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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1999

Bryna Sanger and Martin A. Levin

The recent Childhood Immunization Initiative of the Clinton Administration was a dramatic and ambitious policy response to what we will show is a case of significant…

Abstract

The recent Childhood Immunization Initiative of the Clinton Administration was a dramatic and ambitious policy response to what we will show is a case of significant management and implementation failure. Interpreted by the Administration as a policy failure, low rates of early childhood immunization met with an aggressive and targeted policy response which ultimately diverted attention away from significant evidence of fundamental problems of service delivery, infrastructure, and parental knowledge and behavior. Analyzes and seeks to evaluate the reasons for the poor fit between the diagnosis of the problem of existing childhood immunization policy and the ultimate policy prescription of the Clinton Administration which relies almost exclusively on reducing the price of vaccines.

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Journal of Management History, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

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Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Daniel R. Clark and Jeffrey G. Covin

The literature on international entrepreneurship offers two competing views on why new ventures internationalize: (a) the nature of the opportunity pulls them…

Abstract

The literature on international entrepreneurship offers two competing views on why new ventures internationalize: (a) the nature of the opportunity pulls them international or (b) the founder pushes the firm international. While these two internationalization drivers are not independent, they do represent unique causal mechanisms. Previously, the tools available to understand the entrepreneur’s disposition toward internationalization were limited. The present study uses the theoretical foundation of the international entrepreneurial orientation construct and from it develops and tests an attitudinally-based individual-level measure of disposition toward internationalization. To ensure the validity and reliability of the new measure, termed International Entrepreneurial Orientation Disposition, studies were conducted to: develop new scale items, examine their psychometric properties and construct validity, and demonstrate criterion validity. A strong measurement model is developed using structural equation modeling (CFI = 0.93, RMSEA = 0.07), and the measure is shown to be useful as a predictor of perceived international venture attractiveness.

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Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2018

Kayla Allison

Purpose – The overall purpose of this chapter is to discuss what is known about serious forms of bias violence, obstacles to studying bias violence, and how alternative…

Abstract

Purpose – The overall purpose of this chapter is to discuss what is known about serious forms of bias violence, obstacles to studying bias violence, and how alternative theoretical and methodological approaches can advance our understanding of bias violence in the twenty-first century.

Design/methodology/approach – Following a review of the literature, the applicability of identity fusion theory for explaining bias violence is considered and applied to the anti-racial mass shooting at an historically Black church in Charleston, South Carolina. Data come from an innovative open-source project known as the United States Extremist Crime Database.

Findings – Drawing from identity fusion theory, information from open-source data on the Charleston church shooting suggests that the perpetrator was a highly fused individual who perceived African Americans as a threat toward his social identity group and committed an act of extreme behavior (i.e., bias homicide) as a means for stabilizing his self-views.

Originality/value – This chapter builds upon prior studies of bias violence by demonstrating how (1) publicly available open sources (e.g., court documents and media reports) may be systematically compiled and used as reliable data for studying serious forms of bias violence, and (2) the use of social psychological theories, specifically identity fusion theory, can help to explain the role of personal and group identities in discriminatory violence.

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Homicide and Violent Crime
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-876-5

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2008

Simon J. Pervan and Andrea Vocino

The purpose of this paper is to explore how message framing is commonly used by magazine advertisers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how message framing is commonly used by magazine advertisers.

Design/methodology/approach

Following the classification suggested by Levin et al., the frequency and nature of message framing in magazine advertising is explored using a content analysis of 2,864 advertisements in a sample of popular US magazines.

Findings

Results suggest a lack of consistency between marketing practice and academic findings. Contrary to academic recommendations, advertisers used positive framing in almost all advertising messages. Further, the use of attribute framing and combined attribute and goal framing was more popular than pure goal framing

Research limitations/implications

Although the findings are limited by a judgement sample of US magazines, they do suggest the need for academics to conduct more research on the effectiveness of combined attribute and goal framing techniques.

Practical implications

Of equal importance is the need for practitioners to explore the potentiality of negative framing in their advertising content.

Originality/value

Adopting the Levin et al.'s typology, this paper highlights the need for advertising researchers to engage with practitioners to try to understand current industry practice with regard to message framing. The inconsistencies revealed in this paper point to either an insufficient understanding of message framing by one or both parties or the need for better communication between the two.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2016

Robert L. Axtell

Certain elements of Hayek’s work are prominent precursors to the modern field of complex adaptive systems, including his ideas on spontaneous order, his focus on market…

Abstract

Certain elements of Hayek’s work are prominent precursors to the modern field of complex adaptive systems, including his ideas on spontaneous order, his focus on market processes, his contrast between designing and gardening, and his own framing of complex systems. Conceptually, he was well ahead of his time, prescient in his formulation of novel ways to think about economies and societies. Technically, the fact that he did not mathematically formalize most of the notions he developed makes his insights hard to incorporate unambiguously into models. However, because so much of his work is divorced from the simplistic models proffered by early mathematical economics, it stands as fertile ground for complex systems researchers today. I suggest that Austrian economists can create a progressive research program by building models of these Hayekian ideas, and thereby gain traction within the economics profession. Instead of mathematical models the suite of techniques and tools known as agent-based computing seems particularly well-suited to addressing traditional Austrian topics like money, business cycles, coordination, market processes, and so on, while staying faithful to the methodological individualism and bottom-up perspective that underpin the entire school of thought.

Details

Revisiting Hayek’s Political Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-988-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

James L. Price

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool…

Abstract

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate the teaching of introductory courses in this subject. Focuses solely on work organizations, that is, social systems in which members work for money. Defines measurement and distinguishes four levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Selects specific measures on the basis of quality, diversity, simplicity and availability and evaluates each measure for its validity and reliability. Employs a set of 38 concepts ‐ ranging from “absenteeism” to “turnover” as the handbook’s frame of reference. Concludes by reviewing organizational measurement over the past 30 years and recommending future measurement reseach.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Eyal Gamliel and Ram Herstein

Price deals are typically presented in “save” terms. However, prospect theory predicts that people will be more willing to waive a monetary gain than to lose the same…

Abstract

Purpose

Price deals are typically presented in “save” terms. However, prospect theory predicts that people will be more willing to waive a monetary gain than to lose the same amount of money. This study seeks to examine whether consumers would show more purchase intentions of a product offered in a price deal framed negatively (“lose if you don't purchase”) relative to the conventional positive frame (“save if you purchase”).

Design/methodology/approach

The purchase intentions of 189 participants, randomly assigned to either a positively or a negatively framed message, were examined. The participants' perceived monetary gain in the deal and their involvement in the issue were also measured.

Findings

Presented with a negative relative to positive frame, participants showed more purchase intentions of a product offered in a price deal, and perceived their monetary gain as higher. Highly involved and lowly involved participants exhibited similar framing effects.

Research limitations/implications

The findings regarding lowly involved participants are inconsistent with previous findings. Future research is needed to clarify whether the message framing effect interacts with involvement in predicting purchase intentions of a product offered in a price deal.

Practical implications

The theoretical explanation of the phenomenon presented in this study predicts that negative framing of messages will also be more effective in other consumer behaviour contexts.

Originality/value

This study is the first empirical demonstration of the effect of message framing on the effectiveness of price deal offers, suggesting that retailers should re‐examine their conventional presentation of price deal offers in terms of gains, and consider rephrasing them in terms of loss.

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2007

Vivian Howard

This paper seeks to describe the Canadian Library Association's 2007 pre‐conference, Collections 2007: Reinvigorating Collection Development and Management.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to describe the Canadian Library Association's 2007 pre‐conference, Collections 2007: Reinvigorating Collection Development and Management.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper summarizes the various papers, describing actual collections practices in a variety of library and information center settings that made up the CLA Collections pre‐conference.

Findings

The paper finds that collections development activities in academic, public and special libraries are characterized by a diversity of approaches and methods.

Originality/value

This paper provides a brief summary of some of the practical approaches to collections building in a variety of library and information center settings.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Marcus Holgersson and Martin W. Wallin

Extant research and practice of patent management are often occupied with how to best utilize patenting as a source of competitive advantage. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

Extant research and practice of patent management are often occupied with how to best utilize patenting as a source of competitive advantage. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a patent management trichotomy where firms make strategic decisions between patenting, publishing, and secrecy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is conceptual in nature and draws on received IP management literature to develop an analytical framework.

Findings

The authors suggest that the choice between patenting, publishing, and secrecy can be understood in terms of differences in the degree to which the firm can appropriate value from the invention and the degree to which it can operate freely.

Originality/value

Through an analysis along the dimensions of direct and indirect appropriation as well as static and dynamic freedom to operate, the paper conceptualizes the choice between patenting, publishing, and secrecy in a way useful for managers as well as for academics.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Dawood Sulaiman Al Jahwari, Ercan Sirakaya-Turk and Volkan Altintas

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the communication competency of tour guides using a modified importance–performance analysis (MIPA). Tour guides are cultural…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the communication competency of tour guides using a modified importance–performance analysis (MIPA). Tour guides are cultural ambassadors of a country; their communication skills can make or break tourists’ experiences with guided tours and memories of a destination.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 387 professional tour guides representing 38 per cent of all tour guides in Antalya, Turkey. The study further performs factor analysis using 32 communication competency items to determine underlying performance dimensions. This is followed by an MIPA to statistically identify the gap between factors that tour guides consider important and their perceptions of how they perform on these factors.

Findings

The study reveals that tour guides need improvement in verbal skills such as grammar, manner of speech and choice of words, as well as non-verbal behaviors such as approachability and the ability to remain friendly while maintaining a certain personal space.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the nature of this study and certain time limitations, the most effective method proved to be collecting data from a convenient sample of tour guides during their annual workshop. The theory of behavioral communication competency details theoretical and practical implications.

Practical implications

The study findings provide tour operators and the Association of Professional Tour Guides with a platform from which they can launch educational seminars and workshops to enhance tour guides’ communication competency.

Originality/value

The study contributes two main findings: This research provides a first-of-its-kind examination of professional tour guides’ communication competency using MIPA. The study improves the efficacy of traditional importance–performance analysis (IPA) models by enhancing them with a gap analysis through a t-test and effect size analysis including a gap analysis takes the arbitrariness out of the process of determining the location of items within the IPA grid. Tourism service providers can use these findings to offer educational seminars that can increase the skill sets of tour guides.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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