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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1992

Martin Kimeldorf and Howard Kimeldorf

Suggests that the industrial democracies, poised to enter the nextcentury, face many new and troubling challenges. Long‐term economicdecline, growing social inequality and the…

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Abstract

Suggests that the industrial democracies, poised to enter the next century, face many new and troubling challenges. Long‐term economic decline, growing social inequality and the transformation of core institutions such as the family and schools threaten not only our cherished sense of security but our very way of life. States that, in searching for solutions to some of our most pressing problems, we must look beyond the popular myths which promise easy answers through the application of “high‐tech” methods of production, supposedly creating a growing demand for highly educated “service” workers. Focusing instead on the underlying sources of the crisis, offers a critical, wide‐ranging view of the changing character of work and its relationship to technology, education, family, leisure, equality, and politics – pointing ultimately to some profound changes in institutions and societal values which are needed if we are successfully to navigate our way into the twenty‐first century and beyond. Gives practical guidelines and suggestions for implementing some of the more modest proposals.

Details

International Journal of Career Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6214

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1993

Martin Kimeldorf

As The Last Thing I Build opens, Jerry Fenner somehow findshimself drawn back down into the basement to be with his old friends,Table Saw, Computer and Telephone. It is time for a…

384

Abstract

As The Last Thing I Build opens, Jerry Fenner somehow finds himself drawn back down into the basement to be with his old friends, Table Saw, Computer and Telephone. It is time for a final accounting. In the bowels of his home, Jerry confronts his unfinished plans, unfulfilled dreams, and his father′s expectations. Table Saw challenges Jerry to build one last project. Telephone interrupts him a great deal with its pesky ringing and glib comments. At least, the Computer remembers what Jerry wrote, and why. As the life‐journey from school teacher, to writer, to alcoholic draws to an end, Jerry discovers what he has built. Then, the phone rings – one last time.

Details

International Journal of Career Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6214

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Martin Kimeldorf

Discusses today’s changing work patterns where permanent, secure jobs are giving way to a life of contract and temporary forms of employment and numerous job changes. Suggests…

808

Abstract

Discusses today’s changing work patterns where permanent, secure jobs are giving way to a life of contract and temporary forms of employment and numerous job changes. Suggests that a portfolio better fits the increasingly portable nature of employment than does a résumé. Outlines items to be included in a professional portfolio which will aid in coping with changes in employment.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 1 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1994

Martin Kimeldorf

Suggests journal writing can help integrate and personalize occupationalchange and so provides a journal‐writing exercise to illustrate afocused career exploration exercise…

477

Abstract

Suggests journal writing can help integrate and personalize occupational change and so provides a journal‐writing exercise to illustrate a focused career exploration exercise. Provides a series of steps/tasks to bring the reader′s creative self‐knowledge to the fore to reveal true dreams and passions. Includes talents lists which supply list‐creating activities: a lists analysis; combining and prioritizing to develop category labels describing strongest interests and talents; playing with dream jobs; and “Job Wanted”, part of which has the reader writing a “help wanted” advertisement to describe skills needed for a job using favourite talents. Advises the reader to form networks with people who have similar interests to gain knowledge of job openings.

Details

International Journal of Career Management, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6214

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Book part
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Chris Rhomberg and Steven Lopez

After decades of declining strike rates in the industrialized world, recent years have seen a surge of militant walkouts in the global South, political strikes in Europe, and…

Abstract

After decades of declining strike rates in the industrialized world, recent years have seen a surge of militant walkouts in the global South, political strikes in Europe, and unconventional strikes in nonunion sectors in the United States. This new diversity of strike action calls for a new theoretical framework. In this paper, we review the historical strengths and limits of traditions of strike theory in the United States. Building on the emerging power resources approach, we propose a model based on a multidimensional view of associational power, power resources, and arenas of conflict in the economy, state, and civil society. We demonstrate the utility of our approach via a case analysis of strikes in the “Fight for $15” campaign in the United States.

Book part
Publication date: 2 February 2018

Jack Fiorito, Irene Padavic and Zachary A. Russell

The question of why workers support unions is one of the most fundamental in employment relations. Using Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior we conduct a selective review of…

Abstract

The question of why workers support unions is one of the most fundamental in employment relations. Using Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior we conduct a selective review of literature and evidence on union voting, joining, and participation. We focus primarily on the question of motivation as stemming from self-interest or from pro-social considerations. Secondary attention is given to the influence of others’ views (subjective norms) and worker perceptions that they can achieve desired behaviors (perceived control or self-efficacy). We find support for the notion that workers are concerned with neither member self-interest (“just us”) alone, nor pro-social (“justice”) alone, but rather that they are motivated to form, join, and participate by both considerations. This micro-foundation for considering unions as institutions suggests that unions are neither narrow self-interested institutions nor purely pro-social movements, but “a little bit of both.” We offer propositions and consider implications for theory, practice, and future research.

Details

Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations, 2017: Shifts in Workplace Voice, Justice, Negotiation and Conflict Resolution in Contemporary Workplaces
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-486-8

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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2006

Stuart Eimer

The Congress of Industrial Organizations’ (CIO) choice to build a labor party in New York was facilitated by an unusual institutional context that permitted unions to back a labor…

Abstract

The Congress of Industrial Organizations’ (CIO) choice to build a labor party in New York was facilitated by an unusual institutional context that permitted unions to back a labor party while simultaneously endorsing other party's candidates. Though the CIO–ALP (American Labor Party) became a major political force in New York, CIO links to the party were ultimately severed after factions in the CIO–ALP opted to back a third party presidential candidacy. The rise and fall of the CIO–ALP highlights the need to be attentive to institutional context when explaining organized labor's “exceptional” choice to forgo building a national labor party in the United States.

Details

Political Power and Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-437-9

Book part
Publication date: 19 June 2011

Nathan D. Martin and Yunus Kaya

Purpose – East European ex-communist countries have now experienced nearly two decades of turbulent economic conditions and challenges resulting from the market transition. Since…

Abstract

Purpose – East European ex-communist countries have now experienced nearly two decades of turbulent economic conditions and challenges resulting from the market transition. Since the early 1990s, there has been considerable decline in unionization throughout the region. This study uses information on union membership provided by four waves of the World Values Survey (WVS) to explain trends in unionization in East European ex-communist countries from 1990 to 2006.

Methodology/approach – We use random-effects and fixed-effects models to test predictions for three sets of explanations for cross-national and historical variation in unionization: industrialization, globalization, and institutions.

Findings – We find a degree of support for all three explanations of union decline. Overall, our analyses reveal the strongest support for industrialization and business cycle explanations. Inflation, unemployment, and urban population growth are all significant factors in shaping patterns of unionization in ex-communist East Europe. Our analyses show that aspects of economic and financial globalization have had significant, negative effects on unionization in the region. Manufacturing imports and foreign direct investment inflows appear to have undermined the position of domestic labor and contributed to declines in union membership.

Originality/value of the chapter – Successor and newly independent unions face the twin challenges of gaining public confidence as representatives of workers' interests, and withstanding increasing market pressures and conditions unfavorable for unionization. We provide evidence that without strong institutions to serve as buffers to external economic conditions, unionization levels in East European ex-communist countries are more open to market forces.

Details

Comparing European Workers Part B: Policies and Institutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-931-9

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Richard Machalek and Michael W. Martin

Purpose – Uses Kenneth Boulding's concept of “serial reciprocity” in conjunction with information about the evolution of emotions and social exchange processes to identify…

Abstract

Purpose – Uses Kenneth Boulding's concept of “serial reciprocity” in conjunction with information about the evolution of emotions and social exchange processes to identify possible mechanisms that can help explain the rise of early Christianity.

Design/methodology/approach – Using the concept of serial reciprocity as a central organizing principle, a theoretical account is developed that integrates ideas from evolutionary sociology, the sociology of emotions, and exchange theory in order to extend Rodney Stark's analysis of social forces responsible for the success of early Christianity as a social movement.

Findings – Patterns of serial reciprocity may develop when evolved emotions such as gratitude, sympathy, and empathy are activated by recipients of altruism who, in turn, become motivated to repay their benefactor by transmitting a benefit to a third-party recipient. Historical evidence reviewed by Stark is consistent with the claim that serial reciprocity may have conferred benefits to victims suffering from plagues that swept the Roman Empire during the early history of Christianity. Similar processes may be operating today in regions of the world in which aid workers provide assistance to victims of natural and man-made disasters.

Originality/value – This analysis demonstrates the value of integrating conventional sociological analysis and evolutionary theory to gain new explanatory insights about social processes such as serial reciprocity that have received relatively little prior attention by sociological researchers.

Details

Biosociology and Neurosociology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-257-8

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Alexander Styhre

In the recent literature on financialization and the rise of investor capitalism, the successor of managerial capitalism, which dominated until the 1970s, suggests that the firm…

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Abstract

Purpose

In the recent literature on financialization and the rise of investor capitalism, the successor of managerial capitalism, which dominated until the 1970s, suggests that the firm is today enacted as a bundle of financial assets managed to create value for the shareholders. This paper aims to demonstrate how such views are established relatively recently by examining leadership literature published in the 1970s, representing an entirely different view of leadership work, the role of the firm and capital–labour relations.

Design/methodology/approach

Two books and one Harvard Business Review article published by the Volvo CEO Pehr G. Gyllenhammar, one of the most prominent Swedish industry leaders of the past century and one of the architects behind Volvo’s internationally renowned Kalmar and Uddevalla plants in Sweden, are examined. Based on a critical discourse analysis framework, these two volumes are treated as representatives of what Alfred Chandler speaks of as the regime managerial capitalism, today largely displaced by the regime of investor capitalism.

Findings

Gyllenhammar’s discourses stresses the role of the corporations as serving a wider social community than merely the shareholders, and regard the manufacturing industry as the legitimate site for the development of new production systems better suited to a more educated workforce demanding more qualified work assignments and greater autonomy. This argument, in favour of a view of the corporation as being socially embedded and responsive to wider social needs, can be contrasted against the contemporary view of leadership and corporate governance practice.

Originality/value

The paper addresses the shift from managerial capitalist regime of the post-Second World War period to the investor capitalism of the financialized economy and the financialized firm by contrasting leadership writing of the 1970s against today’s strong focus on shareholder enrichment and the enactment of CEOs and directors as the servants of the capital owners. A long-term perspective on the changes occurring over the past four decades may enable a better understanding how leadership, governance and industry are subject to ongoing re-interpretations and understanding in the face of novel economic, social and political conditions.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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