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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1972

A conference can range from good to bad. It can be well or poorly organized, comfortably or indifferently housed, a profitable or wasted use of time. If conferences were rated…

Abstract

A conference can range from good to bad. It can be well or poorly organized, comfortably or indifferently housed, a profitable or wasted use of time. If conferences were rated like hotels and stars indicated their merit, the one held in Munich at the end of October should be awarded the maximum number.

Details

Work Study, vol. 21 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

P.S.A. Evans, P.M. Harrey, B.J. Ramsey and D.J. Harrison

Conductive lithographic films (CLF) are an emerging fabrication process for electronic interconnect and a range of passive component structures. This paper reviews the…

Abstract

Conductive lithographic films (CLF) are an emerging fabrication process for electronic interconnect and a range of passive component structures. This paper reviews the manufacture, properties and applications of CLF conductors, and discusses other lithographically deposited electronic materials including resistive, dielectric and ferrite films. Recent developments in CLF technology, including multilayer structures and concurrent printing of interconnect with printed passive components, are presented.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

P.S.A. Evans, P.M. Harrey, D.J. Harrison and Z. Begum

This paper concerns a novel process for forming additive copper interconnect on flexible substrates via printing and plating processes. Building on the established conductive…

Abstract

This paper concerns a novel process for forming additive copper interconnect on flexible substrates via printing and plating processes. Building on the established conductive lithographic film and CLF plating seeding technologies, the described process enables low‐cost substitutes for existing flexible electronic wiring boards to be manufactured without precious metals.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 August 2008

R.J.H. Young, P.S.A. Evans, G.I. Hay, D.J. Southee and D.J. Harrison

Microcontact printing is a process used to print high‐resolution protein arrays for biosensors. The paper aims to investigate using these techniques to print electrically…

Abstract

Purpose

Microcontact printing is a process used to print high‐resolution protein arrays for biosensors. The paper aims to investigate using these techniques to print electrically conductive fine line structures for electroluminescent (E/L) light sources.

Design/methodology/approach

The viability of using microcontact printing as a process for electronics fabrication is investigated. Polydimethylsiloxane stamps inked with alkanethiol compounds form self‐assembled monolayers on substrate surfaces, acting as the resist to subsequent etching processes. The printed lines are characterized with regard to their performance as high‐electric field generators in electroluminescent displays.

Findings

It has been demonstrated that microcontact printing is a cheap, repeatable process for fabricating electronic devices. The results demonstrate the viability of the process to fabricate electric field generator structures for E/L light sources with reduced driving voltages.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that microcontact printing can produce electrically conductive fine‐line structures with high resolution, confirming its viability in printed electronics manufacture.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Kirstie Petherbridge, Peter Evans and David Harrison

Many people believe that Eisler invented the printed circuit board (PCB) in the mid‐1930s, but the origins actually lie nearly before 50 years this. If this is true then who…

1256

Abstract

Many people believe that Eisler invented the printed circuit board (PCB) in the mid‐1930s, but the origins actually lie nearly before 50 years this. If this is true then who invented the PCB? This review offers an alternative view of the history of the PCB including early developments and contributions from the world of art and printing, through innovations in science and engineering to the key developments of the modern electronics industry.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 9 July 2010

Johannes Luberichs and Helmut Wachowiak

With its capabilities for business mapping, geospatial analysis and its contribution to decision making, geographic information system (GIS) seems to be a valuable tool especially…

Abstract

With its capabilities for business mapping, geospatial analysis and its contribution to decision making, geographic information system (GIS) seems to be a valuable tool especially applicable in the discipline tourism geography. The capabilities of geospatial analysis for tourist consumer research at destinations will be exemplified by the case of German low-cost carrier passengers (LCCP) on Majorca island, Spain, one of the worlds' leading coastal mass holiday destinations with an annual visitor demand of around 10 million arrivals. The survey puts together primary and secondary research to profile LCCP groups located in different tourism spaces around the island. The approach as well as results shall motivate stakeholders in the tourism industry, especially destinations, to enlarge their marketing and management issues towards geospatial analysis.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-718-9

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Anthony Samano, Yanmeng Xu, David Harrison, Chris Hunt, Martin Wickham and Owen Thomas

The resistivity of cured conductive ink films are dependent on a wide range of process parameters. An early indication of the resistivity that is likely to result following curing…

216

Abstract

Purpose

The resistivity of cured conductive ink films are dependent on a wide range of process parameters. An early indication of the resistivity that is likely to result following curing can enable these parameters to be optimised and, therefore, improve product quality. This paper aims to report on the use of alternating current (AC) impedance measurement techniques on curing printed ink films as a means of assessing the resistivity likely to be attained following the curing process.

Design/methodology/approach

Impedance measurements (100 Hz-10 MHz) were performed on curing conductive carbon ink films printed on polyethylene terephthalate substrates during convective heat curing. A jig was designed to incorporate the test structure in an convection oven such that the effect of cure on the structure impedance could be investigated.

Findings

The initial impedance was found to decrease with an increase in the measurement frequency. As the ink films were cured, the impedance magnitude across the 100 Hz-10 MHz range converged with the direct current (DC) resistance value. For a given ink, the ratio of initial AC impedance at 10 MHz to final cured resistance was found to be consistent, thus giving a method where final conductivity can be estimated before cure.

Originality/value

Data from printed ink resistance measurements are required to ensure the optimal conductivity of printed devices. However, after the printed structures are fabricated and cured, it is too late to optimise process parameters, leading to significant wastage. AC impedance measurement can give an indication of the final cured resistivity whilst the structure is freshly printed and still in its curing phase, enabling the printing process parameters to be adjusted to improve the resistivity of subsequently printed devices. Measuring AC impedance of printed ink structures in a production environment can, therefore, improve output.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Jagdeep S. Sagu, Nicola York, Darren Southee and K.G.U. Wijayantha

The purpose of this paper is to report on the feasibility of the manufacture of printed rechargeable power sources incorporating, in the first instance, electrode structures from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the feasibility of the manufacture of printed rechargeable power sources incorporating, in the first instance, electrode structures from the previous study, and moving on to improved electrode structures fabricated, via flexographic printing, using commercially available inks. It has been shown previously that offset lithography, a common printing technique, can be used to make electrodes for energy storage devices such as primary cells.

Design/methodology/approach

A pair of the original Ag/C electrodes, printed via offset lithography, were sandwiched together with a PVA-KOH gel electrolyte and then sealed. The resultant structures were characterised using electrochemical techniques and the performance as supercapacitors assessed. Following these studies, electrode structures of the same dimensions, consisting of two layers, a silver-based current collector covered with a high surface area carbon layer, were printed flexographically, using inks, on a melinex substrate. The characterisation and assessment of these structures, as supercapacitors, was determined.

Findings

It was found that the supercapacitors constructed using the offset lithographic electrodes exhibited a capacitance of 0.72 mF/cm2 and had an equivalent series resistance of 3.96 Ω. The structures fabricated via flexography exhibited a capacitance of 4 mF/cm2 and had an equivalent series resistance of 1.25 Ω The supercapacitor structures were subjected to bending and rolling tests to determine device performance under deformation and stress. It was found that supercapacitor performance was not significantly reduced by bending or rolling.

Originality/value

This paper provides insight into the use of printed silver/carbon electrodes within supercapacitor structures and compares the performance of devices fabricated using inks for offset lithographic printing presses and those made using commercially available inks for flexographic printing. The potential viability of such structures for low-end and cheap energy storage devices is demonstrated.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2016

Wenchao Zhou, Frederick A List, Chad E Duty and Sudarsanam S Babu

The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility of integrating inkjet printed circuitry with fused deposition modeling (FDM) structures to produce embedded electronics and…

2057

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility of integrating inkjet printed circuitry with fused deposition modeling (FDM) structures to produce embedded electronics and smart structures. Several of the challenges of combining these technologies are identified, and potential solutions are developed.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental approach is taken to investigate some of the relevant physical processes for integrating FDM and inkjet deposition, including the printing, drying and sintering processes. Experimental data are collected to assist understanding of the problems, and engineering solutions are proposed and implemented based on the gained understanding of the problems.

Findings

Three challenges have been identified, including the discontinuity of the printed lines resulting from the irregular surface of the FDM substrate, the non-conductivity of the printed lines due to the particle segregation during the droplet drying process and the slow drying process caused by the “skinning effect”. Two engineering solutions are developed for the discontinuity problem. The non-conductivity issue and the slow drying process are attributed to the motion of the nanoparticles caused by the evaporation flow. The thermally activated drying process for the Cabot ink suggests that the proposed solution is effective. Timescale analysis and experimental data show that the printing conditions do not have a clear influence on the conductivity of the printed lines, and drying and sintering processes are more important.

Research limitations/implications

No quantitative model has yet been developed for simulating the printing, drying and sintering processes associated with inkjet printing on FDM substrates. Quantitative models can be extremely valuable for improvement in understanding the problems, optimizing the proposed solutions and coming up with better solutions.

Practical implications

The research findings in this work have great implications in implementing a hybrid FDM-inkjet deposition machine for fabricating embedded electronics and smart structures. All the proposed engineering solutions for the identified problems can be potentially integrated into one machine.

Social implications

The success of the integration of the FDM and inkjet deposition process will enable the design of compact electro-mechanical structures to replace the large heavy electro-mechanical systems.

Originality/value

This work represents one of the first attempts for integrating inkjet deposition of silver nanoparticle inks with the FDM process for making compact electro-mechanical structures. Three critical challenges are identified, and corresponding engineering solutions are proposed and implemented based on analysis of the relevant physical processes, including the printing, drying and sintering processes, which has laid the foundation for integrating the FDM and inkjet deposition processes.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Anabel Renteria, Luisa F. Garcia, Jorge A. Diaz, Luis C. Delfin, Jaime E. Regis, Elizabeth I. Reza, David Espalin, Tzu-Liang Bill Tseng and Yirong Lin

The purpose of this study is to evaluate different 3D structures for humidity sensing that will enable the fabrication of complex geometries with high moisture sensitivity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate different 3D structures for humidity sensing that will enable the fabrication of complex geometries with high moisture sensitivity.

Design/methodology/approach

Humidity sensors based on alumina ceramics were fabricated using direct ink write (DIW) technique. Different engineered surface area, polymer binder ratio and post-processing treatment were considered to increase moisture sensitivity.

Findings

It was found that the binder ratio plays an important role in controlling the rheology of the paste during printing and determining the pore size after post-processing treatment. The sensibility of the fabricated humidity sensor was investigated by measuring its capacitance response toward relative humidity (RH) varying from 40% to 90% RH at 25°C. It is shown that using 3D lattice design, printed alumina humidity sensor could improve sensitivity up to 31.6 pF/RH%, over an order of magnitude higher than solid alumina.

Originality/value

Most of the alumina humidity sensors available are films in nature because of manufacturing difficulties, which limited its potential of higher sensitivity, and thus broader applications. In this paper, a novel 3D alumina humidity sensor was fabricated using DIW 3D printing technology.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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