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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

De‐Shin Liu, Chang‐Lin Hsu, Chia‐Yuan Kuo, Ya‐Ling Huang, Kwang‐Lung Lin and Geng‐Shin Shen

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel high speed impact testing method for evaluating the effects of low temperatures on eutectic and lead‐free solder joints…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel high speed impact testing method for evaluating the effects of low temperatures on eutectic and lead‐free solder joints. Interfacial cracking failure of Sn‐based and Pb‐free solders at subzero temperatures is of significant concern for electronic assemblies that operate in harsh environments.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a newly designed low temperature control system coupled with an Instron micro‐impact testing machine, which offers a package level test for solder bumps, and that is used at subzero temperature ranges as low as −40°C. This study examined the failure characteristics of 63Sn‐37Pb (Sn37Pb) and 96.5Sn‐3Ag‐0.5Cu (SAC305) solder joints at temperatures ranging from room temperature (R.T.) to −40°C, and at impact speeds of 1 m/s.

Findings

Three types of failure mode were identified: M1 interfacial fracture with no residual solder remaining on the pad (interfacial cracking); M2 interfacial fracture with residual solder persisting on the pad (mixed mode failure); and M3 solder ball fracture (bulk solder cracking). The experimental results indicated that the energy to peak load for both types of solders decreased significantly, by approximately 35 percent to 38 percent when the test temperature was reduced from R.T. to −40°C. In addition, the peak load of the Sn37Pb solder joint increased noticeably with a decreasing test temperature. However, the peak load of the SAC305 specimen remained virtually unchanged with a reduction in the temperature. The Sn37Pb solder joints failed in an M3 failure mode under all the considered testing temperatures. The SAC305 solder joints displayed both M1 and M2 failure modes at R.T.; however, they failed almost exclusively in M1 mode at the lowest test temperature of −40°C.

Originality/value

This paper presents a novel technique for evaluating high‐speed impact strength and energy absorbance of Sn‐based and Pb‐free solders at the chip level within a low temperature control system. To overcome the drawbacks experienced in other studies, this study focused specifically on cryo‐impact testing systems and the performed experimental steps to improve the accuracy of post‐test analysis.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Y. Zhang

Seeks to study the dependence of the shear strength of a fluid on the fluid pressure and the bulk fluid temperature, respectively, theoretically for given bulk fluid…

Abstract

Purpose

Seeks to study the dependence of the shear strength of a fluid on the fluid pressure and the bulk fluid temperature, respectively, theoretically for given bulk fluid temperatures and fluid pressures in the whole ranges of fluid pressure and bulk fluid temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

The analyses are, respectively, carried out with emphasis on the dependence of the shear strength of a fluid in liquid state, i.e. at low pressures on the fluid pressure and the bulk fluid temperature for given bulk fluid temperatures and fluid pressures based on the theory of the compression of the fluid by the pressurization of the fluid.

Findings

The fluid shear strength versus fluid pressure curve in the whole range of fluid pressure and the fluid shear strength versus bulk fluid temperature curve in the whole range of bulk fluid temperature, respectively, for a given bulk fluid temperature and a given fluid pressure are obtained. It is shown by this fluid shear strength versus fluid pressure curve that, for a given bulk fluid temperature, when the fluid is in liquid state, i.e. at low pressures, the value of the shear strength of the fluid is insensitive to the variation of the pressure of the fluid and is low: when the fluid is in solidification state, i.e. at medium and high but not extremely high pressures, the value of the shear strength of the fluid is the most sensitive to the variation of the pressure of the fluid and is very approximately linearly increased with the increase of the pressure of the fluid; when the fluid is in high solidification state, i.e. at extremely high pressures, the value of the shear strength of the fluid is insensitive to the variation of the pressure of the fluid and is the highest, i.e. approaches the value of the shear strength of the fluid in solid state.

Originality/value

Extends one's knowledge of the shear strength of a fluid in the while ranges of pressure and temperature.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 58 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2018

Knut E. Aasmundtveit, Trym Eggen, Tung Manh and Hoang-Vu Nguyen

This paper aims to demonstrate low-temperature bonding for piezoelectric materials at temperatures well below the relevant Curie temperatures so as to avoid depolarization…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to demonstrate low-temperature bonding for piezoelectric materials at temperatures well below the relevant Curie temperatures so as to avoid depolarization of the piezoelectric material during bonding.

Design/methodology/approach

Au-coated test samples of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) are bonded to a WC-based resonant backing layer with In–Bi eutectic material in which the In–Bi metal system is a preform or thin, evaporated layers. The bonded samples are characterized using electrical impedance spectroscopy and cross-section microscopy. The first technique verifies the integrity of polarization and reveals the quality of the bondline in a non-destructive manner, particularly looking for voids and delaminations. The latter technique is destructive but gives more precise information and an overview of the structure.

Findings

Successful low-temperature (115°C) bonding with intact PZT polarization was demonstrated. The bondlines show a layered structure of Au/Au–In intermetallic compounds (with Bi inclusions)/Au, capable of withstanding temperatures as high as 271°C before remelting occurs. For bonded samples using In–Bi preform, repeatable bonds of high quality (very little voiding) were obtained, but the bonding time is long (1 h or more). For bonded samples using evaporated thin films of In–Bi, bonding can be performed in 30 min, but the process needs further optimization to be repeatable.

Originality/value

Low-temperature solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding is a novel technique, merging the fields of low-temperature solder bonding with the SLID/transient liquid phase (TLP) approach, which is normally used for much higher temperatures.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1957

The breakdown of laminar flow in the clearance space of a journal is considered, and the point of transition is considered in relation to experiments carried out with…

Abstract

The breakdown of laminar flow in the clearance space of a journal is considered, and the point of transition is considered in relation to experiments carried out with ‘bearings’ of large clearance. Experiments involving flow visualization with very large clearance ratios of 0.05 to 0.3 show that the laminar regime gives way to cellular or ring vertices at the critical Reynolds number predicted by G. I. Taylor for concentric cylinders even in the presence of an axial flow and at a rather higher Reynolds number in the case of eccentric cylinders. The effect of the transition on the axial flow between the cylinders is small. The critical speed for transition as deduced by Taylor, is little affected by moderate axial flows and is increased by eccentricity. The effect of critical condition on the axial‐flow characteristics of the bearing system appears to be negligible, again for moderate axial flows. Assuming that the results can be extrapolated to clearances applicable to bearing operation, the main conclusion of this paper is that the breakdown of laminar flow, which is a practical possibility in very high‐speed bearings, is delayed by eccentric operation.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 9 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2020

Xiaohua Li, Yi Shao, Weixing Miao, Yongchang Liu, Zhiming Gao and Chenxi Liu

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the galvanic corrosion behaviors of the low-carbon ferritic stainless steel electrical resistance welding (ERW) joint in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the galvanic corrosion behaviors of the low-carbon ferritic stainless steel electrical resistance welding (ERW) joint in the simulated seawater.

Design/methodology/approach

The electrochemical methods such as electrochemical noise, galvanic current and TOEFL polarization curve tests were used to study the galvanic corrosion behaviors of ERW joints of low-carbon ferritic stainless steel in simulated seawater. On this basis, a reliable accelerated corrosion method was developed.

Findings

The corrosion type of the base metal and joint is the typical local corrosion. The order of corrosion resistance from strong to weak is: weld zone > base metal > low-temperature heat-affected zone (HAZ) > high-temperature HAZ. The results of constant current-constant potential accelerated corrosion test show that after constant current-constant potential accelerated corrosion, the joints present a typical groove corrosion pattern. The groove initiating area is located in the HAZ, and the corrosion degree in the weld zone is relatively light, which is consistent with the electrochemical test results.

Originality/value

This paper has clarified the galvanic corrosion behaviors of low-carbon ferritic stainless steel ERW joints. Moreover, a reliable accelerated corrosion method for the low-carbon ferritic stainless steel ERW joint has been developed.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1940

Numerous problems have arisen in the application of freezing methods to the various types of food products. One problem is concerned with the determination of the direct…

Abstract

Numerous problems have arisen in the application of freezing methods to the various types of food products. One problem is concerned with the determination of the direct effects of low temperatures upon the food itself and another problem is to determine the effects of low temperatures upon other factors which may in turn affect the quality of the food. We are especially interested in knowing the exact effects of freezing and other low temperatures upon the micro‐organisms associated with foods. Bacteria constitute the most significant group of micro‐organisms affecting the sanitation and keeping qualities of foods. Those bringing about the decomposition of food products, while they are many and vary greatly, depending upon the nature of the food, are chiefly organisms from the air, water and soil. The types of bacteria found in foods vary greatly in their action on the food and also in reaction or response to varying temperature conditions. The action of micro‐organisms on foods of high carbohydrate content results in fermentations, while the action of the micro‐organisms on foods of high protein content will result, chiefly, in putrefactive changes. The former type of change usually occurs at a more rapid rate, when conditions are favourable, but the latter change usually results in a more undesirable condition of the food. While certain types of bacteria grow best at temperatures well above human body temperatures and others even as low as the freezing point of water, a large majority of those found in foods and the ones normally responsible for the detrimental changes in foods, are active only between 50° and 100° F. It is this latter group which is most implicated in food spoilage and it is significant that this group will be most effectively suppressed by low temperatures. Bacteria are much less affected by low than by high temperatures. Cold alone does not kill most types of bacteria, but slows down their activities to such an extent that they multiply very slowly, if at all. Many bacteria will die off, however, when held at a temperature below that which permits growth and reproduction. Bacteria, generally speaking, will be more easily killed when frozen in pure water than when frozen in foods containing albuminous matter and fats. There are a few bacteria of the cold‐loving type, which may actually multiply and cause slow decomposition at temperatures of 0° C. or less, if substances in solution are present to depress the crystallising point of water. Cold not only retards the growth of bacteria by the direct physiological effect of slowing down the rate of metabolism, but also depresses bacterial activity through its effect on their water and food supplies. Bacteria cannot grow and multiply in a completely frozen or crystallised medium, since they are by nature aquatic and are unable to carry on their normal activities except in a liquid medium. There is no evidence that bacteria maintain a body temperature which would make water available from a completely frozen medium. Bacteria may only utilise food when it is in soluble form, and thus capable of diffusion through their semipermeable cell membranes. When the temperature is sufficiently low to cause the crystallisation of most of the water, the remaining constituents become relatively more concentrated and this will further suppress the activity of the bacterial cells by affecting their osmotic pressures. These effects are very similar to those of partial desiccation or drying. In the course of experimentation some very striking examples of bacterial resistance to low temperatures have been reported. Lactobacillus and aerobacter have been reported to survive in peas stored at −10° C. for two years; whilst bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas were reported to increase in numbers when stored at −4° C. In general it may be said that practically all pathogenic bacteria likely to be found in foods will die off rather rapidly at low temperatures. However, this should not be interpreted to mean that infected foods can be made safe by low temperatures alone. Among the disease producing bacteria transmitted through foods, those of special significance include the organisms and toxins of botulism, typhoid fever, the several organisms of food poisoning called ptomaine poisoning, belonging to the Salmonella group (Salmonella enteritidis, etc.), and various organisms causing infections of the general nature of dysenteries or summer complaints of infants and adults. Frozen foods present no greater threat of botulism than foods preserved by other methods, yet it has been shown that Clostridium botulinum spores may survive freezing at −16° C. for as long as 14 months. The vegetables when thawed become toxic in from three to six days. Experiments have shown that Clostridium botulinum in foods preserved by “quick freezing” and subsequent storage at temperatures below 10° C., show no toxin production for at least 30 days. The lower the temperature of storage the greater the protection against botulism. All foods in which Clostridium botulinum might be present, and which have not been thoroughly heated, should be refrigerated at or near the freezing point. All foods which may harbour the botulism organisms or toxins should be selected with special care, before they are frozen, and care should be taken to see that they are kept frozen until used by the customer. Frozen vegetables should be used immediately after thawing. Thawing and refreezing is always objectionable since such a practice leads to loss of quality, and since bacterial growth and activity may occur during the period of thawing. While the typhoid organisms (Eberthella typhosa) shows considerable variation in resistance to low temperatures, it has been shown that about 99 per cent. will be killed immediately by freezing. Temperatures below freezing apparently have little more effect than the freezing point temperature. Small numbers of the Salmonella and similar organisms of the food poisoning groups may survive in frozen foods for periods of several weeks. It has been shown, however, that no significant growth of activity of these organisms will occur if the foods are refrigerated at 5° C. (41° F.) or less. Moulds and yeasts are of relatively little importance in frozen foods, both from the standpoint of sanitation and food spoilage. While low temperatures will materially retard the rate of enzymatic changes within food products, there is evidence that such changes continue to take place in frozen foods, even considerably below the freezing point. These changes probably account, in part, for the fact that frozen foods once thawed, will decompose more rapidly than foods which have not been frozen.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 42 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Yunsong Shi, Wei Zhu, Chunze Yan, Jinsong Yang and Zhidao Xia

This study aims to report the preparation, selective laser sintering (SLS) processing and properties of a new nylon elastomer powder. The effects of solvent, dissolution…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to report the preparation, selective laser sintering (SLS) processing and properties of a new nylon elastomer powder. The effects of solvent, dissolution temperature and time and cooling method and speed on the particle size and morphologies of the prepared nylon elastomer powder are investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The prepared nylon elastomer power possesses the particle size of around 50 mm and is spherical in shape, indicating that this study provides the feasible dissolution-precipitation process, a distillation cooling method and a suitable solvent to prepare nylon elastomer powders.

Findings

Compared to pure nylon 12, the nylon elastomer has a lower part bed temperature and a wider sintering window for the SLS process. The wider sintering window indicates the better SLS processibility. The lower part bed temperature is beneficial to the recycling of material and the decrease in the requirement of SLS equipment.

Originality/value

The nylon elastomer in this study has a lower part bed temperature and a wider sintering window for the SLS process. The wider sintering window indicates better SLS processibility. The lower part bed temperature is beneficial to the recycling of material and the decrease in the requirement of SLS equipment.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Debayan Das, Leo Lukose and Tanmay Basak

The purpose of the paper is to study natural convection within porous square and triangular geometries (design 1: regular isosceles triangle, design 2: inverted isosceles…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to study natural convection within porous square and triangular geometries (design 1: regular isosceles triangle, design 2: inverted isosceles triangle) subjected to discrete heating with various locations of double heaters along the vertical (square) or inclined (triangular) arms.

Design/methodology/approach

Galerkin finite element method is used to solve the governing equations for a wide range of modified Darcy number, Dam = 10−5–10−2 with various fluid saturated porous media, Prm = 0.015 and 7.2 at a modified Rayleigh number, Ram = 106 involving the strategic placement of double heaters along the vertical or inclined arms (types 1-3). Adaptive mesh refinement is implemented based on the lengths of discrete heaters. Finite element based heat flow visualization via heatlines has been adopted to study heat distribution at various portions.

Findings

The strategic positioning of the double heaters (types 1-3) and the convective heatline vortices depict significant overall temperature elevation at both Dam = 10−4 and 10−2 compared to type 0 (single heater at each vertical or inclined arm). Types 2 and 3 are found to promote higher temperature uniformity and greater overall temperature elevation at Dam = 10−2. Overall, the triangular design 2 geometry is also found to be optimal in achieving greater temperature elevation for the porous media saturated with various fluids (Prm).

Practical implications

Multiple heaters (at each side [left or right] wall) result in enhanced temperature elevation compared to the single heater (at each side [left or right] wall). The results of the current work may be useful for the material processing, thermal storage and solar heating applications.

Originality/value

The heatline approach is used to visualize the heat flow involving double heaters along the side (left or right) arms (square and triangular geometries) during natural convection involving porous media. The heatlines depict the trajectories of heat flow that are essential for thermal management involving larger thermal elevation. The mixing cup or bulk average temperature values are obtained for all types of heating (types 0-3) involving all geometries, and overall temperature elevation is examined based on higher mixing cup temperature values.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Muna E. Raypah, Dheepan M.K., Mutharasu Devarajan, Shanmugan Subramani and Fauziah Sulaiman

Thermal behavior of light-emitting diode (LED) device under different operating conditions must be known to enhance its reliability and efficiency in various applications…

Abstract

Purpose

Thermal behavior of light-emitting diode (LED) device under different operating conditions must be known to enhance its reliability and efficiency in various applications. The purpose of this study is to report the influence of input current and ambient temperature on thermal resistance of InGaAlP low-power surface-mount device (SMD) LED.

Design/methodology/approach

Thermal parameters of the LED were measured using thermal transient measurement via Thermal Transient Tester (T3Ster). The experimental results were validated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software.

Findings

As input current increases from 50 to 90 mA at 25°C, the relative increase in LED package (ΔRthJS) and total thermal resistance (ΔRthJA) is about 10 and 4 per cent, respectively. In addition, at 50 mA and ambient temperature from 25 to 65°C, the ΔRthJS and ΔRthJA are roughly 28 and 22 per cent, respectively. A good agreement between simulation and experiment results of junction temperature.

Originality/value

Most of previous studies have focused on thermal management of high-power LEDs. There were no studies on thermal analysis of low-power SMD LED so far. This work will help in predicting the thermal performance of low-power LEDs in solid-state lighting applications.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1948

It is perhaps not unfitting that I should begin my lecture by asking a rhetorical question:

Abstract

It is perhaps not unfitting that I should begin my lecture by asking a rhetorical question:

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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