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Article

Faizal Adams, Camillus Abawiera Wongnaa and Edwin Coleman

The study analyzed the profitability of tomato farmers and determinants of farmers' choice of marketing outlets (wholesaler or retailer) in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

The study analyzed the profitability of tomato farmers and determinants of farmers' choice of marketing outlets (wholesaler or retailer) in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 100 tomato farmers in Ghana. Analytical tools which include descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis (GM), profitability ratios and binary logit model were employed.

Findings

Profitability analysis indicates that farmers who supply to wholesalers have gross margin of Gh¢7.86 (US$1.67) per 25 kg crate, while farmers who supply to retailers recorded a major loss of Gh¢5.36 (US$1.14) per 25 kg crate. The result suggests that farmers selling to wholesalers are better off than farmers supplying to retailers. The binary logit regression analysis reveals a positive relationship between farmers' choice of marketing outlet (wholesaling) and age of respondents, quantity of tomato sold and cost of labor for production. A negative relationship also existed between farmers' choice of marketing outlet and weighted average selling price and household size.

Research limitations/implications

The results call for policy efforts to provide an enabling environment for more extension education and establishment of farmer associations to make marketing information for price development among farmers available.

Originality/value

The choice of marketing outlet greatly influences profitability of tomato production. This study examines the performance of the various tomato marketing outlets in Ghana.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article

Kristin Jürkenbeck, Achim Spiller and Stephan G.H. Meyerding

Vegetables are an important component of a healthy diet. Given that tomatoes are the most purchased vegetable in Germany, the purpose of this paper is to focus on how…

Abstract

Purpose

Vegetables are an important component of a healthy diet. Given that tomatoes are the most purchased vegetable in Germany, the purpose of this paper is to focus on how consumers evaluate tomatoes during their food choice. Each consumer has different preferences and, in order to target them, it is necessary to identify consumer groups. The study segments tomato consumers into homogenous target groups.

Design/methodology/approach

A choice experiment was used to simulate the buying situation in a supermarket. The data were analysed using latent class analysis, as well as principal component factor analysis to measure food-related lifestyles. The sample consisted of 1,027 consumers and was representative of the characteristics of gender, age, educational level and income for the German population.

Findings

Consumers perceive air transportation and plastic wrapping as most climate damaging in tomato production. Six different tomato consumer groups were identified and named according to the attribute they found most important, i.e. “Balanced consumers”, “Price-conscious consumers”, “Taste enthusiasts”, “Colour-sensitive consumers”, “Price-conscious consumers with a taste preference” and “Colour- and price-sensitive consumers”. In three clusters, colour was the most important attribute. However, green and yellow tomatoes were rejected by all segments, indicating communication problems.

Originality/value

The results of this study provide breeders and marketers with valuable insights into the factors driving tomato choice. The information was based on a large sample and will help breeders to select the types of tomatoes that are in demand by consumers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

S. Muhammad, K. Shehu and N.A. Amusa

A survey of the market diseases and aflatoxin contamination of tomato fruits was conducted in Sokoto in northwestern Nigeria in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Rotten tomato

Abstract

A survey of the market diseases and aflatoxin contamination of tomato fruits was conducted in Sokoto in northwestern Nigeria in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Rotten tomato fruits sold at five different markets in Sokoto town, located at Central market, Kasuwar daji, Mabera, Minanata and Arkilla were heavily contaminated with moulds. Eight different fungi were found associated with the rotten tomato fruits sold in the five different markets. The associated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceous, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium citrinum and Helminthosporim fulvum, Curvularia lunata and Sclerotium rolfsii. A. flavus and A. niger have the highest rate of occurrence among the isolated fungi, while S. rolfsii was the least encountered. Pathogenicity tests revealed that of all the isolated fungi, A. ochraceous, A. flavus, Sclerotium rolfsii and P. citrinum were highly pathogenic with the first three leading to rapid disintegration of treated fruits in 3‐5 days. A. niger was moderately pathogenic, while H. fulvum was least pathogenic on tomato fruits. Aflatoxins were detected from the sampled diseased‐marketed tomato fruits and also from the marketed rotten tomato fruits after autoclaving for 15 minutes at 121°C.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Simranjeet Kaur, Sunil Kumar and Z. F. Bhat

– The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of utilization of pomegranate seed powder and tomato powder in the development of fiber-enriched chicken nuggets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of utilization of pomegranate seed powder and tomato powder in the development of fiber-enriched chicken nuggets.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was designed to incorporate and evaluate the effect of pomegranate seed powder and tomato powder on the quality characteristics of the chicken nuggets. The products were developed by incorporating different levels of pomegranate seed powder (1, 2, 3 per cent) and tomato powder (1, 2, 3 per cent) separately and were analyzed for various physicochemical and sensory parameters.

Findings

The pomegranate seed powder and tomato powder significantly (p < 0.05) increased the fiber content of the chicken nuggets besides improving various sensory attributes of the products. A significant (p < 0.05) effect of the pomegranate seed powder was observed on the pH, emulsion stability, cooking yield and proximate parameters of the chicken nuggets. Tomato powder also showed a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the emulsion stability, moisture and fat content of the products. No significant (p > 0.05) effect of tomato was observed on the pH and cooking yield of the products.

Originality/value

Fiber-enriched chicken nuggets could be developed by incorporating pomegranate seed powder and tomato powder in the formulation besides improving various sensory attributes of the products.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Abstract

Subject area

Entrepreneurship.

Study level/applicability

This case is designed for teaching entrepreneurship at master’s level. Depending on students’ interests and exposure levels however, it can be applied to teaching undergraduate entrepreneurship courses that are taken after at least the two basic entrepreneurship courses.

Case overview

Nigeria’s tomato industry is one of the most dysfunctional in the entire nation’s economy. Although the country is West Africa’s largest tomato producer, nearly half of the produced tomatoes rot on the way to the market, which makes Nigeria heavily reliant on imported tomato paste. Amidst growing concerns among stakeholders of the need to address the dysfunction of the tomato industry, Tomato Jos emerged as the earliest social impact venture in the tomato paste industry. Nigeria’s changing macro-economic conditions clearly call for a tomato processing industry and the entry of Tomato Jos is well timed. Within a span of two years, the company successfully raised $600,000 in equity, debt and grant financing that has catered for start-up expenses and expansion to 150 hectares of farmland. The company plans on raising an additional $25m to cater for their planned Stage III growth. Amidst growing excitement over the entry of Tomato Jos in the industry with a social enterprise, Africa’s top business tycoon, Aliko Dangote, announced entry into the tomato processing industry with a major tomato processing facility in the same region as Tomato Jos. The Dangote Group of companies is seen as very tough competition to contend with, due to their sheer size, political leverage and financial capital. This case study primarily teaches how multiple aspects of start-up entrepreneurship may be handled rather than being taught separately as is often the case in mainstream business education. Entrepreneurs in the field rarely confront real challenges in this way. This case study introduces a practice of teaching a collection of key aspects of entrepreneurship, their nuances and inter-relationships in an integrated fashion.

Expected learning outcomes

The overarching objective of this case is to teach students how to interpret the shifts in industry position resulting from the entry of an important competitor within the larger context of growing a social venture. At the end of the case study analysis, students will be able to analyze the effects of changing forces and conditions in a country’s business environment on a start-up social enterprise; interpret the shifts in a venture’s industry position after the entry of an important competitor; identify appropriate funding sources and financing strategies to fuel the growth of a social enterprise; identify areas of a start-up’s business model that need improvement and/or iteration to support faster growth; and develop an effectuation-based strategy for a growing venture.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 3: Entrepreneurship.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article

L. Martínez‐Carrasco, M. Brugarolas, A. Martínez‐Poveda, J.J. Ruiz and S. García‐Martínez

This paper aims to further progress in research on perceived quality of fresh fruit and vegetables. It seeks to develop and discuss two models for perceived quality of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to further progress in research on perceived quality of fresh fruit and vegetables. It seeks to develop and discuss two models for perceived quality of tomato, including the price variable as an indicator for perceived quality of tomato.

Design/methodology/approach

The data come from a survey of 400 consumers that measures the importance of a set of tomato attributes on a Likert scale. The models were adjusted by means of structural equation analysis. Two procedures were followed for model development: the first started from an exploratory factor analysis. In the second, relations and correlations among variables were established starting from the theoretical framework that differentiates among search, experience and credence attributes.

Findings

Two models of tomato perceived quality are formulated and discussed. Both established that the perceived quality of fresh tomato could be explained through nine attributes. Some of them can be deduced at the place of purchase; some, during consumption while others are a question of trust. With regard to using price as an indicator of the perceived quality of tomato, both models suggested the elimination of this variable from the model for perceived quality.

Originality/value

Studying perceived quality has received much attention in research on the behaviour of food consumers. Nevertheless, there are not many attempts to establish models for the perceived quality of fresh fruit and vegetables. Specifically, there are very few studies on consumer behaviour that analyse the perceived quality of tomato. Thus, this study is one of the first attempts to establish a model for perceived quality of tomato.

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Article

Elijah Jacob Kosse, Stephen Devadoss and Jeff Luckstead

The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical background of the tomato dispute, review the USA trade law and its effect on the tomato trade, discuss the role of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical background of the tomato dispute, review the USA trade law and its effect on the tomato trade, discuss the role of the North American Free Trade Agreement and other supply and demand factors on increased tomato imports from Mexico and present a conceptual analysis of the effects of a Suspension Agreement (a form of Voluntary Export Restraint) on the USA and Mexico. In 1996, the USA and Mexico signed the Suspension Agreement which sets a guaranteed minimum price for Mexican tomato imports.

Design/methodology/approach

Conceptual analysis graphically illustrates how the Suspension Agreement affects the tomato trade for the USA and Mexico and shows the benefits and losses of consumers and producers in these two countries.

Findings

There is no consensus regarding whether Mexico dumps tomatoes onto the US market. However, US trade law favors domestic producers, leading to the signing of the Suspension Agreement. It is shown here that this agreement has substantial welfare effects in both Mexico and the USA. While it was designed to protect US producers, it also aids Mexican consumers and may potentially improve Mexican producer surplus as well. Only US consumers unambiguously suffer a loss.

Research limitations/implications

As the theoretical model indicates, the Suspension Agreement’s minimum price does help Floridian farmers but, if the rents are large enough, may also aid Mexican producers. If Mexican producers do gain, then quota rent is shifted from tomato consumers to Mexican producers. On the other hand, US consumers are hurt as well as tomato processing plants because they purchase fresh tomatoes for use as inputs. The higher price minimum after the 2013 agreement will likely intensify the welfare effects, and the addition of different categories with distinct prices is likely to have additional consequences for both welfare and trade distortions.

Originality/value

As the USA and Mexico recently signed a new Suspension Agreement, this paper deals with a very timely and contentious trade dispute and contributes to the area of research international trade war. The literature on Suspension Agreements is also expanded by providing welfare analysis of both producers and consumers.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

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Article

Urban Šebjan and Polona Tominc

The purpose of this paper is to present the organoleptic characteristics of cherry tomatoes from three different geographical areas, and to compare the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the organoleptic characteristics of cherry tomatoes from three different geographical areas, and to compare the differences/similarities of Slovenian tomatoes which are cultivated by utilising an innovative technology and have altered organoleptic characteristics, with other cherry tomatoes that are available on the Slovenian market and are of different geographical origin (Dutch and Spanish tomatoes). In an experimental study the authors determined the impact of price and organoleptic characteristics as a whole on the choice of tomatoes by young consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

This experimental study is based on a sample of 27 young consumers, and it examines three hypotheses using three different quantitative methods: one-way ANOVA, χ2 and logistic regression.

Findings

The authors found that there were statistically significant differences between the perceived organoleptic characteristics of tomatoes grown in three different geographic areas. Young consumers assessed the organoleptic characteristics of the Slovenian tomatoes as the best, followed by the Dutch and Spanish tomatoes. The authors have found that there are statistically significant correlations between the organoleptic characteristics and the price, except for the firmness of tomatoes, which does not significantly affect the price. This cannot be said with regard to price, since there is no statistically significant relationship between this variable and the choice of tomatoes.

Originality/value

The scientific contribution of this study is reflected in the evaluation and comparison of tomatoes from three different geographical regions, and in linking the perceived organoleptic characteristics of tomatoes with the price, and the final selection of tomatoes by the young consumers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Eleftherios Alamanos, Michael Bourlakis and Irini Tzimitra‐Kalogianni

The study aims to examine consumer behaviour towards fresh tomatoes and to reveal the factors that influence consumption leading to an adoption of a healthy diet.

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to examine consumer behaviour towards fresh tomatoes and to reveal the factors that influence consumption leading to an adoption of a healthy diet.

Design/methodology/approach

A consumer survey was carried out in Thessaloniki (Greece) and 337 self‐reported questionnaires from tomato consumers were used in the analysis. The major consumer segments are illustrated and interventions to promote tomato consumption are suggested.

Findings

The findings from principal component analysis indicate that the main factors that influence consumption of fresh tomatoes are: “nutrition value”, “organoleptic characteristics” of tomatoes and “eating habits” of consumers. A two‐step cluster analysis revealed three segments of tomato consumers labelled as “Tomato‐loyals”, “Sensorialists” and “Health‐conscious”.

Practical implications

The findings reveal the consumption characteristics of each consumer segment where tailored social marketing plans can be developed based on this work. The findings will be of interest to food marketers and food policy makers, as they can contribute to addressing obesity problems in Europe in general and Mediterranean countries in particular.

Originality/value

The paper identifies the underlying reasons for eating fresh tomatoes, which can lead to the adoption of a healthy diet and can support policies towards that. It also reveals new consumer segments and highlights differences between them. In addition, it highlights the interventions to increase tomato consumption of each segment. Finally, it employs a cluster analysis technique, two‐step cluster analysis, which has not been widely used in marketing research.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Claudia Bazzani and Maurizio Canavari

The research presented in this paper aims at giving a forecasting scenario of the fresh tomato industry in Italy and in Germany, through the analysis of the different…

Abstract

Purpose

The research presented in this paper aims at giving a forecasting scenario of the fresh tomato industry in Italy and in Germany, through the analysis of the different drivers which influence the trends of the fresh tomato market.

Design/methodology/approach

The Delphi method was applied in order to obtain judgments of different experts regarding the driving forces of the fresh tomato industry in Italy and in Germany. A total of 14 experts of the fresh vegetables market participated in a three‐rounds survey; a qualitative analysis of experts' judgments drew to a possible future of the fresh tomato industry.

Findings

From the results it is possible to conclude that the service in the offer of the products will mostly influence the trend of the fresh tomato industry; this includes marketing, communication, quality certifications, special packaging (as ready to eat products). Furthermore variety selection and typicality of the product will play, as well, a fundamental role in the market trend of the fresh tomato.

Research limitations/implications

The research is based on a small sample of experts, using a qualitative approach. Therefore these findings may strongly depend on the choice of the subjects.

Practical implications

The results may offer useful suggestions to managers and practitioners on the most promising strategies for the future.

Originality/value

On the methodological side, this study represents a useful contribution to qualitative food research, since the Delphi method approach was rarely used in the past. In addition, it has not been previously used in forecasting a possible scenario in the fresh vegetables industry.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000