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Book part
Publication date: 29 December 2016

Sophie C. Boerman and Eva A. van Reijmersdal

This chapter provides an overview of what is currently known in the scientific literature about the effects of disclosures of sponsored content on consumers’ responses.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter provides an overview of what is currently known in the scientific literature about the effects of disclosures of sponsored content on consumers’ responses.

Methodology/approach

We provide a qualitative literature review of 21 empirical studies.

Findings

Awareness of disclosures is rather low, but when consumers are aware of a disclosure, it successfully activates persuasion knowledge and can increase brand memory. The literature shows inconclusive findings with respect to the effects of disclosures on attention paid to sponsored content, critical processing, brand attitudes, and purchase intentions. In addition, the literature shows that modality of the disclosure has no significant effects, but the content of the disclosure, its timing, its duration, receivers’ moods, and their perceptions of the sponsored content or the endorser are important moderators.

Research implications

More research is needed on differences in effects of disclosures in different media and on disclosures of online sponsored content online (e.g., sponsored tweets and vlogs).

Practical implications

This chapter provides advertisers with insights on how disclosures affect the persuasiveness of sponsored content in several media.

Social implications

For legislators, explicit guidelines on how to create effective disclosures of sponsored content are provided. For example, to increase persuasion knowledge, disclosures should be portrayed for at least 3 seconds and if logos are used, they should be accompanied by texts explaining the logo.

Originality/value

This overview is a valuable starting point for future academic research in the domain of disclosure effects and provides insights for advertisers and legislators.

Details

Advertising in New Formats and Media
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-312-9

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Zifei Fay Chen and Yang Cheng

Drawing on theoretical insights from the persuasion knowledge model (PKM), this study aims to propose and test a model that maps out the antecedents, process and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on theoretical insights from the persuasion knowledge model (PKM), this study aims to propose and test a model that maps out the antecedents, process and consequences to explain how consumers process and respond to fake news about brands on Facebook.

Design/methodology/approach

Contextualizing the fake news about Coca-Cola’s recall of Dasani water, an online survey was conducted via Qualtrics with consumers in the USA (N  =  468). Data were analyzed using covariance-based structural equation modeling.

Findings

Results showed that self-efficacy and media trust significantly predicted consumers’ persuasion knowledge of the fake news. Persuasion knowledge of the fake news significantly influenced consumers’ perceived diagnosticity of the fake news and subsequent brand trust. Furthermore, persuasion knowledge of the fake news mediated the effects from self-efficacy on perceived diagnosticity of the fake news and brand trust, respectively.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature of brand management by examining how consumers process and respond to fake news about a brand. It also extends the persuasion knowledge model by applying it to the context of fake news about brands on social media, and incorporating antecedents (self-efficacy and media trust) and consequences (perceived diagnosticity and brand trust) of persuasion knowledge in this particular context. Practically, this study provides insights to key stakeholders of brands to better understand consumers’ information processing of fake news about brands on social media.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Devika Vashisht and Sreejesh S.

The purpose of this study is to enhance the knowledge of advertising effects of nature of advergame (game speed) on gamers’ brand recall and attitude. More specifically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to enhance the knowledge of advertising effects of nature of advergame (game speed) on gamers’ brand recall and attitude. More specifically, this study investigates varying effects of game speed in advergames on young Indian gamers’ brand recall and attitudes under varied game-product congruence and persuasion knowledge conditions from attention, elaboration and persuasion perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (nature of advergame: fast or slow) × 2 (game-product congruence: high or low) × 2 (persuasion knowledge: high or low) between-subject measures design is used. Experimental data were collected from 235 Indian graduate students. ANOVAs and MANOVA with pre-planned contrasts are used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results indicate that for a slow-paced advergame, low game-product congruence result in high brand recall than high game-product congruence. For a fast-paced advergame, there is no difference in brand recall between low game-product congruence and high game-product congruence. Furthermore, findings reveal that for a slow-paced advergame with low game-product congruence, subjects with high persuasion knowledge report high brand recall and less favorable brand attitude than subjects with low persuasion knowledge. On the other hand, for a fast-paced advergame with low game-product congruence, there is no difference in brand recall and brand attitude between the subjects with high persuasion knowledge and the subjects with low persuasion knowledge.

Practical implications

The findings of the study are very important for advertising practitioners, as selection of media that fit the advertised product with reference to the nature and content of the media is a planning strategy that has been widely used by media planners. Thus, if advertisers want to create high brand awareness by creating high brand memory, then slow-paced advergames with low congruent brand placements can be chosen as an effective in-game media strategy for online advertising. Additionally, game developers and marketers can plan and develop more effective advergames by taking into account the persuasion knowledge factor so that the implementation would have the strongest positive effect on consumers’ brand recall and brand attitude.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature of non-traditional media advertising, specifically advergaming context by exploring the impact of nature of game and game-product congruence on gamers’ ad-persuasion. Also, this study is the first attempt to understand how the game speed and its boundary conditions influence gamers’ brand recall and attitude and in attention, elaboration and persuasion perspectives.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2009

Kenneth M. Henrie and D. Christopher Taylor

This paper seeks to empirically test the use of persuasion knowledge among the millennial generation.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to empirically test the use of persuasion knowledge among the millennial generation.

Design/methodology/approach

College aged students were randomly assigned into two groups and given scenarios where one was designed for persuasion knowledge to be more likely utilized by consumers, and a second where is was less likely to use it. The respondents were exposed to a scripted sales scenario and their perceptions of the salesperson were measured. It was hypothesized that millennial consumers using persuasion knowledge were more likely to develop negative affective and cognitive attitudes toward the salesperson, and were less likely to develop purchase intentions than those not using persuasion knowledge. Factor analysis was used to confirm that three dimensions existed, and a follow‐up MANOVA/t‐test was used to measure the differences between the two treatment groups.

Findings

All three hypotheses were supported. Millennial consumers that feel compelled to cope with the salesperson's tactics were significantly more likely to develop negative perceptions of the salesperson, and were less likely to buy than other consumers.

Research limitations/implications

This study was limited in scope, as it was designed to be a basic sales interaction with a retail salesperson. Future research is needed to identify millennial's use of persuasion knowledge in a variety of sales environments, and for different types of products.

Originality/value

This was the first study to provide empirical evidence supporting the use of persuasion knowledge by younger consumers.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2021

Ida Darmawan, Hao Xu and Jisu Huh

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the differential effects of help-seeking and product-claim direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on consumers’ attitude toward the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the differential effects of help-seeking and product-claim direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on consumers’ attitude toward the ad, intention to seek information and intention to see a doctor. This paper also seeks to examine the underlying mechanism of these effects and the moderating role of advertising literacy.

Design/methodology/approach

An online experiment was conducted with 130 adults who experienced narcolepsy symptoms and experimental stimuli promoting a fictitious drug for narcolepsy.

Findings

Help-seeking DTCA generated lower persuasion knowledge activation than product-claim DTCA, resulting in lower skepticism, more favorable attitude toward the ad and higher behavioral intentions. The effects of ad type were stronger among consumers with higher advertising literacy.

Originality/value

This is the first study that provides a thorough examination of the underlying mechanism of the differential effects of help-seeking vs product-claim DTCA as well as the roles of consumers’ advertising literacy on ad outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2018

Robert G. Magee

This paper aims to show how environment-related worldview beliefs, in addition to specific persuasion knowledge, can influence how a consumer responds to ads about…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to show how environment-related worldview beliefs, in addition to specific persuasion knowledge, can influence how a consumer responds to ads about corporate social responsibility (CSR) projects.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments manipulated ad copy and consumers’ persuasion knowledge to examine the effects of consumers’ environmental worldview beliefs on their judgments of a firm’s CSR reforestation project.

Findings

When an ad presented ambiguous information, both consumers’ persuasion knowledge and their environmental worldview influenced the attribution of the firm’s motives. When an ad presented environment-specific information, however, consumers’ worldview did not influence their attribution of motives. Attributions, in turn, predicted attitudes toward the ad and attitudes toward the brand and were associated with intentions for information-seeking and referral behavior.

Research limitations/implications

A consumer’s core beliefs can play an important role in understanding the application of persuasion knowledge, and the reinforcement-of-meaning principle expands the persuasion knowledge model’s explanatory power.

Practical implications

Marketing communications that involve social responsibility projects must take into account how core beliefs can influence the way consumers respond to projects.

Social implications

This research demonstrates the importance of worldview beliefs in communication that takes place in the public sphere.

Originality/value

The experiments’ results contribute to a more robust understanding of the persuasion knowledge model, particularly as it applies to CSR messages and introduces the reinforcement-of-meaning principle.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2018

Ingrid Gottschalk

The purpose of this paper is to broaden the list of boundary factors which impact consumer evaluation of ambient scenting. More specifically, this study aims at…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to broaden the list of boundary factors which impact consumer evaluation of ambient scenting. More specifically, this study aims at demonstrating that pre-informing about the scenting measure, the particular environment in which the scenting takes place and the disposition of persuasion knowledge are necessary variables to be considered for achieving positive evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

A field experiment was carried out in a local grocery store (a “pay-now” environment) and in a medical therapy centre (a “pre-paid” environment, n=200). The paper draws on the theoretical concept of spreading activation, the consumer decision process and the persuasion knowledge model. Data were analysed by using ANOVA and moderated regression analysis.

Findings

Consumers evaluated the scenting as more favourable when having been pre-informed about the marketing measure. Consumers were also more in favour of ambient scents in the usage-oriented, pre-paid service environment than in the purchase-oriented, pay-now store environment. Persuasion knowledge moderated the relationship between environment and evaluation of ambient scenting.

Research limitations/implications

As important research implication, the role of customers’ pre-information, environment and persuasion knowledge as boundary factors for scent marketing interventions is supported. These results can inform retailers how best to proceed in scent marketing. Future research could extend the present results with various informational measures and in different pre-paid and pay-now environments and experiment with different scents.

Practical implications

The results speak for pre-informing customers and using scents particularly in pre-paid environments, such as medical therapy centres. For customers with a higher level of persuasion knowledge, pre-information and a fitting environment are particularly advisable.

Originality/value

This paper adds important insight to scent marketing literature by addressing additional boundary factors which so far have been neglected. Methodologically, it differentiates itself by employing a field experiment, which offers higher external validity than laboratory experiments which are frequently used in scent research.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2017

Devika Vashisht and Sreejesh S. Pillai

The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of brand prominence, game involvement and persuasion knowledge on gamers’ brand recall and attitude in the context of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of brand prominence, game involvement and persuasion knowledge on gamers’ brand recall and attitude in the context of online advergames. Specifically, this investigation uses limited capacity model of attention and persuasion knowledge model to expound the conditions under which brand placements create attention, elaboration and subsequent brand recall and brand attitude.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (brand prominence: prominent versus subtle) × 2 (game involvement: high versus low involvement) × 2 (persuasion knowledge: high versus low) between-subjects measures design is used. A total of 224 student gamers participated in the study. A between-subjects measures multivariate analysis of variance is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that an advergame with prominent brand placement under low game involvement condition results in high brand recall but less favorable brand attitude than under high game involvement condition. Furthermore, a three-way interaction shows that for a prominent brand placement advergame with high game involvement, the subjects with high persuasion knowledge report high brand recall than the subjects with low persuasion knowledge. The findings also reveal that for a prominent brand placement advergame with high game involvement, the subjects with high persuasion knowledge report less favorable brand attitude than the subjects with low persuasion knowledge.

Research limitations/implications

This paper adds to advertising literature from a non-traditional advertising viewpoint, predominantly in the context of online advergames, and expounds the role played by brand placement and its boundary conditions to create customers’ brand memory and attitude. Furthermore, this investigation adds to the marketing knowledge on how and where to position and embed the brands effectively in advergames taking into account the characteristics of the gamer, such as the game involvement and gamers’ persuasion knowledge about the advergame.

Originality/value

This study adds to the works of online advertising, particularly the advergames by discovering the impact of brand prominence, game involvement and persuasion knowledge on gamers’ brand recall and attitude. Also, this study is the first in its stream toward understanding the moderating role of persuasion knowledge on Indian gamers’ recall and attitude in the context of online advertising.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Fabian Göbel, Anton Meyer, B. Ramaseshan and Silke Bartsch

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to marketing communications literature by exploring consumer responses to covert advertising (CA) in a social media context.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to marketing communications literature by exploring consumer responses to covert advertising (CA) in a social media context.

Design/methodology/approach

The persuasion knowledge model was used to explore the impact of CA on brand evaluations. A factorial design experiment was conducted in a social media context (YouTube).

Findings

The results of the study show that triggering knowledge about CA changes the way consumers respond to unfamiliar brands that use such tactics. This implies that for unfamiliar brands, with future development of persuasion knowledge, CA in social media will not only be ineffective but also detrimental with damaging effects on the brand.

Research limitations/implications

An important contribution of this study lies in the application of the persuasion knowledge model to social media context.

Practical implications

The results indicate that firms should desist from covert product and brand communications in social media contexts, and instead employ disclosed brand communications.

Originality/value

Given that the effects of CA have not been investigated in an online context, this study makes a unique contribution to brand communications research by providing valuable insights and better understanding of the effects of CA in social media, specifically YouTube.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2020

Fayez Ahmad and Francisco Guzmán

This paper aims to investigate whether a message from a brand with stronger brand equity generates more trust than a message from a brand with lower brand equity, and thus…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether a message from a brand with stronger brand equity generates more trust than a message from a brand with lower brand equity, and thus is more likely to encourage consumers to write online reviews. This paper also explores what happens when consumers become aware that brands are trying to persuade them to write a review.

Design/methodology/approach

Through three experimental studies, where participants were randomly assigned to a brand that has either a stronger or weaker brand equity, participants’ intention to write reviews was measured. Trust in the message was measured to study its mediating role, and persuasion knowledge of the participants was manipulated to investigate its moderating effect.

Findings

The findings confirm that consumers are more likely to write online reviews when a message comes from a brand that has stronger brand equity, trust in the message mediates the relationship between brand equity and consumer intention to write an online review, and persuasion knowledge has a differential effect on consumer intention to write reviews.

Originality/value

The study adds to the brand equity and online review literature by providing evidence that a higher level of consumer trust on brands that have stronger brand equity leads to an increased intention to write a review for the brand. It also shows that consumers’ awareness of the motive of the brand is more beneficial for brands with strong brand equity, contributing to persuasion knowledge literature.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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