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Book part
Publication date: 6 February 2023

Amartya Pani and Pulak Mishra

While rapid increase in demand for foods but limited availability of croplands has forced to adopt input-intensive farming practices to increase yield, there are serious long-term…

Abstract

While rapid increase in demand for foods but limited availability of croplands has forced to adopt input-intensive farming practices to increase yield, there are serious long-term ecological implications including degradation of biodiversity. It is increasingly recognised that ensuring agricultural sustainability under the changing climatic conditions requires a change in the production system along with necessary policies and institutional arrangements. In this context, this chapter examines if climate-smart agriculture (CSA) can facilitate adaptation and mitigation practices by improving resource utilisation efficiency in India. Such an attempt has special significance as the existing studies have very limited discussions on three main aspects, viz., resource productivity, adaptation practices and mitigation strategies in a comprehensive manner. Based on insights from the existing studies, this chapter points out that CSA can potentially make significant contribution to enhancing resource productivity, adaptation practices, mitigation strategies and food security, especially among the land-constrained farmers who are highly prone to environmental shocks. In this connection, staggered trench irrigation structure has facilitated rainwater harvesting, local irrigation and livelihood generation in West Bengal. However, it is necessary to revisit the existing approaches to promotion of CSA and dissemination of information on the design of local adaptation strategies. This chapter also proposes a change in the food system from climate-sensitive to CSA through integration of technologies, institutions and policies.

Details

The Impact of Environmental Emissions and Aggregate Economic Activity on Industry: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-577-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

P.L. Joshi and H. Al‐Bastaki

This study examines the perceptions of 41 corporate chief accountants from Bahrain on the issues relating to the relative importance of international accounting topics in Bahrain…

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Abstract

This study examines the perceptions of 41 corporate chief accountants from Bahrain on the issues relating to the relative importance of international accounting topics in Bahrain. The study indicates a significant interest of the respondents in internationalizing the accounting curriculum. The topics which received importance rating of over 80% were: foreign investment and decision making, international accounting standards, financial reporting and disclosure, foreign currency transactions and translation, management information system (MIS) for multinational enterprises (MNEs), and consolidations. Results were also compared to a recent study from United States (US) and significant differences were found to exist in respect of several topics. The reasons for the major differences in the perceptions are explained in this paper, some of which may be attributed to cultural as well as environmental differences. The study also found that there is a strong support for adoption of the International Accounting Standards (IASs) because international markets are becoming increasingly important and there exists major differences in accounting principles among the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries themselves. Furthermore, the study also suggests that in view of the similarity in social, economic, and business practices in GCC countries, the highly ranked accounting topics reported in this study should perhaps be incorporated by the accounting departments of universities operating in the GCC region. This will facilitate the process of harmonization of the accounting curriculum in this region.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2018

Anjani Kumar, Devesh Roy, Gaurav Tripathi, P.K. Joshi and Rajendra P. Adhikari

The purpose of this paper is to quantify the benefits of contract farming (CF) on farmers’ income and adoption of food safety measures (FSMs) at the farm level. The paper also…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quantify the benefits of contract farming (CF) on farmers’ income and adoption of food safety measures (FSMs) at the farm level. The paper also investigates the determinants of participation in CF.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a survey of 600 tomato farmers from Nepal. Descriptive statistics, regression analysis (using instrumental variable) and propensity score matching have been used to accomplish the objectives of the study.

Findings

The study found that the CF ensures higher returns to farmers as well as higher adoption of FSMs at the farm level. The contract farmers earned about 38 per cent higher net returns and had 38 per cent higher adoption of FSM as compared to independent farmers. Caste, occupation, farm size and cropping intensity significantly affected farmers’ participation in CF.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis based on cross-section data has limitations to consider unobserved farmer-level individual heterogeneity.

Originality/value

This study will provide an empirical base to promote CF in Nepal. The study will also contribute to bridge the gap in literature on the drivers of CF and its impact on smallholders’ income and compliance with FSM in Nepal.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Sajan Kapil, Prathamesh Joshi, Pravin Milind Kulkarni, Seema Negi, Ranjeet Kumar and K.P. Karunakaran

The support structures of sacrificial material are built in deposition-based additive manufacturing (AM), which are later removed either by breaking or dissolving. Such a…

Abstract

Purpose

The support structures of sacrificial material are built in deposition-based additive manufacturing (AM), which are later removed either by breaking or dissolving. Such a sacrificial material is not feasible in metal AM. The purpose of this study is to find a suitable method for eliminating the need of support mechanism. In this work, the authors use the tilting of the substrate to alleviate the need for the support mechanism altogether.

Design/methodology/approach

As in the traditional AM, the object is grown in horizontal layers. However, wherever undercuts are encountered, the substrate is tilted appropriately to capture the droplets. Such a tilt involves two rotary axes invariably. To conform to the slice geometry, these two tilts are accompanied by the three linear movements. Thus, the object with undercuts is grown in planar layers using five-axis deposition without any support structure. Each pair of the corresponding top and bottom contours of any slice defines a ruled surface. The axis of the deposition head will be aligned with the rules of this surface.

Findings

The need for the support mechanism was eliminated using five-axis deposition. This was experimentally demonstrated by building an aluminum impeller using a metal inert gas cladding head.

Research limitations/implications

In the proposed methodology, the objects with an abrupt change in the geometry are not possible to realize.

Originality/value

This manuscript proposed a novel method of eliminating the support mechanism through continuous five-axis deposition.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2023

Tariq Ahmad Mir, R. Gopinathan and D.P. Priyadarshi Joshi

This study aims to analyze the long-run dynamic relationship between financial inclusion and economic growth for developing nations.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the long-run dynamic relationship between financial inclusion and economic growth for developing nations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study develops a comprehensive financial inclusion index based on the UNDP methodology for 53 developing nations. The authors use second-generation unit root tests, cointegration techniques and an advanced dynamic common correlated effects estimator model called cross-sectional augmented autoregressive distributed lags (CS-ARDL) to examine long-run dynamics among variables.

Findings

The tests confirm the presence of slope-heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependency. The second-generation panel unit root tests show the chosen variables are stationary at first difference. The bootstrap Westerlund cointegration result shows the variables are cointegrated in the long run. The CS-ARDL estimates conclude that financial inclusion positively enhances gross domestic product per capita in selected developing countries. The robustness check through augmented mean group estimation validates the findings.

Originality/value

The study makes three important contributions: first, it constructs a comprehensive financial inclusion index using 10 variables for a panel of 53 developing nations; second, the potential cross-section dependence and slope heterogeneity of panel data have been accounted for by applying the second-generation unit root tests; third, the study uses the dynamic common correlated effects estimator model (CS-ARDL) to examine long-run dynamics among variables.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2023

Susanta Kumar Sethy, Tariq Ahmad Mir, R. Gopinathan and D. P. Priyadarshi Joshi

This paper examines India's socio-economic attributes and different financial dimensions of financial inclusion (FI).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines India's socio-economic attributes and different financial dimensions of financial inclusion (FI).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a principal component analysis (PCA) to build indexes related to financial dimensions. It applies the logistics regression model and the Fairlie decomposition method to determine India's socio-economic and financial characteristics of FI.

Findings

Based on the logistic regression, socio-economic factors like age, gender, marital status, level of education and religion have an impact on FI. The use of financial institutions has positively contributed to the probability of FI, while the low proximity of financial service providers retards the process of FI. Fairlie decomposition concludes regional disparity and gender disparity in FI; however, the rural–urban gap in FI is not captured by the variables included in the study. The main reasons for the discrepancy are lack of education, financial literacy, the proximity of financial service providers and lack of financial institutions.

Originality/value

This paper makes two important contributions: first, it presents a micro-level analysis of FI across the socio-demographic strata of India, and second, it demonstrates the regional, rural–urban and gender disparity in FI in India.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 50 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

P.L. Joshi and Jawaher Al‐Modhahki

In this paper, we examine the factors that are likely to explain the use of the internet as a vehicle for voluntary financial reporting by companies in Bahrain and Kuwait. A total…

Abstract

In this paper, we examine the factors that are likely to explain the use of the internet as a vehicle for voluntary financial reporting by companies in Bahrain and Kuwait. A total of 75 companies (Kuwait 42 and Bahrain 33) were investigated to find out if they had websites and presented their financial statements on the internet. For Kuwait, 47.6% and for Bahrain 48.5% of sample companies had their own websites. Six variables were tested to examine their influence on the financial reporting by companies on the internet. A discriminant analysis was performed on the data and the results indicated that size (log of total assets) and industry were the main factors which influenced the financial reporting practices of companies on the internet. These results are in line with prior evidence. There is some indication that risk may also contribute to some extent in such decision. Perceptions of advantages and problems in using this new technology for financial reporting were also examined. It appears that the usage of this technology is still limited and slow in this part of the world, perhaps because of cultural dimensions and constraints.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Article
Publication date: 5 April 2023

Maheshkumar P. Joshi, Deepak Pandit, Shalini Rahul Tiwari and Archana Choudhary

Using the extant literature review, this paper aims to explore the relationship between gender, entrepreneurial education (EE) and entrepreneurial intention (EI) in the Indian…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the extant literature review, this paper aims to explore the relationship between gender, entrepreneurial education (EE) and entrepreneurial intention (EI) in the Indian context, which the authors believe is a novel approach to this research stream. The authors also use career preparedness as a control variable to examine this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 368 undergraduate students across four Indian universities (one exclusively for female students) through a standard structured questionnaire. Additionally, rather than examining, EI has been treated as a monolithic construct; however, the authors conceptualize it as comprising three different dimensions that include grand vision and risk-taking ability; opportunity exploitation; and ability to persevere. An additional analysis was conducted for the students who reported higher scores for “being well prepared for their careers” through their institutes’ academic programs and communities of entrepreneurs. The authors also interviewed some entrepreneurship instructors, who confirmed the present findings through their observations.

Findings

The findings indicate that, essentially, there is a positive relationship between EE and EI. The authors find that male students scored higher for the first two dimensions of EI but not the third. Additionally, the authors used career preparedness as a control variable for additional analysis. The authors observed that students with higher “career preparedness” reported a positive relationship between EE and EI, independent of gender, for all three dimensions of EI. Thus, it may be assumed that if a community of entrepreneurs needs to be developed in India, a focus on career preparedness is critical.

Research limitations/implications

First, given that the present survey reflected a single moment in linking EE to EI (which may be considered a limitation of the study), future researchers might focus on a longitudinal approach. Second, all the respondents are attending urban universities (and, as such, very likely belong to the upper middle class of Indian society). The financial divide between urban and rural India is well known; as such, the results might be different if the sample was drawn from rural and poor India.

Originality/value

The salience/value of this study lies in the conceptualization of EI comprising three sub-constructs to understand the impact of formal EE (with three sub-constructs) on EI. The focus on career preparedness for a female student is a new direction of inquiry with respect to entrepreneurial intention.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2007

Ravi Kathuria, Maheshkumar P. Joshi and Stephen J. Porth

The purpose of this paper is to identify and define the types of organizational alignment – vertical and horizontal; to examine the evidence for the alignment‐performance…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and define the types of organizational alignment – vertical and horizontal; to examine the evidence for the alignment‐performance relationship, and propose research questions and practical implications to advance the theory and practice of managing alignment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is a conceptual examination based on a thorough review of both theoretical and empirical research.

Findings

The paper finds that vertical alignment has received considerably more attention in the literature. Studies of horizontal alignment within organizations are less common. When horizontal alignment is studied, the focus tends to be dyadic – between two functional areas. The limitations posed by the dyadic approach suggest gaps in the research and opportunities for future research. As firms grow and diversify, becoming multi‐business organizations, the importance of horizontal alignment will be elevated.

Research limitations/implications

Research on vertical alignment should focus on developing larger sets of moderating variables, such as the morale of the workforce, or the life cycle of the firm or industry. Research on horizontal alignment should explore multi‐point horizontal alignment.

Practical implications

Managers in organizations with multiple strategic business units could use the application questions in the study to assess the state of alignment in their respective units and the organization as a whole.

Originality/value

The paper documents existing literature on the concept of organizational alignment and identifies new opportunities to continue to build and expand the research stream. It also provides a list of application questions that may be used to assess organizational alignment in organizations.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 June 2019

Pratap Birthal, Akanksha Negi and P.K. Joshi

Post-2008 global food crisis the prices of perishable high-value food commodities, such as vegetables and fruits, in India have risen faster and become more volatile compared to…

Abstract

Purpose

Post-2008 global food crisis the prices of perishable high-value food commodities, such as vegetables and fruits, in India have risen faster and become more volatile compared to that of cereals. The welfare consequences of price shocks though are well understood yet the policy responses to manage these remain blurred because of a lack of clarity on their causes. Focusing on onions that comprise an important constituent of the Indian diet, the purpose of this paper is to explore causes of high price volatility.

Design/methodology/approach

Using high-frequency time series data on wholesale prices and arrivals of onions in major markets and other relevant variables, this paper analyzes causes of price volatility from several angles, that is production shocks, seasonality in production and market arrivals, internal trade, export policies and market power of intermediaries on the supply chain.

Findings

Despite markets being integrated and no significant climatic shocks to production there exists a strong element of uncertainty in market arrivals of onions, pointing toward the market power immediate downstream the production or alternatively anti-competition trade practices in major markets as a cause of high price volatility. The measures to manage price volatility, such as an increase in minimum export prices and bans on exports, are also not found to have an immediate cooling effect on prices.

Research limitations/implications

The agricultural policy should provide for a system of market intelligence to monitor anti-competitive trade practices along the supply chain, and to take proactive trade control measures to prevent frequent ups and downs in domestic prices. In addition, it should provide for incentives for developing efficient supply chains and for the cultivation of onions in the regions that have agronomic potential but it has remained underexploited due to one or the other constraint.

Social implications

Excessive volatility in food prices impacts farmers, consumers, processors, and traders and even political system. It may distort production and investment decisions of farmers and intermediaries on the value chains, leading to inefficient allocation of resources. The poor consumers may be forced to reduce food and non-food productive expenditures. If persists for a longer period, it may lead to political instability too.

Originality/value

Several studies have analyzed volatility in food prices and causes thereof. However, rarely any of these has examined volatility in prices of perishable high-value food commodities. This paper is an attempt toward filling this gap.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

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