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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Anna Katarzyna Dabrowska, Grazyna Bartkowiak, Jagna Karcz and Iwona Frydrych

The purpose of this paper is to compare morphological and physical features of three kinds of materials intended for the insulating layer in the clothing protecting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare morphological and physical features of three kinds of materials intended for the insulating layer in the clothing protecting against cold – high-bulk non-woven, goose down (GD) and duck down (DD).

Design/methodology/approach

Comparison of thermal performance of developed textile systems with the non-woven, GD and DD content was based on basic biophysical properties related to comfort sensations of the user such as thermal resistance, water vapor resistance and air permeability. In this study, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods were employed to visualize the surface and internal structure of non-woven, GD and DD samples.

Findings

The paper indicates the advantages and disadvantages of each of selected insulating material. For the down samples, significantly higher thermal resistance in a dry state than for the non-woven samples can be achieved. Meanwhile, textile systems with the non-woven provide lower value of water vapor resistance. The selected textile systems for the research were characterized by a comparable air permeability.

Originality/value

This paper allows for an evaluation of high-bulk non-woven, DD and GD samples in terms of providing optimal thermal performance in clothing protecting against cold.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1977

M.J. Aggleton

Non‐woven glass epoxy laminates are compared with paper phenolic and woven glass epoxy, indicating the advantages and limitations of the newer materials. Certain…

Abstract

Non‐woven glass epoxy laminates are compared with paper phenolic and woven glass epoxy, indicating the advantages and limitations of the newer materials. Certain electrical properties are compared together with thermal and dimensional stability performances. This paper was presented at the Institute of Metal Finishing Printed Circuit Group Symposium “Circuits 77” in London during March 1977.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2009

Isabel Cardoso and Jaime Rocha Gomes

The use of organic phase change materials microcapsules (mPCM) has been gaining ground in technical textiles and clothing as a temperature regulating medium and hence a…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of organic phase change materials microcapsules (mPCM) has been gaining ground in technical textiles and clothing as a temperature regulating medium and hence a means of keeping the body at a comfortable temperature when wearing impermeable protective clothes. However, for such applications as fire fighter's protective clothes, the standards require that all the material composing the material be fire resistant. The purpose of this paper is to produce a lining containing fire resistant microcapsules of PCM without using flammable binders.

Design/methodology/approach

This work tests other ways of fixing mPCM to the fibres with a lot less binder present. Washfastness is evaluated in SEM photographs and by weight. The thermal effect is evaluated in a prototype plate calorimeter.

Findings

This method is first tested for fixing mPCM but the non‐woven still does not pass the test according to the standard EN532. Microcapsules are alternatively fixed with MF resin, non‐flammable, and by applying flame retardant recipes it is possible for the samples to pass the test.

Research limitations/implications

Since the amount of flame retardant necessary for the mPCM to stand the test, and the resin to thermo fix it is very high, the material becomes unacceptably stiff.

Originality/value

Based on a new approach where reactive microcapsules without any binder are used, it is possible to use a lot less flame retardant and resin, and the material is resistant to the standard EN532. In this standard the material has to resist washing and still be flame retardant.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 21 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Naraindra Kistamah, Lubos Hes and Khandini Rajmun

The use of nonwoven fabrics in garment has been, up to now, purely functional and hidden from view. In fact, their uses have been limited to garment interlining in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of nonwoven fabrics in garment has been, up to now, purely functional and hidden from view. In fact, their uses have been limited to garment interlining in the apparel industry. Felted structures from wool have been limited to the craft market for the production of art and craft objects of decoration. This paper aims to compare the mechanical and thermo-physical comfort properties of a woven wool, a felted wool fabric, a felted wool/polyester and two non-woven synthetic fabrics for apparel use.

Design/methodology/approach

Fabric samples were sourced locally. Five fabric samples were selected: one woolen woven, one felted woven, one polyester/wool non-woven and two non-woven synthetic fabrics. The wool fabric was felted by mechanical action using the Wascator FOM 71P machine. All fabric samples were conditioned before they were tested for their mechanical and thermal comfort properties as per standard test methods.

Findings

The comparative study of the mechanical and thermal properties of the five fabric samples have been successfully investigated as textile materials for commercial garments. In terms of fabric stiffness, drape and handle, the two non-woven synthetic fabrics were, in general, poorer than the woven wool and the felted woven wool fabrics. The synthetic non-woven fabrics also performed poorly in terms of serviceability. But it was found that the nonwoven synthetic fabrics were best suited when thermal insulation is required and were found to be better than the woven felted wool fabric of comparative weight per unit area.

Originality/value

The value of this study is that it demonstrates the scope of felted woolen structures and other synthetic nonwovens fabrics as usable materials, in part or in full, in the development of apparel for winter wear especially in cold environments and where aesthetic appeal is secondary.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1998

Michael Pecht, Keith Rogers and Andre Fowler

Non‐woven laminates have begun to gain recognition in the electronics industry because they are generally thinner and flatter than woven laminates. This study…

Abstract

Non‐woven laminates have begun to gain recognition in the electronics industry because they are generally thinner and flatter than woven laminates. This study characterizes the mechanical and thermo‐mechanical properties of non‐woven, randomly dispersed, short fiber laminates, and identifies potential failure mechanisms which must be addressed in the design and utilization of printed circuit boards using non‐woven technology.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Frankie M.C. Ng and Winson Y.W. Kho

The earliest concept of spunlacing (also known as hydroentanglement): using water jets to entangle fibres to form non-woven fabrics, was conceived as early as 1950s. Like…

Abstract

The earliest concept of spunlacing (also known as hydroentanglement): using water jets to entangle fibres to form non-woven fabrics, was conceived as early as 1950s. Like other nonwoven fabrics, spunlaced non-woven fabrics are not made of yams, but directly from fibers or filaments which are laid by web forming machines (e.g. cards) to form a loose unbonded web and are subsequently bonded by various processes (needling machines, melt fibers, chemical bonding agents or water needling technology) into a textile sheet. Since its initiation in 1953, the technology received increasing attention and has undergone rapid development during the 1980s. Today, China is one of the nations who has invested in spunlaced nonwoven fabric production, with 10 production lines each costs around 5 millions US dollars. The first China national conference on spunlace non-woven fabric production was held in Zhuhai, China in October 1996. This article reviews the historical development of spunlaced non-woven fabric production, gives an account on the technology and its recent development in China and discusses the problems faced.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2011

Cheng Qian

A new non-woven material is developed by using chitosan blending fibers via a spun-lacing method, which can be used as the inner layer of baby diapers for providing good…

Abstract

A new non-woven material is developed by using chitosan blending fibers via a spun-lacing method, which can be used as the inner layer of baby diapers for providing good permeability, water transmission, insulation, antibiotic protection and anti-odor functions. In the trial production process, the right blending ratios of chitosan, lyocell and bicomponent fibers of 45:45:10 are chosen by experiments. Then, through a close coordination of blending, carding and spun-lacing processes, the best production parameters are filtered out. The new non-woven material is thus made uniform with many oval holes that have a thickness of 0.5 mm. Tests show permeability and absorbency properties of the non-woven material are 212.26% and 121.07% respectively higher than those of ordinary materials (through-air bonding and calendar bonding) used in present baby diapers, and its strength is just proper enough for diaper materials. Moreover, the new non-woven material is also inherently antimicrobial, with a micro-organism resistance to both staphylococcus aureus and epiphytes that is above 95%, whereas in comparison, the ordinary material falls below 70%.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Akram Hassan Mohammed Ali and Weidong Yu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate thermal protection provided by the fire fighting fabric systems with different layer under high-level thermal hazards with a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate thermal protection provided by the fire fighting fabric systems with different layer under high-level thermal hazards with a typical temperature range of 800-1,000°C. The purpose of these fabric systems was to provide actual protection against burn injuries using garments worn by industrial workers, fire fighters and military personnel, etc.

Design/methodology/approach

The fabric system was consist of glass with aluminum foil as an outer layer, non-woven basalt, non-woven glass fabric containing NaCl-MgCl2 and Galactitol phase change materials (PCM) which simulate multilayer fire fighter protective clothing system. Thermal protective performance tests were applied for thermal analysis and used as an attempt to quantify the insulating characteristics of fabrics under conditions of flash over temperature. The surface of fire fighting multilayer protective fabric has been characterized using the UV-Vis-NIR (ultraviolet-visible-near infrared) spectrophotometer

Findings

The clothing shows good thermal insulation and high-temperature drop during flash over environment and avoid second degree burn. The current PCM obvious advantages such as the ability to work in high temperature, high efficiency a long period of practical performance.

Originality/value

Using this design of composite multilayer technology incorporating two stages of PCM may provide people with better protection against the fire exposure and increasing the duration time which was estimated to be more than five minutes to prevent burn injuries.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

M. Weinhold and D.J. Powell

Emerging ‘chip‐size’packages, and bare flip‐chips, require new substrate properties if high lead count chips are tobe reliably interconnected on printed wiring boards and…

Abstract

Emerging ‘chip‐size’ packages, and bare flip‐chips, require new substrate properties if high lead count chips are to be reliably interconnected on printed wiring boards and multichip modules at low cost. Blind via holes have been shown to increase interconnect density significantly without adding layers which contribute to high cost. Until recently, the use of blind vias has been limited to high‐end applications since standard fabrication methods, either sequential lamination or controlled depth drilling, are too slow and expensive for most high volume commercial applications. To maintain a low layer count while interconnecting higher I/O packages, commercial and consumer electronics require a substrate technology which supports high speed, micro‐via hole formation. This paper describes a process for fabricating high speed micro‐vias in dimensionally stable non‐woven Aramid reinforced laminates using laser ablation technology. Laser equipment capable of producing over 100 blind micro‐via holes per second is discussed. The process steps of hole cleaning and plating are reviewed, showing how existing PWB manufacturing technologies can be used. This process is compared with other methods of generating small holes and blind vias in printed wiring boards. In addition, requirements for flip‐chip and chip‐size packages, including a coefficient of thermal expansion of <10 ppm/°C and thin laminate dimensional stability of <0.03%, are explained.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

C. Cassidy and S.V. Lomov

As CAD fabric modelling becomes more widespread there is a need to study the applicability of fabric property parameters which are used in predicting fabric behaviour. The…

Abstract

As CAD fabric modelling becomes more widespread there is a need to study the applicability of fabric property parameters which are used in predicting fabric behaviour. The anisotropical mechanical behaviour of woven fabrics, fusible interlinings and their composites were studied on order to invesigate the accuracy of equations used to predict the anisotropic linear elastic behaviour of fabric for in plane and bending deformation. Bending, shear and tensile properties were measured using KES©F equipment. Results showed that the orthotropic model of anisotropy can be applied for the qualitative modelling of woven and fusible interlining fabrics and that simple mechanical models for bending properties can be used for their composites.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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