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Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2020

Charlott Menke

Research has found that stereotypes affect occupational choices, but there has been almost no research on how they specifically affect the choice of becoming an…

Abstract

Research has found that stereotypes affect occupational choices, but there has been almost no research on how they specifically affect the choice of becoming an entrepreneur. This study bridges different fields of research by combining theories on entrepreneurial intent, self-esteem, and stereotypes. The author argues that in situations of insufficient information individuals assess prospective careers in commercial and social entrepreneurship by means of stereotypes, and the author is the first to explore the influence of commercial and social entrepreneurial stereotypes on an individual’s intention to start a commercial (for-profit) or social (not for-profit) venture. The author uses the framework outlined by the stereotype content model to disclose the existence of distinct stereotypes for commercial and social entrepreneurs exist and, thereafter, the author analyzes the influences of both entrepreneurial stereotypes on the specific startup intentions. The author test the hypotheses with unique survey data from a sample of German non-entrepreneurs which reveals that commercial entrepreneurs are seen as competent but cold, whereas social entrepreneurs are regarded as warm but incompetent. Using structural equation modeling and multi-group analysis, the data implies that higher levels of perceived warmth and competence of commercial entrepreneurs have a positive indirect effect on commercial startup intentions. No such effect was found for social startup intentions; however, the results indicate that a higher societal status of social entrepreneurs exerts a positive indirect impact on the intention to start a social business. The author discusses the practical implications of our approach and point out avenues for future research.

Details

The Entrepreneurial Behaviour: Unveiling the cognitive and emotional aspect of entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-508-6

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Bing Shi, Dan Zhang, Hongling Xie and Yinghui Zhou

This study aims to examine factors affecting Chinese adolescents’ purchase intention for local brands; this study focuses on the effects of perceived social status value…

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1543

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine factors affecting Chinese adolescents’ purchase intention for local brands; this study focuses on the effects of perceived social status value and materialistic values.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model relating perceived social status value of brands to purchase intention, including materialistic values as a moderator, was developed and tested, using a sample of 587 Chinese adolescent respondents. Another experimental study examined the variability of the moderation of materialistic values across different levels of peer pressure in a product usage occasion.

Findings

Perceived social status value associated with local and foreign brands significantly influences purchase intention for local brands. Moreover, influence of perceived social status value of local versus foreign brands on local brand purchase intention is greater for materialistic adolescents. Additionally, the moderation of materialistic values is found in a product usage occasion with high peer pressure, but not in an occasion with low peer pressure.

Research limitations/implications

The findings show that perceived social status value associated with brands shapes purchase intention for local brands. The moderating effect of materialistic values is complex and suggests further research. The study’s scope is limited to Chinese adolescents.

Practical implications

The findings provide understanding of the drivers of purchase intention, and thus serve as a guideline for Chinese firms and foreign marketers seeking to enter the growing Chinese market, as well as consumer educators in China.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the limited empirical research into the factors shaping country-of-origin effects. Moreover, the findings suggest the need to consider the moderating role of materialistic values on purchase intention for local brands.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Tser Yieth Chen, Tsai Lien Yeh and Ya Jou Wang

Marketers make an effort to affect consumers through scarcity marketing thus shaping the perception of scarcity and creating desirability for consumers. To expand the…

Abstract

Purpose

Marketers make an effort to affect consumers through scarcity marketing thus shaping the perception of scarcity and creating desirability for consumers. To expand the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model and to enhance insights for practical applications, this study modifies the causal relationship among two types of scarcity, three types of expansiveness and desirability.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveyed 400 Taipei city residents who had purchase experience with luxury brands products in Taiwan. The study employed structural equation modeling as empirical analysis.

Findings

The empirical results show that limited-quantity scarcity main influences perceived social status and then affects desirability. The second path is that limited-quantity scarcity influences perceived uniqueness and then affects desirability. Therefore, perceived social status and perceived uniqueness dominate the majority of effects on desirability because they are the recognition of the individual compared to others, especially when applied to luxury goods.

Practical implications

Because limited-quantity scarcity has a greater impact on desirability than limited-time scarcity in the empirical results, marketers can adopt limited-quantity scarcity messages that are better than limited-time scarcity, to increase consumers’ desire to purchase luxury goods.

Originality/value

The first novelty of this study is dividing scarcity marketing into limited-quantity and limited-time scarcity in the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model. This study extends expensiveness in the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model with a complete demonstration, that is, perceived social status, perceived uniqueness and perceived value, which is the second novelty of this study.

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Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Abstract

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Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

Sylvie Guerrero, Julie Sylvestre and Doina Muresanu

The aim of this paper is to study the effects of pro‐diversity practices on perceived insider status, and explore the moderating role of leader‐member exchange in this…

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1728

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to study the effects of pro‐diversity practices on perceived insider status, and explore the moderating role of leader‐member exchange in this relationship. The main and interactive effects on PIS are studied for cultural minority and majority groups.

Design/methodology/approach

Research hypotheses are tested with a questionnaire administered to 210 employees working in three Canadian organizations engaged in diversity management.

Findings

Results indicate that the main and interactive effects of organizational fairness and leader‐member exchange on perceived insider status are significant. The interactive effect on perceived insider status is higher for cultural minorities than for other employees.

Research limitations/implications

This study shows the importance of perceived insider status in the field of diversity, identifies organizational fairness and leader‐member exchange as two significant organizational antecedents to perceived insider status, and describes the mechanisms linking these antecedents to perceived insider status (the interaction effects).

Originality/value

The main contribution of the research resides in the identification of perceived insider status as a variable that deserves more attention in the field of diversity. The article invites future research to explore the behavioral consequences of perceived insider status in diverse teams, and to pursue the understanding of mechanisms leading to feelings of inclusion.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Jinzhu Song, Sukanlaya Sawang, Judy Drennan and Lynda Andrews

The purpose of this paper is to answer two research questions which are “What are key factors which influence Chinese to adopt mobile technology?” and “Do these key…

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1630

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to answer two research questions which are “What are key factors which influence Chinese to adopt mobile technology?” and “Do these key factors differ from factors which are identified from western context?”.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings from a pilot study with 45 in-depth interviews are used to develop questionnaires and test across 800 residents from the three research cities. The data were analyzed by structural equation modeling together with multi-group analysis.

Findings

The data suggest eight important concepts, i.e. utilitarian expectation, hedonic expectation, status gains, status loss avoidance, normative influence, external influence, cost, and quality concern, are influential factors affecting users’ intentions to adopt 3G mobile technology. Differences are found between the samples in the three research cities in the effect of hedonic expectation, status gains, status loss avoidance, and normative influence on mobile technology adoption intention.

Research limitations/implications

As the stability of intentions may change over time, only measuring intentions might be inadequate in predicting actual adoption behaviors. However, the focus on potential users is thought to be appropriate, given that the development of 3G is still in its infancy in China.

Originality/value

Previous research into information technology adoption among Chinese users has not paid attention to regional diversity. Some research considered China as a large single market and some was conducted in only one province or one city. Culturally, China is a heterogeneous country.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Abstract

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Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-726-1

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2019

Eugene Cheng-Xi Aw, Leisa Reinecke Flynn and Han Xi Chong

The purpose of this study is to propose and empirically test a framework encompassing self-congruity with its antecedents and consequences. This study also aims to test…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose and empirically test a framework encompassing self-congruity with its antecedents and consequences. This study also aims to test the mediating role of perceived value and its dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire-based survey was conducted using a purposive sampling technique. In total, 310 useable responses were collected and data were analyzed using partial least square structural equation modeling.

Findings

A majority of hypotheses were supported. Avoidance of similarity and status consumption positively influenced self-congruity, replicating an earlier study. Self-congruity positively influenced overall perceived value and its dimensions, as well as revisit intention. Overall perceived value and its dimensions positively influenced revisit intention. Finally, overall perceived value and its dimensions were found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between self-congruity and revisit intention.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence for the antecedents and consequences of self-congruity with a service and expands understanding of the mediating role of overall perceived value and its dimensions in predicting intention.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2011

Nazim N. Habibov

Against a background of rising inequalities in transitional countries, the purpose of this study is to focus on the analysis of the self‐perceived social stratification in…

Abstract

Purpose

Against a background of rising inequalities in transitional countries, the purpose of this study is to focus on the analysis of the self‐perceived social stratification in the low‐income countries of the South Caucasus.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the recent multi‐country comparative survey conducted in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, this study examines the factors explaining self‐perceived stratification in the region. Ordered logit regression model is fitted to assess the determinants of the stratification.

Findings

One of the most important findings of this paper is that the majority of the people in the examined region consider themselves as middle class, although a considerable share of the general population are actually at the lowest level of society. Self‐perceived social stratification in the countries of this region can largely be explained by a set of factors within the direct social policy domain.

Practical implications

Active promotion of job intensive economic growth, supporting small businesses, improving effectiveness of social protection policies, affordability of healthcare and education, and active integration of migrants and investment in public infrastructure should also be priorities.

Social implications

Addressing the identified policy priorities will permit counterbalancing stratification, supporting the middle class and reducing the poverty in the countries of the region.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the self‐perceived social stratification in the region of the low‐income countries of the South Caucasus.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2007

Kelly Weeks, Matthew Weeks and Lauren Frost

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of race and social class on wage differentials between Black and White employees.

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2708

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of race and social class on wage differentials between Black and White employees.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey with four possible conditions (white/black target who was lower/middle class) was used in the study to examine the interaction between race and social class on compensation decisions.

Findings

The paper finds that there was a significant interaction between race and social class when predicting the percentage of pay increase given to employees. Specifically, there was a significant negative correlation between perceptions of social class and percentage of increase when the target was Black, but there was no such correlation when the target was White.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was 95.6 percent White and did not consist of managerial employees in actual compensation decisions; however, it shows evidence that people are affected by their perceptions of social class and race when making such decisions.

Practical implications

Policy makers should not forget that perceived social class might interact with race to influence discriminatory decisions in workplaces. This research suggests that Black employees who are perceived to be middle class are discriminated against more than those who are perceived to be lower class. Businesses need to be aware of unintentional biases that may be plaguing their managers and train them to avoid such biases.

Originality/value

This paper contributes new insight into the literature on the wage gap between Black and White employees by showing the interaction between race and perceived social class when predicting pay increases.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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