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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Wiah Wardiningsih and Olga Troynikov

This paper aims to examine the influence of hip protective clothing on ensemble performance attributes related to thermal comfort. It also explores the effect on protective

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the influence of hip protective clothing on ensemble performance attributes related to thermal comfort. It also explores the effect on protective pads of various materials and the arrangements of material. The thermal comfort characteristics are thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance.

Design/methodology/approach

For this research, four ensembles of clothing were used: one ensemble without hip protective clothing and three ensembles with hip protective clothing. A thermal manikin was used to test the thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of the ensembles.

Findings

The findings revealed that incorporating hip protective clothing into the clothing ensembles influenced the thermal resistance and moisture vapour resistance of the ensemble. In the “all zones group,” the influence of the hip protective clothing depended on clothing style, with hipster-style clothing producing insignificant changes. In the “hip zones group” and “stomach and hip zones group,” hip protective clothing strongly influenced the thermal comfort attributes of ensembles. Pad material and volume play important roles in these changes in thermal comfort attributes.

Originality/value

These outcomes are useful for the design and engineering of hip protective clothing, where maximizing protection while minimizing thermal and moisture vapour resistance is critical for wear comfort and adherence in warm or hot conditions. The designer should consider that material, volume and thickness of protective pad affect the overall thermal comfort attributes of the hip protective clothing.

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2018

Meng Deng, Yunyi Wang and Peijing Li

The purpose of this paper is to provide the details of developments to research works in the distribution characteristics of the air gaps within firefighters’ clothing and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide the details of developments to research works in the distribution characteristics of the air gaps within firefighters’ clothing and research methods to evaluate the effect of air gaps on the thermal protective performance of firefighters’ clothing.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the distribution of air gaps within firefighters’ clothing was first analyzed, and the air gaps characteristics were summarized as thickness, location, heterogeneity, orientation and dynamics. Then, the evaluation of the air gap on the thermal protective performance of fighters’ clothing was reviewed for both experimental and numerical studies.

Findings

The air gaps within clothing layers and between clothing and skin play an important role in determining the thermal protective performance of firefighters’ protective clothing. It is obvious that research works on the effects of actual air gaps entrapped in firefighters’ clothing on thermal protection are comparatively few in number, primarily focusing on static and uniform air gaps at the fabric level. Further studies should be conducted to define the characteristic of air gap, deepen the understand of mechanism of heat transfer and numerically simulate the 3D dynamic heat transfer in clothing to improve the evaluation of thermal protective performance provided by the firefighters’ clothing.

Practical implications

Air gaps within thermal protective clothing play a crucial role in the protective performance of clothing and provide an efficient way to provide fire-fighting occupational safety. To accurately characterize the distribution of air gaps in firefighters’ clothing under high heat exposure, the paper will provide guidelines for clothing engineers to design clothing for fighters and optimize the clothing performance.

Originality/value

This paper is offered as a concise reference for researchers’ further research in the area of the effect of air gaps within firefighters’ clothing under thermal exposure.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Yun Su, Yunyi Wang and Jun Li

The purpose of this paper is to provide the details of developments to researchers in test apparatus and evaluation methods to rate the thermal protective performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide the details of developments to researchers in test apparatus and evaluation methods to rate the thermal protective performance (TPP) of firefighters’ clothing under high-temperature and high-humidity condition.

Design/methodology/approach

This review paper describes the influence laws of moisture on thermal protection and the moisture distribution in actual fire environment. Different evaluation methods used for assessing the effect of moisture on the TPP were investigated, with an emphasis on test devices, evaluation indexes as well as their relationship and limitations.

Findings

The moisture from the ambient, clothing and human perspiration plays an important role in determining the TPP of firefighter protective clothing. It is obvious that research on moisture-driven heat transfer in firefighter’s clothing system are comparatively little, primarily focussing on pre-wetted methods of multi-layer fabric. Further studies should be conducted to develop more standardized moistening systems and improve the current calculation methods for evaluating the performance of protective clothing. New explorations for heat and moisture transfer mechanism in protective clothing should be investigated.

Practical implications

Protective clothing is the efficient way to provide fire-fighting occupational safety. To accurately evaluate the TPP of protective clothing under high-temperature and high-humidity condition will help to optimize the clothing performance and choose the proper clothing for providing firefighters with the best protection under multiple thermal hazards.

Originality/value

This paper is offered as a concise reference for scientific community further research in the area of the TPP evaluation methods under high-temperature and high-humidity condition.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Claudia Herzberg, Hartmut Rödel and Eberhard Engelmann

The new protective equipment forms a FARADAY cage, thus protecting the worker from unacceptably strong electrical fields as well as from being invaded by dangerous…

Abstract

The new protective equipment forms a FARADAY cage, thus protecting the worker from unacceptably strong electrical fields as well as from being invaded by dangerous electric currents. The protective shielding clothing described is a personal protective equipment of the highest category. Therefore, it must be certified by an acknowledged examining and certifying authority. An application with regard to the attestation of conformity for this protective clothing hasbeen submitted to the Examination andCertification Section of the Expert Committee for Electrical Engineering.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 13 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

George K. Stylios

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

Abstract

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

George K. Stylios

Examines the fifthteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched…

Abstract

Examines the fifthteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Ming Fu, Wenguo Weng and Hongyong Yuan

– The purpose of this paper is to measure the thermal insulation of protective clothing with multilayer gaps in low-level heat exposures.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the thermal insulation of protective clothing with multilayer gaps in low-level heat exposures.

Design/methodology/approach

Nine different combinations of protective clothing systems with multiple air gaps are used to measure the thermal insulation by a self-designed bench-scale test apparatus in different levels of an external thermal radiation of 2-10 kW/m2. The outside and inside surface temperatures of each fabric layer are also measured to calculate the local thermal insulation of each fabric layer and each air gap.

Findings

The results show that the total thermal insulation of protective clothing under thermal radiation is less than that in normal environments, and the exposed thermal radiation will worsen the total thermal insulation of the multilayer fabric systems. Air gap plays a positive role in the total thermal insulation, and thus provides the enhanced thermal protection. It is also suggested that the local resistance of the air gap closer to the external thermal radiation is more easily affected by the thermal radiation, due to the different heat transfer ways in the fabric system and the external thermal radiation.

Originality/value

Effects of air gap on the thermal insulation of protective clothing, and contribution of the local thermal resistance of each fabric layer and each air gap to the total thermal insulation.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1994

Paul S. Adams, Ann C. Slocum and W. Monroe Keyserling

Personal protective clothing (PPC) enables people to work in hazardous environments, but PPC can have a detrimental effect on worker performance. Predicting garment…

Abstract

Personal protective clothing (PPC) enables people to work in hazardous environments, but PPC can have a detrimental effect on worker performance. Predicting garment effects on worker performance is difficult because quantitative relationships among garment properties and human responses are not known. Presents a systematic structure for studying the relationships among garment properties and their immediate effects on the worker. Using a survey of 118 studies, previous work was categorized according to garment parameters and dependent measures. Except for studies of heat stress, most of these studies compared competing garments or simply measured physiological response, rather than relating these effects to garment attributes. Such results are seldom transferable to other clothing systems or tasks. Proposes a conceptual model based on this systematic structure. Introduces garment impediment indices (GIIs) as response functions of garment attributes, and offers an approach for developing quantitative models of PPC effects on worker performance.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Ming Fu, Wenguo Weng and Hongyong Yuan

– The purpose of this paper is to study the combined effects of moisture and radiation on thermal protective performance of protective clothing exposed to low level radiation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the combined effects of moisture and radiation on thermal protective performance of protective clothing exposed to low level radiation.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sweating manikin, the effect of radiation and moisture on heat and moisture transfer was initially analyzed under the dry manikin with sweating rate of 100 g/(m2h) exposed to 2.5 kW/m2, and then studied at 200 and 300 g/(m2h) exposed to 2 and 3 kW/m2, respectively. Finally, the combined effects of thermal radiation and moisture were predicted by fitting the relationships among heat loss and wet skin surface temperature, with the sweating rate and radiation intensity.

Findings

The results show that the heat loss and the wet skin surface temperature are affected by the combined effects of moisture and radiation, with two distinctly different trends. Heat loss from the manikin is increasing with the sweating rate, and decreasing with thermal radiation intensity. However, the wet skin surface temperature has an opposite situation.

Originality/value

Two filling equations are given to present the relationships among heat loss and wet skin surface temperature, with the sweating rate and radiation intensity. With these two equations, the heat loss and the wet skin surface temperature when exposed to radiation can be predicted by only measuring the mean radiant and ambient temperatures and controlling the sweating rate.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Yun Su, Miao Tian, Yunyi Wang, Xianghui Zhang and Jun Li

The purpose of this paper is to study heat and steam transfer in a vertical air gap and improve thermal protective performance of protective clothing under thermal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study heat and steam transfer in a vertical air gap and improve thermal protective performance of protective clothing under thermal radiation and hot steam.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment-based model was introduced to analyze heat and moisture transfer in the vertical air gap between the protective clothing and human body. A developed test apparatus was used to simulate different air gap sizes (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 mm). The protective clothing with different air gap sizes was subjected to dry and wet heat exposures.

Findings

The increase of the air gap size reduced the heat and moisture transfer from the protective clothing to the skin surface under both heat exposures. The minimum air gap size for the initiation of natural convection in the dry heat exposure was between 6 and 9 mm, while the air gap size for the occurrence of natural convection was increased in the wet heat exposure. In addition, the steam mass flux presented a sharp decrease with the rising of the air gap size, followed by a stable state, mainly depending on the molecular diffusion and the convection mass transfer.

Originality/value

This research provides a better understanding of the optimum air gap under the protective clothing, which contributes to the design of optimum air gap size that provided higher thermal protection against dry and wet heat exposures.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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