don’t utilize government assistance programs.

Details

Environmental Criminology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-377-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2003

Beth E Jackson

Epidemiology is often described as “the basic science of public health” (Savitz, Poole & Miller, 1999; Syme & Yen, 2000). This description suggests both a close…

Abstract

Epidemiology is often described as “the basic science of public health” (Savitz, Poole & Miller, 1999; Syme & Yen, 2000). This description suggests both a close association with public health practice, and the separation of “pure” scientific knowledge from its application in the messy social world. Although the attainability of absolute objectivity is rarely claimed, epidemiologists are routinely encouraged to “persist in their efforts to substitute evidence for faith in scientific reasoning” (Stolley, 1985, p. 38) and reminded that “public health decision makers gain little from impassioned scholars who go beyond advancing and explaining the science to promoting a specific public health agenda” (Savitz et al., 1999, p. 1160). Epidemiology produces authoritative data that are transformed into evidence which informs public health. Those data are authoritative because epidemiology is regarded as a neutral scientific enterprise. Because its claims are grounded in science, epidemiological knowledge is deemed to have “a special technical status and hence is not contestable in the same way as are say, religion or ethics” (Lock, 1988, p. 6). Despite the veneer of universality afforded by its scientific pedigree, epidemiology is not a static or monolithic discipline. Epidemiological truth claims are embodied in several shifting paradigms that span the life of the discipline. Public health knowledges and practices, competing claims internal and external to epidemiology, and structural conditions (such as current political economies, material technologies, and institutions) provide important contexts in which certain kinds of epidemiological knowledge are more likely to emerge.

Details

Gender Perspectives on Health and Medicine
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-239-9

1 – 10 of over 142000