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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Anna Katarzyna Dabrowska

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of design solutions used in clothing on the thermal resistance of the material systems from which the clothing is made…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of design solutions used in clothing on the thermal resistance of the material systems from which the clothing is made, design solutions used in clothing on its thermal insulation and clothing size on its thermal insulation properties.

Design/methodology/approach

This study involved laboratory tests of clothing protecting against cold and textile systems used in this type of garment using a “skin model” test stand and a thermal manikin.

Findings

Analysis of the results obtained from tests carried out showed that the design solutions used in a garment can model its local and overall insulation. It was found that using a bib in trousers has a dominant influence on the thermal properties of clothing. An important parameter is also the use of a hood, as well as the length of the jacket. No significant effect of other structural solutions, such as jacket fastening, pockets and reflective tapes, on the thermal performance of the clothing set was noted.

Originality/value

Although the reports available in the literature pay a lot of attention to the impact of the design of clothing protecting against cold on its thermal performance, most of the presented research results relate to the aspects of fit, whereas the analyses of the effects of other aspects of garment construction on thermal properties are lacking. Therefore, the analysis of the impact of design solutions used in clothing on its thermal insulation properties is a key original factor of this paper.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2018

Anna Katarzyna Dabrowska

The purpose of this paper is to develop artificial neural networks (ANNs) allowing us to simulate the local thermal insulation of clothing protecting against cold on a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop artificial neural networks (ANNs) allowing us to simulate the local thermal insulation of clothing protecting against cold on a basis of the characteristics of materials and design solutions used.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, laboratory tests of thermal insulation of clothing protecting against cold as well as thermal resistance of textile systems used in the clothing were performed. These tests were conducted with a use of thermal manikin and so-called skin model, respectively. On a basis of results gathered, 12 ANNs were developed that correspond to each thermal manikin’s segment besides hands and feet which are not covered by protective clothing.

Findings

In order to obtain high level of simulations, optimization measures for the developed ANNs were introduced. Finally, conducted validation indicated a very high correlation (above 0.95) between theoretical and experimental results, as well as a low error of the simulations (max 8 percent).

Originality/value

The literature reports addressing the problem of modeling thermal insulation of clothing focus mainly on the impact of the degree of fit and the velocity of air movement on thermal insulation properties, whereas reports dedicated to modeling the impact of the construction of clothing protecting against cold as well as of diverse material systems used within one design of clothing on its thermal insulation are scarce.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Anna Katarzyna Dabrowska, Grazyna Bartkowiak, Jagna Karcz and Iwona Frydrych

The purpose of this paper is to compare morphological and physical features of three kinds of materials intended for the insulating layer in the clothing protecting against

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare morphological and physical features of three kinds of materials intended for the insulating layer in the clothing protecting against cold – high-bulk non-woven, goose down (GD) and duck down (DD).

Design/methodology/approach

Comparison of thermal performance of developed textile systems with the non-woven, GD and DD content was based on basic biophysical properties related to comfort sensations of the user such as thermal resistance, water vapor resistance and air permeability. In this study, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods were employed to visualize the surface and internal structure of non-woven, GD and DD samples.

Findings

The paper indicates the advantages and disadvantages of each of selected insulating material. For the down samples, significantly higher thermal resistance in a dry state than for the non-woven samples can be achieved. Meanwhile, textile systems with the non-woven provide lower value of water vapor resistance. The selected textile systems for the research were characterized by a comparable air permeability.

Originality/value

This paper allows for an evaluation of high-bulk non-woven, DD and GD samples in terms of providing optimal thermal performance in clothing protecting against cold.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Fatemeh Zahra Hourian Tabarestani, Fatemeh Mousazadegan and Nazanin Ezazshahabi

In the present work, the thermal insulation characteristics of multilayered mittens were studied in different airflow conditions.

Abstract

Purpose

In the present work, the thermal insulation characteristics of multilayered mittens were studied in different airflow conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the thermal behavior of four groups of mittens consisting of one two-layer and three three-layer mittens containing nonwoven wadding materials with various weights and thicknesses was investigated during the exposure to airflows with different speeds. In order to evaluate the correlation between the heat transfer rates of different mittens with the human perception of cold, a set of pair-comparison tests was performed using Thurstone's law of comparative judgment.

Findings

The analysis of the results revealed that by an increment in the weight and the thickness of the wadding material, the thermal protection performance of mittens improves. Moreover, in the presence of airflow and by increasing its speed, due to the forced convective heat loss, the outer surface temperature of the mittens decreases and therefore the conductive heat transfer rate rises. This fact leads to the transfer of higher quantity of body warmth to the environment and thus feeling of coldness. According to the results, there was a proper correlation between the subjective perception of cold and the heat transfer rate of mittens. The statistical analysis of the results clarified that the effect of mitten's structural parameters and the airflow speed on the thermal protection behavior of mittens are significant at the confidence range of 95%.

Originality/value

Mitten is one of the important personal protective clothing, especially in cold environments. Thus, the thermal resistance of them has a prominent role in the protection of the hands and fingers from cold and frostbiting.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

George K. Stylios

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

3063

Abstract

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the…

1025

Abstract

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act (which has been amended by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975) provides:

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1993

Wlodzimierz Wie¸źlak and Janusz Zieliński

Presents the possibility of utilization of the textile heating element for designing protective clothing. Investigation of the textile heating element has been carried out…

316

Abstract

Presents the possibility of utilization of the textile heating element for designing protective clothing. Investigation of the textile heating element has been carried out and it has been found that a conductive woven fabric of specific resistance should not be higher than 4*10−2 (Ω*m). Physical behaviour of the heating element can be described according to Ohm's law. A number of variants of heating packs have been tested by means of thermovision. Attention was paid to the problem of ensuring an appropriate distribution of temperatures on the inner side of clothing and obtaining a possible low temperature on the outside of clothing. A model of the system, body/heated clothing/environment, has been developed, making assumptions related to: the structure and physiology of the body; the structure of clothing and properties of materials; outer climatic conditions. Clothing prototypes were subjected to laboratory tests to verify correctness of the assumptions concerning both the heating system construction and the active clothing designing. The laboratory and functional investigations of active clothing have been positively verified by the developed model. Garments so designed are absolutely safe for the user and protects him efficiently against cooling‐down during his stay in a low temperature environment.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 5 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

George K. Stylios

Examines the ninth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

1159

Abstract

Examines the ninth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Grażyna Bartkowiak, Anna Dąbrowska and Anna Marszałek

People working in the hot environment are constantly exposed to the overheating, that can lead to cardiovascular disorders and as a consequence result in occupational…

Abstract

Purpose

People working in the hot environment are constantly exposed to the overheating, that can lead to cardiovascular disorders and as a consequence result in occupational diseases. The purpose of this paper is to present developed personal liquid cooling system that is able to efficiently draw excess heat from the human organism, protecting against thermal stress.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents study concerning the assessment of effect of the coolant temperature in the developed liquid cooling garment (LCG) on physiological parameters of the subjects (heart rate, body temperature, skin temperature) and parameters of the undergarment microclimate, as well as subjective sensations reported by volunteers exercising in hot microclimate while wearing LCG and without LCG.

Findings

Obtained results of physiological parameters measurements, as well as undergarment physical parameters and volunteers subjective sensations, proved satisfactory level of thermal stress reduction while working in the aluminized protective clothing in hot environment by the developed personal liquid cooling system for the variant with coolant temperature 19°C and the flow rate 0.9 dm3/min.

Originality/value

This paper presents a new clothing construction intended for LCG that can efficiently support human thermoregulation processes while working in the hot environment.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2008

George K. Stylios

Examines the fourteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched…

1180

Abstract

Examines the fourteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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