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Article

Khalid Tinasti and Isabela Barbosa

The negotiations leading to the UN Special Session (UN General Assembly Special Session on drugs (UNGASS)) on drugs have highlighted the lack of consensus among the global…

Abstract

Purpose

The negotiations leading to the UN Special Session (UN General Assembly Special Session on drugs (UNGASS)) on drugs have highlighted the lack of consensus among the global players, with some strengthening the prohibitionist approach and others seeking policy reforms. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the Russian Federation’s national policies and diplomatic activism to influence the outcome of the negotiations at the multilateral level.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review of the federal legislation on drug control and the legislation on HIV/AIDS has been undertaking in October 2016. Peer-reviewed, grey literature, policy documents, UN reports and news reports were used to gather information on the country’s response to drugs internally and externally.

Findings

Despite its limited regional influence on harm reduction and declining financial power, the Russian Federation has been successful in preserving its international priorities by opposing harm reduction and maintaining the prohibition paradigm in the UNGASS outcome.

Research limitations/implications

Every effort was made to identify valid sources of information on the levers of influence of the Russian Federation. Little data were available on the real outcome of the efforts deployed in influencing the BRICS and other regional and international assemblies.

Originality/value

This paper presents an overview of the national policies of the Russian Federation, a global player, and provides a better understanding of how the national approach to illicit drugs and their perception influences its international position. It analyses the geographic, economic and diplomatic sphere of influence of the country in drug policies, and provides explanations on the successes and shortcomings of the Russian influence at the multilateral discussions on drugs.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article

Ahmad Mohammad Abdalla Abu Olaim and Aspalella A. Rahman

We are living in a time when there is a stronger requirement for co-operation to fight organized crimes and the resulting flow of illicit funds. This is due to the…

Abstract

Purpose

We are living in a time when there is a stronger requirement for co-operation to fight organized crimes and the resulting flow of illicit funds. This is due to the globalization and interconnection between world economies and financial systems, as well as with the new technologies that allow rapid movement of funds around the globe. From the early beginning, Jordan realized the importance of providing anti-money laundering technical assistance, especially at the international level. The reason for this comes from Jordan’s strong belief that money laundering crimes can be fought domestically as well as internationally, particularly by combining efforts between Jordan and other countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the development that Jordan has witnessed in the fighting of money laundering.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper relies on various laws that tackle organized anti-money laundering in Jordan before 2007, with the Jordanian Anti-Money Laundering and Counter Terrorist Financing Law for 2007 as the primary source of information.

Findings

Before 2007, Jordan fought money laundering through a group of laws that are indirectly concerned with combating money laundering. While these laws govern certain crimes, they managed to fight money laundering indirectly. By the year 2007, the Jordanian Anti-Money Laundering Law was passed and published on the official gazette on June 17, 2007. This law became effective after 30 days from that date. The Jordanian Anti-Money Laundering Law is one of the needed laws to keep a safe financial environment. Jordan’s obligation in accordance to the international conventions has made the country join and ratify the efforts, resulting in the issuing of the law. Since then, this law has become concerned with anti-money laundering in Jordan.

Originality/value

This paper provides an examination of the system in Jordan to combat money laundering before and after 2007. It is hoped that the content of this paper can provide some insight into this particular area for practitioners, academics, policy makers and legal advisers, not only in Jordan but also elsewhere. There will be significant interest in how Jordan has been developing the anti-money laundering system because of the international nature of the crime and its seriousness.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Book part

Donna L. Van Raaphorst

Donna L. Van Raaphorst provides a detailed statistical analysis of a large sample of Alcatraz Prison inmates using the Social Science Statistical Package. The data, drawn…

Abstract

Donna L. Van Raaphorst provides a detailed statistical analysis of a large sample of Alcatraz Prison inmates using the Social Science Statistical Package. The data, drawn directly from the inmate files, is compared whenever possible with similar data provided by the Bureau of Prisons in order to determine if Alcatraz, often regarded as America's Devil's Island, really incarcerated the so-called “Worst of the Worst” in its time. The results would seem to indicate that Alcatraz inmates were, in fact, not remarkably different from those in any other Federal prison in the system.

Details

Crime and Punishment: Perspectives from the Humanities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-245-0

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Article

Dorothy S. Gleisner

My object in compiling this bibliography has been to list reference materials that will be useful to pharmacy students, faculty, and reference librarians working with…

Abstract

My object in compiling this bibliography has been to list reference materials that will be useful to pharmacy students, faculty, and reference librarians working with them. While the bibliography is not intended to be comprehensive, I have covered the essential reference sources as well as some additional titles which are certainly desirable. Some of the books have been around for many years and are now in new editions; others are just appearing on the scene. I included periodicals only when they served a special purpose such as to offer a source of statistical or marketing information. Several of the references could have appeared in more than one place and, in the interest of brevity, I arbitrarily chose the category that seems most appropriate to me.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article

Emmanuel Sotande

The purpose of this paper is to examine the treats hindering war against illicit financial flows of organised crime in developing economies and Nigeria in particular. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the treats hindering war against illicit financial flows of organised crime in developing economies and Nigeria in particular. The examination shows that the impediments facing the fight against money laundering and organised crime financial flows vary from one country to another. It may be lesser in developed economies where most instruments, treaties and best practice recommendations to curb serious crime originated from. However, the impediments against the proceeds of organised crime in developing economies are overwhelming.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology adopted was qualitative analysis. This was applied through the use and analysis of documents and expert interviews.

Findings

The impediments jeopardising the success against organised crime and other related serious crime financial flows in developing economies are devastating. Consequently, the study offered some policy implications to help mitigate these impediments in developing countries. The dynamics and the phenomena of organised crime business model are operated with ingenious strategies within the global states. Therefore, staying in control of the menace and the threats originated from the organised criminal activities would require periodic review of the global initiatives, standards and strategies deployed by the standard setters to combat organised crime and its financial flows in developing and evolving economies. Additionally, the implementing countries should be carried along and allow to make inputs when such initiatives and standards are being developed.

Social implications

In Nigeria, there is a clear evidence of “collateral damage” in terms of social justice as result of financial exclusion of many bankable adults of the country that do not possess unique identities for account opening documentation and customer due diligence of the Financial Action Task Force recommendation 10.

Originality/value

There have been quite a number of studies on organised crime and still fewer have recognised the need to explore the success or failure of combating the proceeds of crime in developing economies. This study provides answer to these gaps by screening associated risks of fighting the proceeds of organised crime in developing countries and Nigeria in particular.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article

Yan Zhang and Lening Zhang

The present study assesses the contextual racial effects on police decisions to arrest in traffic stops.

Abstract

Purpose

The present study assesses the contextual racial effects on police decisions to arrest in traffic stops.

Design/methodology/approach

A hierarchical logistic regression model is conducted using data collected from the Houston Police Department and US census.

Findings

The authors’ multilevel analysis indicates that the racial effect on police decision to arrest is more likely to be contextual than individual. Black and Hispanic drivers have no significant difference from White drivers in police decisions to arrest when area variations are controlled. In contrast, the concentrations of Blacks and other racial minorities in areas are significantly associated with the chance of being arrested by police in traffic stops. However, as the level of racial diversity increases in an area, the chance of being arrested is likely to decrease.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates the importance of racial characteristics of areas in the study of racial profiling and related police practice.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article

Craig Rivera, Rebekah Chu and Colin Loftin

Cohen (1998) describes a study showing that, in the US, regionally distributed culture controls the direction of the relationship between social disorganization and…

Abstract

Cohen (1998) describes a study showing that, in the US, regionally distributed culture controls the direction of the relationship between social disorganization and homicide rates. In the South and West, where, according to the Nisbett‐Cohen theory, there is a “culture of honor”, strong community and family bonds increase argumentrelated homicides. Conversely, in the North, where cultural beliefs do not support violence in response to insults, strong social bonds decrease argument‐related homicides. A reanalysis shows that Cohen’s results are due to a few counties with atypical values that heavily influence the slope estimates. The data do not provide support for the Nisbett‐Cohen thesis that regional patterns in US homicide can be attributed to a culture of honor.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 22 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

Steve Moffatt, Wai‐Yin Wan and Don Weatherburn

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether trends in arrests for heroin, amphetamine‐type substances (ATS) and cocaine can be used as indicators of trends in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether trends in arrests for heroin, amphetamine‐type substances (ATS) and cocaine can be used as indicators of trends in the use of these drugs.

Design/methodology/approach

The question was addressed using ARIMA models to analyse the relationship between arrests and emergency department (ED) admissions for narcotics, amphetamine type substances (ATS) and cocaine.

Findings

Strong positive correlations were found for the narcotics and cocaine series between arrests and EDs in the same month (contemporaneous correlation) and between arrests in the current month and overdoses in earlier months (lagged correlation). The contemporaneous correlation between ATS arrests and EDs was slightly less strong than the lagged correlations at two and four months. A jump in ATS EDs, was followed by a jump in arrests in the same month and then two and four months later.

Practical implications

Arrests for narcotics use/possession, ATS use/possession and cocaine use/possession may in some circumstances provide useful intelligence about drug trends and/or a basis for evaluating the impact of police drug law enforcement activity on the use of narcotics, ATS and cocaine when other stronger measures of drug use are not available.

Originality/value

Efforts to evaluate local drug law enforcement activity on illicit drug use have been hampered by poor measures of trends in illicit drug use at small area levels. This is the only study the authors are aware of that has examined the long‐term relationship between illicit drug arrests and emergency department admissions for illicit drug use.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part

Tom Blickman

This chapter looks at the past, present and future of international cannabis control required by the UN drug control conventions in the post-2016 United Nations General…

Abstract

This chapter looks at the past, present and future of international cannabis control required by the UN drug control conventions in the post-2016 United Nations General Assembly Special Session era with an eye on the next High Level Ministerial Segment (HLMS) at the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs in 2019, and beyond. From a policy analysis perspective, the author meanders through the increasing tendency to legally regulate recreational cannabis markets notwithstanding the obligation enshrined in the UN drug control conventions to limit cannabis exclusively for ‘medical and scientific’ purposes. Taking into account relevant national and international developments, the chapter describes how the growing discomfort with the status of cannabis and the prohibitive and punitive approach stemming from the international drug control regime went through a process from soft to hard defections of the treaty obligations. The case of the Netherlands demonstrates the difficulty faced by reform-minded states in reconciling their wish for a different cannabis control mechanism with their obligations under international law, resulting in an incomplete regulation of its coffee-shop system, where small amounts of cannabis are tolerated for sale, but where the illicit supply to the shops remained unregulated. Subsequent more wide-ranging reforms to regulate cannabis from seed to sale in Uruguay, several US States and – in 2018 – in Canada, are clearly violating the obligations of the UN drug control conventions. Nevertheless, the HLMS will likely leave the elephant in the room untouched. The emerging paradigm shift regarding cannabis shows that a modernisation of the UN drug control regime is long overdue. This chapter discusses some of the options available.

Details

Collapse of the Global Order on Drugs: From UNGASS 2016 to Review 2019
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-488-6

Keywords

Content available
Book part

Abstract

Details

The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0

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