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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2012

Andy Ruddock

Purpose – This chapter maps the conceptual territory that research on school shootings shares with cultivation analysis.Methodology/approach – It outlines the history of…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter maps the conceptual territory that research on school shootings shares with cultivation analysis.

Methodology/approach – It outlines the history of cultivation analysis, which used the statistical methods of content analysis and survey research to argue that television violence was rampant and sexist, and that this had the effect of making audiences fearful. The point of this history is to show that the model was conceptually grounded in critical approaches to media, and established questions about the ideology of media violence that set the grounds for school shooting studies.

Findings – In particular, the chapter focuses on similarities between cultivation analysis and ritual theory, and the cultivation thesis that violence represents gender hierarchies, as the two most obvious points of intersections with studies on school shootings. It suggests that these intersections help explain why a “school shooting” frame was deployed to other sorts of media violence, and debates about the effects of media violence, using Jared Loughner's attack on Gabrielle Giffords as a case study.

Practical implications – Emerging concerns about the effects of aggressive news punditry and political commentary can be addressed by reflecting on what studies of school shootings say about the more general politics of media violence, and cultivation theory is an invaluable resource in this endeavor.

Originality/value of paper – Academically, an engagement with cultivation theory underlines how school shooting studies contribute to critical media research in general, by demonstrating the validity of “second generation” models of media influence in the digital age.

Details

School Shootings: Mediatized Violence in a Global Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-919-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Jinyun Duan, Dilin Yao, Yue Xu and Linhan Yu

Although domestic research on Chinese management is emerging, a suitable domestic theory is still needed to support and explain Chinese management practice. Given that…

Abstract

Purpose

Although domestic research on Chinese management is emerging, a suitable domestic theory is still needed to support and explain Chinese management practice. Given that, this paper aims to extract ideas of cultivation from Confucianism and propose a theoretical framework of self-cultivation with a purpose to provide new explanations for domestic (nondomestic as well) management practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from pre-Qin cultivation discourse and management practice, this paper develops a theoretical framework of self-cultivation and discusses its implications.

Findings

This paper argues that self-cultivation emphasizes self-consciousness, initiative and selflessness. It also includes self-reflection, self-discipline, self-study and self-improvement, as well as self-dedication, all of which reflect the ideal realm of “self-cultivation.” This “realm” refers to the process of pursuing an ideal personality and high moral standards.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by identifying various potential applications of self-cultivation theory to domestic research on organizational behavior in China.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Kanika Mahajan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) on farm sector wage rate. This identification strategy rests on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) on farm sector wage rate. This identification strategy rests on the assumption that all districts across India would have had similar wage trends in the absence of the program. The author argues that this assumption may not be true due to non-random allocation of districts to the program’s three phases across states and different economic growth paths of the states post the implementation of NREGS.

Design/methodology/approach

To control for overall macroeconomic trends, the author allows for state-level time fixed effects to capture the differences in growth trajectories across districts due to changing economic landscape in the parent-state over time. The author also estimates the expected farm sector wage growth due to the increased public work employment provision using a theoretical model.

Findings

The results, contrary to the existing studies, do not find support for a significantly positive impact of NREGS treatment on private cultivation wage rate. The theoretical model also shows that an increase in public employment work days explains very little of the total growth in cultivation wage post 2004.

Originality/value

This paper looks specifically at farm sector wage growth and the possible impact of NREGS on it, accounting for state specific factors in shaping farm wages. Theoretical estimates are presented to overcome econometric limitations.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

Erik Hermann, Martin Eisend and Tomás Bayón

The purpose of this paper is to apply cultivation theory to social network sites by investigating how Facebook uses cultivates users' ethnic diversity perceptions and attitudes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply cultivation theory to social network sites by investigating how Facebook uses cultivates users' ethnic diversity perceptions and attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ investigations include an online and offline survey study with 476 Facebook users and a follow-up experiment with 75 individuals.

Findings

The authors provide empirical support that Facebook use cultivates ethnic diversity perceptions and ethnic diversity-related attitudes. They show that Facebook use relates to perceptions of ethnic minorities that resemble the world on Facebook that is characterized by high ethnic diversity. The authors further demonstrate that the cultivation of ethnic diversity-related attitudes is mediated by diversity perceptions related to users' close social environment.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should consider culturally and educationally diverse samples as well as longitudinal research designs to address external validity and causality issues.

Practical implications

Algorithms determining the content users are exposed should be thoughtfully curated to avoid attitudinal and ideological polarization.

Social implications

Facebook can play an important role in positively shaping intergroup relations, thereby countering negative outgroup attitudes, social anxieties and radical right-wing parties.

Originality/value

The authors’ studies extend the scope of cultivation research by identifying a new media vehicle as a source of cultivation influences and shed light on the cultivation-based process of attitude change on social network sites.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Shi Min

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential causes of the reduction of cotton cultivation in Shandong Province of China from the perspective of smallholders and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential causes of the reduction of cotton cultivation in Shandong Province of China from the perspective of smallholders and notably examine the role of off-farm employment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper extends an integrated behavioral model to analyze the relationship between off-farm employment and cotton cultivation by taking into account farmers’ risk attitudes. A household survey data of 144 Bt cotton farmers in six villages in Linqing County, Shandong Province conducted in 2012 and 2013 is used. A simultaneous equations model is established and further estimated by using three-stage least squares method.

Findings

Although the introduction of Bt cotton has promoted the increase in cotton acreage in China from 1999 to 2007, the planting area of cotton has been decreasing since 2007. The results show the significant correlations among risk attitude, off-farm employment, and cotton cultivation. The planting area of cotton is positively correlated with farmers’ willingness to take risk but negatively associated with off-farm employment of family members. The findings imply that the rapid emergence of off-farm labor markets is a major reason for the reduction of cotton acreage in Shandong Province. In the context of the more opportunities of off-farm employment in China, cotton acreage is expected to decrease further.

Originality/value

The findings provide a reasonable explanation for the reduction of cotton cultivation in Shandong. This analysis contributes to a better understanding of the relationships among individual risk attitude, off-farm employment, and agricultural behavior, thereby adding to the literature about the application of the integrated behavioral model.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2012

Monica J. Barratt, Martin Bouchard, Tom Decorte, Vibeke Asmussen Frank, Pekka Hakkarainen, Simon Lenton, Aili Malm, Holly Nguyen and Gary R. Potter

Unlike other plant‐based drugs, cannabis is increasingly grown within the country of consumption, requires minimal processing before consumption, and can be easily grown…

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Abstract

Purpose

Unlike other plant‐based drugs, cannabis is increasingly grown within the country of consumption, requires minimal processing before consumption, and can be easily grown almost anywhere using indoor or outdoor cultivation techniques. Developments in agronomic technologies have led to global growth in domestic cultivation, both by cannabis users for self‐ and social‐supply, and by more commercially‐oriented growers. Cross‐national research is needed to better understand who is involved in domestic cultivation, the diversity in cultivation practices and motivations, and cultivators' interaction with the criminal justice system and cannabis control policies.

Design/methodology/approach

The article introduces the Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium (GCCRC), describes its evolution and aims, and outlines the methodology of its ongoing cross‐national online survey of cannabis cultivation.

Findings

Despite differing national contexts, the GCCRC successfully developed a core questionnaire to be used in different countries. It accommodates varying research interests through the addition of optional survey sections. The benefits to forming an international consortium to conduct web‐based survey research include the sharing of expertise, recruitment efforts and problem‐solving.

Research limitations/implications

The article discusses the limitations of using non‐representative online sampling and the strategies used to increase validity.

Originality/value

The GCCRC is conducting the largest cross‐national study of domestic cannabis cultivation to date. The aim is not only to better understand patterns of cannabis cultivation and how they differ between countries but also to build upon online engagement methodology with hidden populations.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Varsha Khandker and Indrajit Thakurata

Hybrid rice is considered as one of the technologies having the potential to push the production frontier to meet the growing demand for rice in India. The technology was…

Abstract

Purpose

Hybrid rice is considered as one of the technologies having the potential to push the production frontier to meet the growing demand for rice in India. The technology was introduced in India in 1994 but is yet to see widespread adoption. The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that influence the partial/complete adoption of hybrid rice technology by the farmers in India. This study also assesses the factors behind difference in the share of land allocated to hybrid rice cultivation by farmers.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a Tobit model to evaluate the impact of factors related to technology, farmer, farm and geographical location on the decision to adopt hybrid rice. Data for this study are compiled from surveys of 441 hybrid rice growing farmers across 3 Indian states conducted during 2012-2013.

Findings

The paper finds that farmers with smaller landholdings, higher education and higher experience of growing hybrid rice are more likely to be complete adopters. Farmers reporting good demand for hybrid rice output and availability of subsidy on hybrid rice seeds also have higher probability of being complete adopters. However, the availability of hybrid rice seeds in government outlets and cultivating multiple kharif crops are negatively related to the extent of hybrid rice adoption. The results suggest insignificant impact of age, family size, ownership of cattle and machinery on the adoption level of hybrid rice by the farmers.

Research limitations/implications

Although the sample for this study has been collected from three states with different agro-climatic zones and productivity, the results cannot be generalized for other states.

Originality/value

There is a great potential to increase the area under hybrid rice cultivation in India. This study is one of the first attempts to look at the adoption levels of hybrid rice in India and determine the factors which might be hindering the complete adoption of the technology. Focusing on the factors positively related to complete adoption can help in enhancing the area under hybrid rice and similar approach can be used for other new agricultural technologies in the developing country context.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 May 2018

Chris Wilkins, Sharon Sznitman, Tom Decorte, Pekka Hakkarainen and Simon Lenton

The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of small-scale cannabis cultivation in New Zealand and Israel.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of small-scale cannabis cultivation in New Zealand and Israel.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey of predominantly small-scale cannabis cultivators had previously been conducted in 11 countries in 2012/2013. The same core online survey was subsequently conducted in New Zealand and Israel in 2016/2017, and comparisons made with the original 11 countries.

Findings

Only around one third of the New Zealand and Israeli cannabis growers had sold cannabis, and the majority of these did so only to cover the costs of cultivation. The median number of cannabis plants cultivated per crop by the New Zealand and Israeli growers was five and two, respectively. The leading reasons provided for growing cannabis by both the New Zealand and Israeli growers were to provide cannabis for personal use and to share with others. A higher proportion of New Zealand than Israeli growers reported growing cannabis for medicinal reasons. A total of 16 per cent of the New Zealand and 17 per cent of Israeli growers had come into contact with the police due to their cannabis cultivation. The findings suggest small-scale cannabis cultivation in New Zealand and Israel is largely a means of “social supply” of cannabis, and this is consistent with the findings from the original 11 countries. The higher incidence of growing cannabis for medicinal purposes in New Zealand may reflect the limited official access to medical cannabis. Significant minorities of small-scale cannabis growers in both countries had contact with police, putting them at risk of the negative consequences of a criminal conviction.

Originality/value

To date, the research into cannabis cultivation has largely consisted of studies of individual countries. However, given the global popularity of cannabis use, and the recent spread of cannabis cultivation to countries that traditionally have not produced cannabis, via utilisation of indoor growing techniques, there is now a strong case for international comparative research. Following the success of the surveys in the original 11 countries, New Zealand and Israeli members of the Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium international collaboration chose to undertake surveys in their own countries in 2016/2017.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 February 2013

Catharine H. Warner and Melissa A. Milkie

Purpose – We seek to understand how gender shapes the practice of concerted cultivation in connection to other key social locations of race and…

Abstract

Purpose – We seek to understand how gender shapes the practice of concerted cultivation in connection to other key social locations of race and class.Design/methodology/approach – This quantitative research paper uses multi-level modeling to provide an intersectional analysis of parenting practices across diverse social and institutional settings.Findings – We find gender matters: across three aspects of “concerted cultivation” (involvement in schooling, extracurricular activities, and cultural outings), parents invest more time and resources in girls compared to boys. More importantly, using an intersectional approach, we find distinct racial/ethnic differences in engendering concerted cultivation. Gender differences occur among Black and Hispanic but not white parents’ involvement in their child's schooling. Additionally, parents cultivate girls’ participation in certain kinds of extracurricular activities more so than for boys, but this difference is greatest at the highest socioeconomic levels.Social and practical implications – The ways in which parents’ shape young children's activities and experiences in daily life vary greatly across gender, race, and class statuses.Originality/value – Gender shapes access and exclusion to various social settings across the life course; this paper adds to literature on socialization, incorporating other social statuses into understandings of processes of the social reproduction of inequality. These results are of value to parents, schools, and social scientists.

Details

Notions of Family: Intersectional Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-535-7

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Zhirun Li, Yinsheng Yang, Namho So and Jong-In Lee

During the planting process, agricultural products produce large amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This has placed tremendous pressure on sustainable global…

Abstract

Purpose

During the planting process, agricultural products produce large amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This has placed tremendous pressure on sustainable global development. Many countries and regions in the world have adopted intensive subsistence cultivation methods when planting maize; however, limited studies exist on these methods. The main purpose of this research is to show the impact of climate change on maize yields and carbon footprint (CF) in South Korea over 10 years, find the proper operating method and promote the advanced combination of inputs for the sustainable development of maize farmers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used survey data from the South Korea Rural Development Administration of 2010, 2014 and 2019 to estimate the CF of maize planting under intensive subsistence cultivation. Life-cycle assessment was used to determine the CF. Farmers were grouped according to significant differences in yield and GHG emissions. Linear regression was used to measure the dependence of the main contributors on the CF production and carbon efficiency.

Findings

In South Korean maize planting, N in chemical fertiliser was the most significant contributor to the CF and organic fertiliser was the most significant input. The use of chemical and organic fertilisers significantly affects the production of the CF and carbon efficiency. Households in the high-yield and low-GHG emission groups are more sustainable because they generate the least GHG when producing and earning through maize cultivation. Globally, maize production in South Korea has a relatively low CF and maize production produces fewer GHG.

Originality/value

This study provides information for policymakers to determine key operational options for reducing GHG emissions using intensive subsistence cultivation of maize production in South Korea and other countries.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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