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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Chuanchuan Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the substitute between social old-age insurance and adult children in providing old-age support, and estimate the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the substitute between social old-age insurance and adult children in providing old-age support, and estimate the effects of China’s old rural pension program (ORPP) on sex ratio.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from China’s 2005 inter-census population survey and China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, this paper estimates the effects of children on rural parents’ take-up of pension program and the effects of having access to pension on old parents’ choice of resource for future old-age support. The effects of China’s ORPP on sex ratio are estimated using difference-in-differences identification strategy.

Findings

Peasants having sons are less likely to participate in pension program and each additional son and daughter significantly decreases their likelihood of participation. Moreover, the effect of sons is much larger than that of daughters. Peasants having access to pension are less likely to rely on their children for old-age support. The implementation of the ORPP moderately decreased sex ratio.

Social implications

Implementing pension program in China’s rural area will probably affect rural people’s fertility behavior and thus be helpful in correcting sex ratio bias.

Originality/value

This paper first estimates the effects of having access to pension on old parents’ choices of providers of old-age support, and estimates the causal effect of rural pension on sex ratio using standard DID strategy.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2012

Arokiasamy Perianayagam and Srinivas Goli

The purpose of this paper is to compare the new Census 2011 results with the results of the previous Censuses and assess the progress in trends of population growth…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the new Census 2011 results with the results of the previous Censuses and assess the progress in trends of population growth, literacy rate, and sex ratio imbalance and also to highlight the critical socioeconomic issues based on short‐term trends and patterns.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is structured in a “commentary and perspective” format. The paper assesses key demographic and socioeconomic features of India's population using 2011 Census data, and compares progress in population and social trends with the results of previous Censuses. The paper also uses data from the National Family Health Survey (2005‐2006) and the United Nations World Population Prospects (2008) to complement Census results and understand the underlying reasons for the progress or deterioration in critical demographic and socioeconomic indicators.

Findings

The provisional results of the 2011 Census data reveal a mixed bag of insights. On the positive side, there has been steady progress in population stabilization and a swift ascent in female literacy since 1991. These encouraging trends, among others, represent major driving forces of demographic and economic returns for India in the coming decades. However, on the negative side, the 2011 Census reveals a deplorable deterioration in the female‐male ratio of the child population aged 0‐6 years, despite India's enforcement of targeted policy measures following the 2001 Census. The country needs to take careful stock of this issue, as its advancing demographic transition and changing socioeconomic circumstances are rapidly translating into an adverse trend of girl child discrimination.

Originality/value

This study compares India's most recent two Censuses and provides original analytical insights into India's progress in population stabilization and development, and the setbacks it faces in terms of gender inequalities. Region and state‐wise analyses are additional contributions based on disaggregated state level data from the recent two Censuses.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 39 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2020

Marie-Claire Robitaille and Ishita Chatterjee

This paper aims to understand the motivations behind married men preferring sons and to quantify the association between a couple’s stated son preferences. Son preference…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the motivations behind married men preferring sons and to quantify the association between a couple’s stated son preferences. Son preference is an endemic problem in India. With half a million female foetuses aborted each year, the root causes of son preference in India have been widely studied. Little is known, however, on how couples mutually decide on their desired child sex-ratio.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the third National Family and Health Survey, the authors apply three-stage least square and optimal general method of moment methods to demonstrate association. Robustness checks are performed on plausibly exogenous instrumental variables and selection issues in the marriage market.

Findings

The authors show that their spouse's son preference is by far the most significant factor associated with a person's own stated son preference. The association between spouse's stated son preference is observed only for couples being married for three to five years. It is postulated that this is the critical period when sex-selective abortion decisions are being made.

Originality/value

The focus of existing empirical studies is nearly always on the mother's son preference only. The hypothesis is that spouses mutually influence each other’s preferences and models estimating determinants of son preference should include preferences of both spouses. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to understand the motivations of married men towards preferring sons and quantify the association between spouse's stated son preference and respondent's stated son preference.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Sandra Groeneveld, Kea Tijdens and Daphne van Kleef

The purpose of this paper is to examine gender differences in promotion probabilities of the academic staff of a large university in The Netherlands, taking into account…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine gender differences in promotion probabilities of the academic staff of a large university in The Netherlands, taking into account the sex segregated context of the faculty.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses records of the university's personnel information system from 1990 to 2006, covering the data of 1,792 employees in the academic ranks who have entered since 1990. Cox regression models are used to test three hypotheses.

Findings

The findings show that women have lower promotion probabilities than men. The gender differences are primarily explained by differences in years of service and external mobility, and not by the sex segregated context of the faculty. A higher share of women decreases the odds of being promoted for both men and women. Gender differences in working hours do not explain the gender differences in promotion probabilities.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the existing literature because event history analyses have hardly been applied to personnel records for investigating the impact of the sex segregated context on promotion probabilities.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Gary N. Powell

The purpose of this paper is to review six different ways that have been used to “see the elephant” that constitutes the intersection of sex, gender, and leadership.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review six different ways that have been used to “see the elephant” that constitutes the intersection of sex, gender, and leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The proportions of women in positions of power and authority, leader preferences, leader stereotypes, attitudes toward women as leaders, linkages of leadership theories to gender stereotypes, and sex differences in leader behaviour and effectiveness are reviewed.

Findings

The managerial playing field continues to be tilted in favor of men and behaviours associated with the masculine gender stereotype, a phenomenon that occurs despite what leadership theories and field evidence would suggest.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should continue to track trends in proportions, preferences, stereotypes, attitudes, behaviour, and effectiveness pertaining to the intersection of sex, gender, and leadership. Scholars should not limit themselves in the kinds of research methods they apply to this task.

Practical implications

The challenge for organisations is to take advantage of and develop the capabilities of all individuals in leader roles and then create conditions that give leaders of both sexes an equal chance to succeed. The goal should be to enhance the likelihood that all people, women and men, will be effective in leader roles.

Social implications

Leader behaviour should have no gender.

Originality/value

This review encourages scholars to share what they have learned from their own ways of seeing, in this journal and elsewhere, and to listen carefully to what other scholars have to share.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Ann Sörlin, Ann Ohman, Yulia Blomstedt, Hans Stenlund and Lars Lindholm

The purpose of this paper is to present a register‐based index that could provide a practical tool for gathering information and increasing our knowledge on gender…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a register‐based index that could provide a practical tool for gathering information and increasing our knowledge on gender equality at organizational level.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on Swedish gender policy and information available in public registers, six variables were chosen. For each variable, a gender gap was calculated as the ratio between the sexes, with the larger figure always treated as numerator. The study population consisted of 11,471 persons in 46 companies working in the computer sector, and 32,151 individuals in 77 companies employed in the grocery production sector.

Findings

The results show indices of 1.43‐2.09 for the computer sector and of 1.13‐2.14 for the grocery production sector, both with a normal distribution (one is considered fully gender equal and three least gender equal). Added together, the selected variables provide results that are sufficiently different to enable ranking. The variables vary in importance in the two sectors compared. The smallest index variation was for education and salaries; the largest was for parental leave and the number of men and women employed at the companies.

Originality/value

The index is based on public registers, treats men and women symmetrically, and the results generated by the index are easy to communicate to all stakeholders. This research could provide a useful tool for investigating the extent to which men and women differ in certain variables at company level.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Gary L. Whaley and Shirley H. Tucker

Reports research statistics that reveal that half of all working women are likely to suffer some form of sexual harassment during their careers, particularly those in…

Abstract

Reports research statistics that reveal that half of all working women are likely to suffer some form of sexual harassment during their careers, particularly those in non‐traditional posts. Outlines different explanatory theories for sexual harassment proposed in current literature, focusing in particular on socio‐cultural, organizational and individual differences models, and seeks to examine the interaction between various factors identified. Discusses the main effects of power distance, attitudes towards women and gender/job match on sexual harassment, and develops models of sexual harassment behaviour to examine the interaction between these three factors for women with male supervisors in traditional and non‐traditional roles, identifying the circumstances in which quid pro quo and hostile environment sexual harassment are most likely and most unlikely to occur. Illustrates how the different factors involved foster different kinds of sexual harassment at different levels of severity, and concludes that multiple strategies are required to address such behaviour.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Julie Cogin and Alan Fish

The purpose of this paper is to examine prevalence of sexual harassment (SH) in nursing and the environmental factors that contribute to incidents of SH.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine prevalence of sexual harassment (SH) in nursing and the environmental factors that contribute to incidents of SH.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed‐method research methodology is adopted. A total of 538 questionnaires are collected from nurses working in eight different hospitals across metropolitan and rural areas in Australia. A total of 23 in‐depth semi‐structured interviews are conducted.

Findings

Prevalence of SH in nursing is high with 60 percent of female nurses and 34 percent of male nurses reporting a SH incident in the two‐year period prior to this paper. The questionnaire data suggest that patients are the most likely perpetrator, however, the interviews name physicians as typical perpetrators. A model is tested via structural equation modelling and revealed that leadership behaviors, an unbalanced job gender ratio and no prior socialization are positively associated with SH.

Research limitations/implications

This paper closes gaps in theory by introducing a new framework explaining the contextual factors that heighten a nurses' probability of being harassed. Some variables such as organizational culture and specific nursing units have not been explored and can be considered a limitation of the paper.

Practical implications

The results of this paper assist health professionals to adopt proactive practices for managing SH and plan a workforce where SH is minimized.

Originality/value

This paper illustrates the prevalence of different types of SH and the causes for male and female nurses that have not been investigated previously. The results help health managers make informed decisions in regard to intervention strategies.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Tracy F.H. Chang

This study develops a social psychological model to account for women’s gender‐typed occupational mobility. The model delineates that occupational gender composition…

Abstract

This study develops a social psychological model to account for women’s gender‐typed occupational mobility. The model delineates that occupational gender composition affects women’s psychological experience (experience of sex discrimination, self‐efficacy, and gender role ideology), and that this psychological experience, in turn, contributes to their mobility between male‐dominated and female‐dominated occupations. Using the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of Young Women data, the study finds that occupational gender composition affects women’s report of experience of sex discrimination but not self‐efficacy or gender role ideology. Self‐efficacy contributes to women’s gender‐typed occupational mobility, but experience of sex discrimination and gender role ideology do not. The direction for future research is discussed.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Junghyun Lee

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether observed hostility mediates the link between passive leadership and sexual harassment. The study also investigates how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether observed hostility mediates the link between passive leadership and sexual harassment. The study also investigates how workplace gender ratio might moderate this mediated relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used online survey data by recruiting full-time working employees in various US organisations and industries.

Findings

Results suggest that when working under a passive leader, both men and women are more likely to experience sexual harassment. Furthermore, the positive association between hostility and sexual harassment is stronger for female employees who work in a male-dominated organisation (low gender ratio). However, the moderating effects of workplace gender ratio were not significant for male employees.

Practical implications

Organisations seeking to reduce or prevent sexual harassment should monitor and screen out managers who display passive leadership behaviour and create a work environment where collegial and civil interactions are encouraged and valued.

Originality/value

This research advances our knowledge regarding the organisational factors of sexual harassment by examining passive leadership, hostile work context, and workplace gender ratio. Theoretically, the study contributes to the sexual harassment literature by incorporating evidence on passive leadership from a broader field of workplace aggression into sexual harassment research. Practically, the study offers important implications for organisations that seek to minimise sexual harassment.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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