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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Tser Yieth Chen, Tsai Lien Yeh and Ya Jou Wang

Marketers make an effort to affect consumers through scarcity marketing thus shaping the perception of scarcity and creating desirability for consumers. To expand the…

Abstract

Purpose

Marketers make an effort to affect consumers through scarcity marketing thus shaping the perception of scarcity and creating desirability for consumers. To expand the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model and to enhance insights for practical applications, this study modifies the causal relationship among two types of scarcity, three types of expansiveness and desirability.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveyed 400 Taipei city residents who had purchase experience with luxury brands products in Taiwan. The study employed structural equation modeling as empirical analysis.

Findings

The empirical results show that limited-quantity scarcity main influences perceived social status and then affects desirability. The second path is that limited-quantity scarcity influences perceived uniqueness and then affects desirability. Therefore, perceived social status and perceived uniqueness dominate the majority of effects on desirability because they are the recognition of the individual compared to others, especially when applied to luxury goods.

Practical implications

Because limited-quantity scarcity has a greater impact on desirability than limited-time scarcity in the empirical results, marketers can adopt limited-quantity scarcity messages that are better than limited-time scarcity, to increase consumers’ desire to purchase luxury goods.

Originality/value

The first novelty of this study is dividing scarcity marketing into limited-quantity and limited-time scarcity in the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model. This study extends expensiveness in the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model with a complete demonstration, that is, perceived social status, perceived uniqueness and perceived value, which is the second novelty of this study.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Chanho Song, Tuo Wang and Michael Y. Hu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how referral reward programs (RRPs) with scarcity messages influence consumer’ recommendation behavioral intentions about a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how referral reward programs (RRPs) with scarcity messages influence consumer’ recommendation behavioral intentions about a bank credit card.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 1,599 consumers are accessed through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk worker panel. The authors use general linear models, analysis of variance and analysis of covariance to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results showed that offering RRPs with scarcity messages increases a consumer’s behavioral intentions to recommend. The limited-quantity message in RRPs has the highest positive impact on consumers’ behavioral intentions.

Originality/value

No prior studies have addressed the relationship between referral rewards and scarcity messages in the bank credit card context. The study contributes to the understanding of the effectiveness of RRPs with scarcity message in improving consumer’s referral.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

Xiaohui Shi, Feng Li and Pattarin Chumnumpan

As a frequently observed business phenomenon, the use of product scarcity to improve a product’s market performance has received increasing attention from both academics…

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2281

Abstract

Purpose

As a frequently observed business phenomenon, the use of product scarcity to improve a product’s market performance has received increasing attention from both academics and practitioners. The resulting literature has covered a wide variety of issues based on various theories, using different research methods, in a diverse range of settings. However, this diversity also makes it difficult to grasp the core themes and findings, and to see the outstanding knowledge gaps. This paper aims to review previous studies on the use of product scarcity in marketing and identifies new directions for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review was conducted to identify and analyse 66 research papers published in business and management journals between 1970 and 2017.

Findings

The authors examined the underlying theories of scarcity-based marketing, and developed a conceptual framework that describes the key factors of product scarcity and how they influence both consumers and the market. They also highlighted some key achievements in modelling the processes involved in using product scarcity in marketing.

Originality/value

This analysis of the identified papers suggests that there are substantial gaps in our knowledge of this field, which opens up new paths for future research. For future research, the authors identified three directions aimed at: addressing the practical needs of firms in understanding product scarcity; guiding the implementation of scarcity-based strategies; and measuring, monitoring and predicting the level of product scarcity and its impacts during implementation.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Merve Coskun, Shipra Gupta and Sebnem Burnaz

The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of store messiness and human crowding on shoppers' competitive behaviours, in-store hoarding and in-store hiding…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of store messiness and human crowding on shoppers' competitive behaviours, in-store hoarding and in-store hiding, through the mediating effect of perceived scarcity and perceived competition.

Design/methodology/approach

2 (store messiness: messy × tidy) × 2 (human crowding: high × low) between-subject factorial experiment was conducted online to manipulate retail store atmospheric factors. A total of 154 responses were collected through Amazon MTurk. The hypotheses were analysed using ANOVA and PROCESS (Hayes, 2013) procedure.

Findings

Results suggest that store messiness and human crowding within a fast-fashion store lead to perception of scarcity and competition that further affects competitive behaviours. When consumers experience store messiness, they are likely to hide merchandise in store, thus making it inaccessible for other consumers. Further, when they experience human crowding in the store, they feel that the products will be gone immediately so they have a tendency to hoard them.

Research limitations/implications

This study examined the effects of scarcity perception by studying the case of fast-fashion retailers; generalizability needs to be established across different contexts.

Practical implications

Retailers by manipulating human crowding and store messiness can create a perception of scarcity in their stores, thus enhancing sales. However, they should also pay attention to deviant behaviours such as in-store hoarding and in-store hiding as these behaviours may decrease the store sales.

Originality/value

This research contributed to the retailing literature by finding a significant relationship between human crowding, store messiness and competitive behaviours through perceived scarcity and competition.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Krisztina Rita Dörnyei

Marketing practitioners consider packaging as a promising marketing tool, but current academic research covers mostly regular packages. Filling this gap, this paper aims…

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1430

Abstract

Purpose

Marketing practitioners consider packaging as a promising marketing tool, but current academic research covers mostly regular packages. Filling this gap, this paper aims to analyze why and how companies use limited edition packaging (LEP), which is defined as a scarcity product tactic, using the package exclusively to create a limited offer.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a grounded theory methodology and used a qualitative collective case study design by analyzing 175 LEP launches in the beverage sector between 2000 and 2019.

Findings

The empirical-based conceptualization of LEP tactics provided here describes the crucial marketing dimensions in which strategic decisions are made regarding objective of release, implementation and related marketing mix decisions. Results show that LEP tactics serve parallel brands, sales and product strategy-related goals; LEPs are characterized by intensity, theme (occasion) and design characteristics, such as typicality, and marketers use various marketing mix combinations (i.e., pricing, distribution and advertising) in relation to the LEP offer.

Originality/value

To the best of author’s knowledge, it is the first conceptualization of this special type of scarcity tactic. This study also assists academics by providing an agenda for future research in this domain.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2021

Deepak Halan

This paper studies the impact of social distancing causing crises (SDCC) such as pandemics in its early stages on e-tailers demand and supply side operations and provides…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper studies the impact of social distancing causing crises (SDCC) such as pandemics in its early stages on e-tailers demand and supply side operations and provides a conceptual framework for adaptation.

Design/methodology/approach

A grounded theory-based approach has been used, wherein journal papers and news articles are the key data sources. Standard qualitative methodology, including open, axial and selective coding has been followed.

Findings

The study provides second order themes derived from first-order categories, the theoretical dimensions and their interrelationships on how e-tailers need to adapt to variations in online buying behaviour, manage manpower shortage and daily necessities inventory shortage, during SDCC. Panic buying emerges as a key disrupting factor as it has multiple repercussions on demand and supply side operations of e-tailers.

Research limitations/implications

Exploratory qualitative research such as this is helpful in early development of a research stream and paves the way for future quantitative studies.

Practical implications

This study makes a valuable contribution on e-tailers adaptation to SDCC with significant managerial implications. There are social, economic and policy implications too. For academicians, this study provides a conceptual framework and serves as a springboard for future research.

Originality/value

The study is unique as perhaps it is one of the first to study e-tailers adaptation to SDCC. It contributes to a body of the literature which is currently scarce but expected to grow exponentially in the coming years.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2020

Chang Chen, Zhe Zhang and Ming Jia

The purpose of this paper is to examine the destructive effects of stretch goals on employees’ work–family conflict (WFC). Drawing on the conservation of resources (COR…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the destructive effects of stretch goals on employees’ work–family conflict (WFC). Drawing on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study examines the mediating role of resource scarcity. By integrating the paradox theory with the COR theory, this study explores the moderating role of employees’ paradox mind-set.

Design/methodology/approach

Two-wave data were collected from a sample of MBA students in Northwestern China (N = 294). PROCESS was used to assess a moderated mediation model.

Findings

This study found a positive relationship between stretch goals and WFC, and resource scarcity mediated this relationship. For employees with a high paradox mind-set, the relationship between resource scarcity and WFC was weak; and the indirect effect of stretch goals on WFC via resource scarcity was weak.

Practical implications

Organizations should provide enough resources to employees when using stretch goals. Human resource managers could recruit candidates with high paradox mind-set and foster employees’ paradox mind-set through training.

Originality/value

This study makes contributions to the literature on stretch goals by examining the negative spillover effect of stretch goals on the family domain and exploring the mediating mechanism. This study also extends the paradox theory by using it at micro level to address questions on WFC.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Claire Eloise Sherman, Damien Arthur and Justin Thomas

The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of consumer stockpiling by Muslim consumers during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Specifically, this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of consumer stockpiling by Muslim consumers during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Specifically, this paper examines exposure to COVID-19 information and its relationship with panic buying directly, indirectly through anxiety and as moderated by resilience.

Design/methodology/approach

In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study surveys 1,006 Muslims from a sample of 1,392 UAE citizens and residents about their exposure to COVID-19 information, anxiety, resilience and panic buying.

Findings

Greater exposure to COVID-19 information had a direct effect on panic buying yet a much weaker indirect effect through increased anxiety. This mediating effect is only significant at moderate to high levels of resilience, suggesting panic buying is a particular coping response of resilient individuals who experience anxiety after greater exposure to COVID-19 information. Anxiety was found to increase panic buying above that directly related to COVID-19 information exposure.

Social implications

Findings provide some guidance for policymakers where a nuanced approach to building and directing resilience and in directing information flows are needed to curtail panic buying within their Muslim populations.

Originality/value

While the phenomenon of consumer stockpiling is referred to as panic buying, the findings suggest that anxiety plays a smaller role in the process than preparedness prompted by crisis-related information exposure. Furthermore, this is the first study to date to specifically examine COVID-19 related panic buying among a Muslim population.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

James Devlin, Christine Ennew, Sally McKechnie and Andrew Smith

This paper seeks to provide a detailed study of the impact of offers incorporating a time‐limit restriction on consumers in the context of price promotions. Time limited…

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3645

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to provide a detailed study of the impact of offers incorporating a time‐limit restriction on consumers in the context of price promotions. Time limited offers are those where a pricing offer is only available for a specified, normally relatively short, period of time. Although price promotions have been the subject of much previous research, a detailed study of the effects of time limit restrictions on consumer behavior is warranted.

Design/methodology/approach

The study incorporates an experimental approach whereby the impact of time‐limited and non time‐limited offers on consumers' assessments of value and search and purchase intentions are isolated.

Findings

Findings show that the presence of a time limit does not impact directly on perceptions of value or search and purchase behavior. A marginally significant interaction effect between time limit and discount size is present, impacting in particular on search behavior.

Research limitations/implications

The research was carried out in the context of a consumer durable good (TV) and it is recommended that the study is replicated in other contexts, such as services and packaged goods, to ensure that the results reported here are generalisable.

Practical implications

The results suggest that policy makers should not assign significant time and resources to investigating influences of alleged false time limit promotion, as the findings would lead to the conclusion that such resources would be better used controlling other forms of misleading advertising and promotion. Marketing managers should note that time limited offers have no significant impact on consumer perceptions or purchase intentions.

Originality/value

The paper is of value to both the policy making community and practitioners and provides important and original insights into the minimal impact of time limit restrictions on consumers' evaluation of price promotion offers and subsequent behavioral intentions.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1995

Leslie Gofton

Consumption of ready‐made meals and snacks has rapidly increased inrecent years. The increasing importance and value of time resourcesgenerates a greater demand for…

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2401

Abstract

Consumption of ready‐made meals and snacks has rapidly increased in recent years. The increasing importance and value of time resources generates a greater demand for convenience in food. Discusses time budgets and time famines, explanations for which are not self‐evident. Convenience is multifaceted, socially located and related to experience over time. Discusses whose time is being saved by convenience foods, and also changes in the culture of food and eating. Concludes that convenience in modern food habits is a complex and controversial issue. Unless we take the complexity of (post) modern consumer culture seriously, we shall continue to misunderstand, and misrepresent, the changes which are actually under way.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 97 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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