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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Steffi De Jans, Liselot Hudders and Veroline Cauberghe

This study aims to examine adolescents’ (between 12 and 18 years) perceptions of their knowledge and skills related to advertising (i.e. dispositional advertising literacy

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine adolescents’ (between 12 and 18 years) perceptions of their knowledge and skills related to advertising (i.e. dispositional advertising literacy). More specifically, adolescents’ beliefs about their recognition and understanding of advertising (cognitive facet), their emotional reaction to advertising (affective facet) and their moral evaluation of advertising (moral facet) were investigated together with their beliefs about the way they resist advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

A large-scale survey was conducted, taking information from 2,602 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years.

Findings

The findings show that adolescents believe they can recognize advertising reasonably well and have a moderate understanding of it. They tend to be negative toward advertising, perceive it as an unfair practice and claim to resist it strongly. In addition, adolescents’ self-reported moral and affective advertising literacy positively affect advertising resistance. Adolescents’ cognitive advertising literacy increases with the number of different media device types owned, and cognitive and moral advertising literacy increase with age.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine adolescents’ beliefs about their dispositional advertising literacy. Most previous studies examined advertising literacy among young children (under 12 years) or adults after exposure to a specific advertising format (i.e. situational advertising literacy), while this study focuses on adolescents’ self-reported levels of cognitive, moral and affective dispositional advertising literacy. In addition, the focus on resistance strategies to examine how adolescents resist advertising is unique.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2017

Steffi De Jans, Liselot Hudders and Veroline Cauberghe

This paper aims to examine the immediate and delayed effects of advertising literacy training on children’s cognitive advertising literacy for an embedded advertising

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1267

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the immediate and delayed effects of advertising literacy training on children’s cognitive advertising literacy for an embedded advertising format, product placement and, subsequently, its persuasive effects. In addition, this study explored whether this effect is moderated by children’s general advertising liking. The study also investigated whether the effects of training were dependent on children’s ages.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study is conducted using a three (training session: control condition vs advertising literacy training with immediate ad exposure vs advertising literacy training with ad exposure after one week) by two (age: 7-8 years vs 10-11 years) between-subjects experimental design.

Findings

The results of the experimental study showed that advertising literacy training increases children’s cognitive advertising literacy for product placement for both younger and older children and both immediately and delayed (measured after one week). In addition, cognitive advertising literacy had an influence on the effectiveness of product placement (i.e. purchase request) when children’s general ad liking was low, though not when it was high. No moderating effects of age were found.

Practical implications

This study shows that advertising literacy training sessions can improve children’s cognitive advertising literacy for non-traditional, embedded advertising formats.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine and confirm the immediate and delayed effects of advertising literacy training sessions on children’s cognitive advertising literacy for non-traditional advertising formats.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2021

Ida Darmawan, Hao Xu and Jisu Huh

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the differential effects of help-seeking and product-claim direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on consumers’ attitude toward the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the differential effects of help-seeking and product-claim direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on consumers’ attitude toward the ad, intention to seek information and intention to see a doctor. This paper also seeks to examine the underlying mechanism of these effects and the moderating role of advertising literacy.

Design/methodology/approach

An online experiment was conducted with 130 adults who experienced narcolepsy symptoms and experimental stimuli promoting a fictitious drug for narcolepsy.

Findings

Help-seeking DTCA generated lower persuasion knowledge activation than product-claim DTCA, resulting in lower skepticism, more favorable attitude toward the ad and higher behavioral intentions. The effects of ad type were stronger among consumers with higher advertising literacy.

Originality/value

This is the first study that provides a thorough examination of the underlying mechanism of the differential effects of help-seeking vs product-claim DTCA as well as the roles of consumers’ advertising literacy on ad outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Brahim Zarouali, Valerie Verdoodt, Michel Walrave, Karolien Poels, Koen Ponnet and Eva Lievens

This study aims to investigate the development of adolescents’ advertising literacy and privacy protection strategies in the context of targeted advertisements on social…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the development of adolescents’ advertising literacy and privacy protection strategies in the context of targeted advertisements on social networking sites (SNSs).

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted among 374 adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age, and 469 young adults (18–25 years) served as a comparative benchmark.

Findings

Results indicate that advertising literacy increases progressively throughout adolescence, and reaches adult-like levels only by the age of 16. In addition, adolescents have an inadequate awareness of commercial data collection practices. This awareness slowly increases as a function of their age until it reaches an adult level around the age of 20. Finally, findings reveal that adolescents take little action to cope with targeted advertisements by means of privacy protection strategies.

Practical implications

This paper devotes much attention to the formulation of specific recommendations for EU policymakers and regulatory bodies. In addition, it also holds implications for advertisers (e.g. the need for more in-depth data protection impact assessments), social media providers (e.g. adolescent-friendly privacy policy) and social caretakers (e.g. achieving advertising literacy and privacy education).

Originality/value

This paper fulfills the need to investigate adolescents’ advertising literacy and privacy-protective behaviors on SNSs, and, in turn, directly translates these insights into recommendations that can underpin the rationale of regulatory or policy decisions on a European level.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Margaret-Anne Lawlor, Áine Dunne and Jennifer Rowley

While substantial scholarly attention has been given to children’s understanding of advertising in the context of traditional advertising channels, there is a gap in the…

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2616

Abstract

Purpose

While substantial scholarly attention has been given to children’s understanding of advertising in the context of traditional advertising channels, there is a gap in the literature with regard to children’s commercial awareness in the context of online social networking sites. This paper aims to seek to explore the nature and extent of advertising literacy among young consumers in the context of their use of social networking sites, namely, Facebook and Bebo.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-stage study was conducted with 12 to 14-year-old girls, using focus group discussions, participant observation and in-depth interviews.

Findings

The study illustrates that the increasingly blurred line between online advertising and other forms of online brand-related content is militating against the development of advertising and marketing literacy in young consumers. A key issue which is discussed is the extent to which the traditional conceptualisation of advertising literacy is “fit for purpose” in an online context.

Originality/value

The authors propose an alternative to the advertising literacy concept, namely, the Online Brand Communications literacy framework. This framework recognises the convergence of traditional online advertising and other forms of online brand content and also acknowledges that the messaging around a brand may originate from the brand owner in a variety of overt and covert forms. Equally, online consumers may also act as brand promoters when they engage in brand-related word-of-mouth.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2008

Margaret‐Anne Lawlor and Andrea Prothero

The aim of this article is to explore children's understanding of television advertising intent.

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11280

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this article is to explore children's understanding of television advertising intent.

Design/methodology/approach

A different perspective on advertising intent is offered in this paper, as evidenced in an interpretive study of Irish children, aged between seven and nine years. A qualitative approach was employed, involving a series of focus group discussions and in‐depth interviews with 52 children.

Findings

The findings indicate that the participating children view advertising as serving interests including, but not limited to, the advertiser. The existence of other interested parties is suggested by the children, namely the agendas of viewers and television channels. The authors assert that these children view advertising as being larger and more complex than the advertiser's perspective, which has been the traditional focus in the extant research.

Originality/value

Adopting an advertising literacy perspective, the authors seek to explore children's “reading” and understanding of advertising. Advertising literacy is an approach to understanding advertising that has not received substantial attention in the child‐advertising literature. The literature to date has tended to focus on the following question – do children understand the persuasive intent of advertising? This question is suggestive of a “yes/no” answer. In contrast, the authors view the concept of understanding as being more complex and multi‐faceted, and accordingly, seek to develop this concept by way of a classification that suggests four different levels of understanding that children may exhibit towards advertising

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2021

Nancy H. Brinson and Steven Holiday

Addressable television is an interactive medium that blends online data personalization with traditional TV content to better address individual consumers and improve…

Abstract

Purpose

Addressable television is an interactive medium that blends online data personalization with traditional TV content to better address individual consumers and improve advertising outcomes. Drawing on the persuasion knowledge model (PKM) and the influence of presumed influence (IPI), this paper aims to examine parents’ beliefs about the nature and persuasive intent of addressable TV advertising targeting their children, and the intervening influence those beliefs have on the parents’ intentions to purchase the advertised products.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used an online survey design to examine the influence that addressable TV ads targeting children have on parents’ consumer behaviors. In total, 196 parents of children aged 3 to 12 completed the study. The majority of respondents had one (23%) or two (40.3%) children were primarily in two-parent (73.5%) or one-parent households (21.9%), and 79.6% indicated that they were mothers. Respondents were 23 to 41 years old (M = 37, SD = 8.03); dominantly Caucasian (77.5%; 16.8% African American); had an education of less than a college degree (65.3%); and a median household income of $50,000–$75,000 (73.5%).

Findings

Findings from this study indicate beliefs that a TV ad personally addressing their children positively influence parents’ purchase intentions, and this influence is partially mediated by perceptions of children’s susceptibility to the ad and perceptions of the likelihood of children’s purchase requests. Beliefs in children’s susceptibility to an ad’s addressability alternatively negatively mediates parents’ purchase intentions when not sequentially mediated by beliefs in the likelihood of children’s purchase requests.

Originality/value

Currently, there is little published research related to parents’ perceptions about the effects of personalized advertising targeting their children in general, and none that consider addressable TV advertising or the indirect influence this targeted advertising has on parents. Thus, this study provides important insights for scholars interested in theoretical implications related to addressable TV advertising, as well as practitioners seeking to enhance addressable TV advertising outcomes.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2004

Sachiko Muto

Looks at recent research into children’s media consumption, highlights the importance of media literacy, and reports on an industry‐related media education programme; the…

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2128

Abstract

Looks at recent research into children’s media consumption, highlights the importance of media literacy, and reports on an industry‐related media education programme; the research is tending to show that children are deciding what and when they watch television and other media. Develops, on the basis of these findings, a model of self‐supervised media engagement which is characterised by a lack of adult mediation. Argues that media literacy is important because it helps children become critical viewers of advertising and programming on their own; media literacy involves information processing skills and as such may be the most important life skill in the age of the internet. Introduces the UK Media Smart programme, which is industry funded and since 2002 has provided educational materials to help children think critically about advertising and other media issues.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Sanne Holvoet, Liselot Hudders and Laura Herrewijn

This study aims to explore whether parents perceive themselves as responsible for helping their teenage children (aged 13–17 years) cope with the persuasive effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore whether parents perceive themselves as responsible for helping their teenage children (aged 13–17 years) cope with the persuasive effects of personalized advertising and the related process of online data collection. In addition, this study aims to examine how this parental responsibility is shaped.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey among parents (N = 354) of teenagers between the ages of 13 and 17 years was conducted.

Findings

Exploratory analyses showed that parents are highly concerned about their teens’ exposure to personalized advertising and online data collection, and that they consider themselves and the commercial companies behind these practices as responsible for protecting teenagers. Furthermore, the study showed that parents who believe that their children have higher levels of media skills presume less negative and more positive influences of personalized advertising on their children. The presumed negative influences increase parental concerns and responsibility, while presumed positive influences decrease parental concerns and responsibility.

Originality/value

Most previous studies on personalized advertising and online data collection were conducted among the teenagers themselves or discussed the regulatory framework concerning this topic. This study, however, focuses on one of the most important socialization agents that could help teenagers cope with these practices. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first studies to examine parents’ views regarding personalized advertising targeting teenagers and it provides insights in how parents perceive their own responsibility.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

Nicky Buss

This paper explores some misconceptions about children's advertising, in the context of food brands. It concludes that children are in essence ‘mini‐adults’, both in their…

Abstract

This paper explores some misconceptions about children's advertising, in the context of food brands. It concludes that children are in essence ‘mini‐adults’, both in their approach to food, and to advertising generally. It illustrates children's sophistication about advertising, but concludes that it is essential to create a rounded ‘brand experience’ beyond any single communication channel.

Details

International Journal of Advertising and Marketing to Children, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6676

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