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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2017

Nadeem Yousaf

Transformational and transactional leadership have become a fascinating issue for research since the work of Burns (1978) and Bass (1990). The purpose of this paper is to evaluate…

1832

Abstract

Purpose

Transformational and transactional leadership have become a fascinating issue for research since the work of Burns (1978) and Bass (1990). The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the usefulness of the concept of transformational leadership using examples of political leadership from South Asia. It is argued that the construct of transformational leadership is practically non-existent. And, if the concept of transformational leadership exists, it cannot be specifically applied to the leaders who gain popularity and achieve their goals. It is also argued that positive and negative connotation with transformational and transactional leadership, respectively, is false. The popular leadership may be good for “one-point agenda,” but not necessarily transform the system.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative methods, historical analysis, and discourse analysis have been employed to understand the leaders’ actions and behaviors.

Findings

The discussion around the empirical examples show that the popular-successful leadership does not necessarily a transformational leadership even though the leadership achieves the goals.

Originality/value

The popular or so-called transformational leadership may be good to achieve one-point agenda, but it may not bring the required change and fruitful results to all stakeholders if it is not backed by a transactional strategy. Future research may turn the attention in three directions: whether or not the achieved goals were transformational or transactional; evaluation of leaders’ behavior from the perspective of consequential leadership; and the role of transactional leaders in the growth and strengthening of micro and macro organizations.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Nadeem Yousaf

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of mission and vision in the process of state development. Using the case of Pakistan, it will be argued that state…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of mission and vision in the process of state development. Using the case of Pakistan, it will be argued that state organizations do not develop and find the right direction without outlining a clear mission and vision which will be beneficial to all citizens, who are the real stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

Yin (2003) and Baxter and Jack (2008) argue that case study is an enriched method to explore a complex relationship. The complex relationship may be understood better by qualitative methods than quantitative. Following their suggestion, case study method will be adopted to understand the relationship between the mission and vision and state development. In this study, Pakistan will be used as a case. Moreover, the technique of historical analysis will be employed to understand this relationship. Historical analysis is important because the repercussions of current actions can only be evaluated in the future.

Findings

The paper shows the importance of “mission and vision” for state development. Using Pakistan as the case, it is argued that a state can lose its direction without having a clear mission and vision. It is further contended that it is not erection of institutions or verbal/written pronouncements and slogans, but a strong commitment to the mission and the vision brings the required change, which helps to develop a state. In the future research, the researcher can further examine the role of mission and vision in relation to state development.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this study is that it has only focussed on the leadership and politics of Pakistan. In the future, a comparative study investigation may be useful.

Practical implications

The research is useful for political leaders, political scientists and public management researchers.

Originality/value

The research is unique and original that it evaluates the role of leadership and the development of the state from the perspective of mission and vision, which has not been done in the earlier research. Moreover, the paper elaborates the concept of state development.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Nadeem Yousaf

Jinnah was, to some extent, a successful leader in obtaining his goals of becoming the only spokesperson for Muslims in India and gaining a piece of land for Pakistan but the main…

Abstract

Purpose

Jinnah was, to some extent, a successful leader in obtaining his goals of becoming the only spokesperson for Muslims in India and gaining a piece of land for Pakistan but the main question is whether these achievements can be attributed to transactional or transformational strategies. Has he managed transactional or transformational change in terms of political culture? This point will be discussed in the paper. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A documentary analysis of behaviors, statements and incidents of Jinnah and other relevant personages.

Findings

The research shows that Jinnah was neither a transformational nor a charismatic leader. Therefore, his success cannot be attributed to his transformational ideology or charismatic personality. The political maneuvers that he adopted by frequently changing his espoused values and theories-in-use are the sources of his transactional success. Moreover, it is the international events and the vested political interests of the British are among the significant reasons that brought him success.

Research limitations/implications

In this work, a detailed comparison has not been made between voluminous theories of leadership because it is beyond the scope of this research. Moreover, it is not the intention of the paper to compare his leadership with that of other leaders; however, the future research in this direction might be useful. Indeed, the relevant leadership examples have been selected from the All India Congress with the major point of reference being the All India Muslim League – the party that brought him real recognition and fame.

Practical implications

It is stressed in the research that overt success is not a sufficient criterion to categorize a leader in a specific category without analyzing espoused theory and theories-in-use. The study will help those researchers who are interested in understanding the current political culture of Pakistan. The research will be helpful in enhancing the debate within the theme of leadership, especially transformational, transactional and charismatic. Moreover, the paper will encourage other researchers to compare Jinnah's leadership with that of other political leaders of the world.

Originality/value

The research is original as Jinnah's leadership from the perspectives of transformational and transactional leadership styles and the espoused theory and theories-in-use has, so far, not been discussed. It presents significant new arguments and information, which will be in the interest of researchers.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2020

Muhammad Zulfiqar, Khalid Hussain, Muhammad Usman Yousaf, Nadeem Sohail and Sadeen Ghafoor

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Chinese listed family firms on lean innovation strategies. Additionally, the authors also examined the moderating role of CEO…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Chinese listed family firms on lean innovation strategies. Additionally, the authors also examined the moderating role of CEO compensation on the family ownership and lean innovation strategies relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data is obtained from CSMAR database about Chinese family firms listed at Shenzhen Stock Exchange and Shanghai Stock Exchange. Panel data comprising of firm year observations from 2007 to 2016 is analyzed using STATA.

Findings

Family firms are proactive towards research and development investment (innovation input) as well as towards patent applications (innovation output). Moreover, family firms show propensity towards patent applications and towards converting their R&D investment into granted patent applications. CEO compensation negatively moderates the nexus between family firms and lean innovation which seriously needs to be addressed to reduce agency costs.

Research limitations/implications

The study has focused on Chinese market only. The study is useful for policy makers to address the serious concerns identified in the conclusion section, i.e. effectiveness of CEO compensation in addressing the lean innovation strategies in emerging economy like that of China.

Originality/value

Given the usually considered conservative approach of family firms towards innovation, this is the first study which has tested the moderating role of CEO compensation on family firms and lean innovation relationship in an emerging economy. This study is unique because it provides a detailed analysis of lean innovation process by splitting the process into different stages. The negative moderating impact of CEO compensation raises new concerns to resolve agency conflicts.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 April 2020

Salman Yousaf, Mohammad Zubair Tauni and Fan Xiucheng

This study aims to focus on the internal audiences of a nation brand, i.e. the citizens of a country and is built on the theoretical premise that migration intentions (MIs…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on the internal audiences of a nation brand, i.e. the citizens of a country and is built on the theoretical premise that migration intentions (MIs) prevalent among the skilled and educated elite of a home country signifies a weak nation brand.

Design/methodology/approach

Through the theoretical support of the migration motive theory of push and pull (Richmond, 1993), nation branding theory (Anholt, 2006) and the two-construct country image model (Roth and Diamantopoulos, 2009), the authors constructed a framework that incorporates the relationship between affective and cognitive country images of both home and migrant country and migration motives and intentions to migrate.

Findings

The findings reveal that push and pull factors are strongly affected by the images of the home country and the migrant country, respectively and strong home country images are associated with weak MIs, while the opposite is true if a strong migrant country image is possessed. Further, evidence of the dominance effect of cognitive images in complex decision-making environments such as migration was also provided. Moreover, the results also suggest significant differences between Chinese and Pakistani respondents.

Practical implications

This study guides nation branding researchers by opening up a debate on self-images and conceptually independent attitudinal constructs of country image. For policymakers in developing countries, the results reveal that they should primarily strengthen their internal brands and focus on cognitive images to stem the flow of brain drain.

Originality/value

This study takes the traditional country image debate to migration discourse, moves it forward, contextualizes it as a function of a nation’s brand strength and provides evidence that confluence of migration studies with the theoretical stream of nation branding can provide significant explanations for migrant behavior.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Muhammad Nadeem Asghar, Javaid Akhtar, Muhammad Shafiq, Iram Nadeem, Muhammad Ashfaq and Sammia Shahid

The cowpea plant, being affordable and protein‐rich, is considered poor man's meat. The aim of this paper is to undertake a detailed investigation regarding in vitro total…

Abstract

Purpose

The cowpea plant, being affordable and protein‐rich, is considered poor man's meat. The aim of this paper is to undertake a detailed investigation regarding in vitro total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and chemical constituents of the vegetable oils from seeds of this plant, taking its nutritional value into consideration.

Design/methodology/approach

Vegetable oils of different indigenous cowpea varieties were obtained using soxhelt extraction assembly and subjected to GC‐MS analyses and various antioxidant assays including 2,2′‐azinobis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulpohonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, ferr, 2.2′‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging, total phenolic contents (TPC), lipid peroxidation inhibition, and iron chelation activity.

Findings

Various chemical constituents including different hydrocarbons, tocopherols, ketones, fatty esters, estragole and cedrene were identified. TPCs were found to be 5.439, 5.7279, 7.6126, 6.7573 and 10.0591 mg/L gallic acid equivalent for S.A. Dandy, Elite, White Star, CP‐386 and FBD Rawan varieties, respectively. Employing ABTS radical decoloration assay a significant linear correlation (R2=0.997, 0.996, 0.997, 0.996 and 0.997 for S.A. Dandy, Elite, White Star, CP‐386 and FBD Rawan varieties, respectively) was found between the percent inhibition of ABTS radical cation and the amount of vegetable oils. The percent inhibition of the Fe(II)‐Ferrozine complex formation was found to be 29.45, 53.76, 82.91, 86.59 and 57.87 for the same varieties, respectively.

Originality/value

GC‐MS and standard in vitro antioxidative capacity analyses data clearly demonstrated the potency of the cowpea as antioxidant and radical scavenger plant which may be used as a good source of natural antioxidants. The plant seeds may prove a better and cost‐effective substitute of expensive food items.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 July 2022

Amna Yousaf, Fatima Yusuf and Waheed Ali Umrani

Using social information processing and sense-making theory, the current study examines how the poly-contextual factors and social environment of employees provide unique cues and…

Abstract

Purpose

Using social information processing and sense-making theory, the current study examines how the poly-contextual factors and social environment of employees provide unique cues and shape an employee's person-job (PJ) fit perceptions in ways that enable males to perceive a better PJ fit than their female counterparts at work. These perceptions of PJ fit act as mediating processes between gender-based differences in HR commitment or HR control attributions.

Design/methodology/approach

After collecting two waves of data over a six-month period from a sample of 498 banking sector professionals in Pakistan, the hypothesized relationships were tested using hierarchical multiple regression.

Findings

It was found that gender (female) was positively related to HR control attributions and negatively related to PJ fit perceptions and HR commitment attributions. The mean differences between males and females concerning these study variables were significant. Also, PJ fit mediated the relationship between gender and HR attributions.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the advancement and understanding of the predictors of HR attributions by examining the poly-contextual factors that shape unique experiences, knowledge structures and social information processing, thus forming distinct PJ fit perceptions and subsequent HR commitment or control attributions for males and females.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 52 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 August 2021

Muhammad Aqeel, Jaffar Abbas, Kanwar Hamza Shuja, Tasnim Rehna, Arash Ziapour, Ishrat Yousaf and Tehmina Karamat

Since the emergence of a coronavirus disease (2019-nCoV) in December 2019, the whole world is in a state of chaos. Isolation strategy with quarantine is a useful model in…

1101

Abstract

Purpose

Since the emergence of a coronavirus disease (2019-nCoV) in December 2019, the whole world is in a state of chaos. Isolation strategy with quarantine is a useful model in controlling transmission and rapid spread. As a result, people remained at home and disrupted their outside daily activities. It led to the closure of educational institutes, which is a source of many students to cope with numerous personal and familial issues. This study aims to focus on exploring the relationships and potential mediational pathways between mental health problems, illness perception, anxiety and depression disorders.

Design/methodology/approach

The study incorporated snowball sampling techniques through a cross-sectional, Web-based survey and recruited 500 students from different universities of twin cities, Rawalpindi and Islamabad from March 23 to April 15, 2020, during the coronavirus outbreak lockdown. The study used four instruments, Beck Depression Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire and The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale for assessing depression, anxiety, illness perception and mental health disorders.

Findings

The findings indicated normal (43.2%), mild (20.5%), moderate (13.6%) and severe (22.7%) levels of anxiety prevalence in students. Results specified a normal (65.9%), mild (9.10%), moderate (9.12%) and severe (15.90%) depression prevalence and findings stipulated that anxiety disorder prevalence was higher than depression disorder. The correlational results specified a negative and significant relationship between mental health, illness perception, anxiety and depression symptoms. The multiple regression analysis stated that anxiety and depression disorders mediated the relationship between mental health and present illness perception. The perception of illness exhibited a relation to depression and anxiety disorders.

Originality/value

The study proposed a model to address mental health problems during the lockdown. The (2019-nCoV) illness perception developed mental disorders, including anxiety and depression, which has declined individuals’ mental health. There is an urgent need for ongoing clinical examination and management to address psychological disorders and findings suggest assessing mental health to combatting the pandemic worldwide. Findings recommend developing strategies to promote mental health-care facilities during COVID-19 wide-ranging disasters. These results highlight the impending importance of devising strategies to treat mental health problems.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Mair Khan, T. Salahuddin, Muhammad Malik Yousaf, Farzana Khan and Arif Hussain

The purpose of the current flow configurations is to bring to attention the thermophysical aspects of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Williamson nanofluid flow under the effects of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current flow configurations is to bring to attention the thermophysical aspects of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Williamson nanofluid flow under the effects of Joule heating, nonlinear thermal radiation, variable thermal coefficient and activation energy past a rotating stretchable surface.

Design/methodology/approach

A mathematical model is examined to study the heat and mass transport analysis of steady MHD Williamson fluid flow past a rotating stretchable surface. Impact of activation energy with newly introduced variable diffusion coefficient at the mass equation is considered. The transport phenomenon is modeled by using highly nonlinear PDEs which are then reduced into dimensionless form by using similarity transformation. The resulting equations are then solved with the aid of fifth-order Fehlberg method.

Findings

The rotating fluid, heat and mass transport effects are analyzed for different values of parameters on velocity, energy and diffusion distributions. Parameters like the rotation parameter, Hartmann number and Weissenberg number control the flow field. In addition, the solar radiation, Joule heating, Prandtl number, thermal conductivity, concentration diffusion coefficient and activation energy control the temperature and concentration profiles inside the stretching surface. It can be analyzed that for higher values of thermal conductivity, Eckret number and solar radiation parameter the temperature profile increases, whereas opposite behavior is noticed for Prandtl number. Moreover, for increasing values of temperature difference parameter and thermal diffusion coefficient, the concentration profile shows reducing behavior.

Originality/value

This paper is useful for researchers working in mathematical and theoretical physics. Moreover, numerical results are very useful in industry and daily-use processes.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 January 2021

Naeem Ullah, Sohail Nadeem, Luthais McCash, Anber Saleem and Alibek Issakhov

This paper aims to focus on the natural convective flow analysis of micropolar nanofluid fluid in a rectangular vertical container. A heated source is placed in the lower wall to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the natural convective flow analysis of micropolar nanofluid fluid in a rectangular vertical container. A heated source is placed in the lower wall to generate the internal flow. In further assumptions, the left/right wall are kept cool, while the upper and lower remaining portions are insulated. Free convection prevails in the regime because of thermal difference in-between the lower warmer and upper colder region.

Design/methodology/approach

The physical setup owns mathematical framework in-terms of non-linear partial differential equations. For the solution purpose of the differential system, finite volume method is adopted. The interesting features of the flow along with thermal transportation involve both translational and rotational movement of fluid particles.

Findings

Performing the simulations towards flow controlling variables the outputs are put together in contour maps and line graphs. It is indicated that the variations in flow profile mass concentration and temperature field augments at higher Rayleigh parameter because of stronger buoyancy effects. Higher viscosity coefficient implies decrease in flow and thermal transportation. Further, the average heat transfer rate also grows by increasing both the Rayleigh parameter and heated source length.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no such study has been addressed yet. Further, the results are validated by comparing with previously published work.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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