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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Tibor Mandják, Zsuzsanna Szalkai, Erika Hlédik, Edit Neumann-Bódi, Mária Magyar and Judit Simon

The main goal of the paper is to describe the knowledge interconnection process embedded in an interactive business relationship. The purpose of this study is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The main goal of the paper is to describe the knowledge interconnection process embedded in an interactive business relationship. The purpose of this study is to understand the knowledge interconnection inside the supplier-buyer relationship in the field of contract manufacturing. The knowledge interconnection process is defined by the authors as a process linked to business relationships, which contains different types of knowledge and various sub-processes related to them.

Design/methodology/approach

The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group (IMP) research framework has been applied and the contribution is a better understanding of the role of knowledge in the interactive business world. The empirical evidence is based on a case study of a Hungarian contract manufacturing company. This paper describes empirical, qualitative research about knowledge interconnection processes applying an abductive research design.

Findings

The knowledge interconnection process is linked to business relationships. It is a complex process, which contains three types of knowledge and five sub-processes. The knowledge evolution indicates the links between the different types of knowledge. The sub-processes relate to different types of knowledge and allow the flow of knowledge between the supplier and the buyer. In the business relationship, this flow of knowledge makes possible the new knowledge creation. A model of the knowledge interconnection process has been developed.

Research limitations/implications

Single case studies can create rich descriptions of complex phenomena, but the possibility for generalization is limited. Another limitation is that the knowledge interconnection process has been studied only from the supplier’s perspective. The present research extends IMP’s knowledge of embedded knowledge. In addition, empirical research contributes to the emerging field of IMP research that explores knowledge as a resource but lacks an empirical foundation.

Practical implications

The knowledge interconnection process is a decisive factor in the development and maintenance of long-term customer relations in the field of contract manufacturing. The evolution of knowledge types – from the body of knowledge to knowledge in use – demands the management of different sub-processes. Knowledge selection, knowledge recombination, knowledge mobilization and new knowledge creation processes are more strongly related to the supplier-customer dyad, while the knowledge relocation process has a network character. The knowledge interconnection process influences the company’s body of knowledge and its relationship management capability.

Originality/value

The originality of the study is, on the one hand, an empirical examination of the process of knowledge interconnection. On the other hand, the development of a model of the knowledge interconnection process. A further feature is that empirical research has been conducted in the field of contract manufacturing.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Frank Kwabena Afriyie Nyarko and G. Takyi

A numerical study on the reliability of soldered interconnects of c-Si solar photovoltaic cells has been conducted.

Abstract

Purpose

A numerical study on the reliability of soldered interconnects of c-Si solar photovoltaic cells has been conducted.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-year data (2012–2014) from outdoor weathering of PV modules was used to generate temperature cycle profiles to serve as thermal loads and boundary conditions for the investigation of the thermo-mechanical response of the soldered interconnects when subjected to real outdoor conditions using finite element analysis (FEA) Software (Ansys. 18.2). Two types of soldered interconnections, namely, Sn60Pb40 and Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu (Pb-free), were modelled in this study.

Findings

Life prediction results from accumulated creep energy density damage show that the solder interconnects will achieve maximum life under the 2014 thermal cycle loading. In particular, the Sn60Pb40 solder interconnection is expected to achieve 14,153 cycles (25.85 years) whilst the Pb-free solder interconnection is expected to achieve 9,249 cycles (16.89 years). Additionally, under the test region average (TRA) thermal cycle, the Pb-free and Pb-Sn solder interconnections are expected to achieve 7,944 cycles (13.69 years) and 12,814 cycles (23.4 years), respectively. The study shows that Sn60Pb40 solder interconnections are likely to exhibit superior reliability over the Pb-free solder interconnections at the test site.

Practical implications

This study would be useful to electronics manufacturing industry in the search for a suitable alternative to SnPb solders and also the thermo-mechanical reliability research community and manufacturers in the design of robust PV modules.

Originality/value

The study has provided TRA data/results which could be used to represent the test region instead of a particular year. The study also indicates that more than six thermal cycles are required before any meaningful conclusions can be drawn. Finally, the life of the two types of solders (SnPb and Pb-free) as interconnecting materials for c-Si PV have been predicted for the test region (Kumasi in sub-Saharan Africa).

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

Hao Yu and Dongkai Shangguan

As a literature review article, the purpose of this paper is to highlight the intricate interaction and correlation between the interconnection microstructure and the…

Abstract

Purpose

As a literature review article, the purpose of this paper is to highlight the intricate interaction and correlation between the interconnection microstructure and the failure mechanism. It is therefore critical to summarize all the challenges in understanding solder solidification of interconnections.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review.

Findings

Solidification of solder interconnections is therefore critical because it is the process during which the solder interconnection is formed. The as‐solidified microstructure serves as the starting point for all failure modes. Because of the miniaturization of electronics, the interconnection size decreases continuously, already to such a range that solder solidification takes place remarkably differently from the bulk ingot, on which solidification studies have been focused for decades. There are many challenges in understanding the solidification of tiny solder interconnections, including the complex metallurgical system, dynamic solder composition, supercooling and actual solidification temperature, localized temperature field, diverse interfacial IMC formation, and so on, warranting further research investment on solder solidification.

Originality/value

This paper provides a critical overview of the concerns in solidification study for lead‐free solder interconnection. It is probably an article initiating more attention towards solidification topics.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

W. Delbare, L. Vandam, J. Vandewege, J. Verbeke and M. Fitzgibbon

The paper describes a new electro‐optical board technology, based on the discrete wiring principle. Isolated copper wires are embedded in the circuit board to realise the…

Abstract

The paper describes a new electro‐optical board technology, based on the discrete wiring principle. Isolated copper wires are embedded in the circuit board to realise the electrical interconnections. Glass optical fibres are embedded to obtain optical interconnections. The technology allows for crossovers and for electrical and optical interconnections on one layer of interconnection. As the technology can be applied on the level of package or multichip module, circuit board and backpanel, it has the ability to offer a complete solution for chip to chip electrical and optical interconnections. The paper will describe the basic manufacturing technology of the boards. The benefits of the technology from a system designer's viewpoint will be addressed. The problem of coupling light in and out of the embedded optical fibres will be discussed and the realisation of a first on‐board optical link via embedded optical fibres will be described.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Jue Li, Hongbo Xu, Jussi Hokka, Toni T. Mattila, Hongtao Chen and Mervi Paulasto‐Kröckel

The purpose of this paper is to study the reliability of SnAgCu solder interconnections under different thermal shock (TS) loading conditions.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the reliability of SnAgCu solder interconnections under different thermal shock (TS) loading conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The finite element method was employed to study the thermomechanical responses of solder interconnections in TS tests. The stress‐strain analysis was carried out to study the differences between different loading conditions. Crack growth correlations and lifetime predictions were performed.

Findings

New crack growth data and correlation constants for the lifetime prediction model are given. The predicted lifetimes are consistent with the experimental results. The simulation and experimental results indicate that among all the loading conditions studied the TS test with a 14‐min cycle time leads to the earliest failure of the ball‐grid array (BGA) components.

Originality/value

The paper presents new crack growth correlation data and the constants of the lifetime prediction models for SnAgCu solder interconnections, as well as for the BGA components. The paper adds insight into the thermomechanical reliability evaluation of SnAgCu solder interconnections.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Thomas Kiessling and Yves Blondeel

Shows that some national governments’ policy to promote specific market structures have either proved ineffective (France) or increased entry barriers, likely to raise…

Abstract

Shows that some national governments’ policy to promote specific market structures have either proved ineffective (France) or increased entry barriers, likely to raise industry cost (Spain). Argues high‐speed cable modems are the way forward for the future. Concludes, in order to achieve long‐term efficiency, the regulator should promote a mix of infrastructure and service competition to enable viability in the long term.

Details

info, vol. 1 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Joseph Fjelstad, Kevin Grundy and Gary Yasumura

To review the challenges confronting the electronics interconnection industry as it transitions into the gigahertz frequency range and to describe novel prospective…

Abstract

Purpose

To review the challenges confronting the electronics interconnection industry as it transitions into the gigahertz frequency range and to describe novel prospective solutions designed to circumvent the problems by means of alternative interconnection architectures while remaining within the confines of the existing manufacturing infrastructure.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper has been written in a manner so as to provide first a brief review of the history of interconnections as background reference, providing access and understanding to a broader readership of the significance of the area of investigation. From there, the paper describes the problems facing electronic circuit manufactures relative to the serious matter of assuring signal integrity of high speed interconnections. It then goes on to describe a general class of prospective solutions, which can be implemented through simple architectural changes in design and manufacture. Finally, the paper describes a prototype system which was fabricated using the concepts and the first‐order findings are provided.

Findings

From operation of the prototype system, it was found that the concepts, relative to PCB architectural changes prescribed in the paper are capable of delivering performance levels beyond what is accepted when using traditional interconnection modalities. The 10 Gbps backplane prototype has proved capable of sending a 100 mV peak‐to‐peak signal a distance of 75 cm through a two wire single differential pair which pass through two industry standard connectors. The signal generated has a ∼65 percent margin indicating it could go much further and determining the limits an object of future study. The modulation is standard NRZ. With only two wires there was no cross talk in the system, however, the next stage of investigation will consist of a multi‐device assembly to see what cross talk effect there might be, if any.

Originality/value

The chief value of the paper resides in its disclosure of novel approaches to electronic interconnection involving simple changes in circuit architectural structures which extend the signal performance limits of copper interconnections, well beyond present consensus expectations of industry. Moreover, the paper provides first experimental results of the technology in actual operation as proof of concept.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

Antonio Ghezzi, Michael Georgiades, Peter Reichl, Nicolas Le‐Sauze, Carla Di Cairano‐Gilfedder and Riccardo Managiaracina

The future development of the internet is not only heavily dependent on its technological evolution, but also on business sustainability for the interconnection ecosystem

Abstract

Purpose

The future development of the internet is not only heavily dependent on its technological evolution, but also on business sustainability for the interconnection ecosystem the web relies on, where various players characterized by fairly different economic structures and interests are coexisting. Therefore, in this paper the authors aim to propose a methodological framework for developing innovative interconnection business models.

Design/methodology/approach

Starting from a comprehensive as‐is analysis including the selection of appropriate service scenarios, market activities are abstracted through an archetypization process. Based on that, a value network for the future marketplace is proposed and makes it possible to design a business model for carriers, before, as last step, both the value network configurations and the to‐be business model are evaluated.

Findings

The framework to assess the future internet ecosystem depicts the interconnections value network, shedding light on its key activities; it proposes the establishment of a new dynamic interconnection marketplace based on an emerging interconnection value network where traditional and original roles coexist; and it evaluates the introduction of sending party pays and bid‐and‐ask solutions for governing the marketplace and its business models.

Originality/value

The authors' approach addresses carriers, over‐the‐top providers and technology providers as well as end user groups, specifically aiming at fostering the evolution of the future internet by means of developing innovative value configurations and business model options with a substantial impact for a broad set of stakeholders on a global scale. Thus, the canvas of guidelines presented and discussed in this paper covers all stakeholders in the interconnection ecosystem and provides a solid starting point for upcoming implementations.

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2008

Kun Qi, Xu Chen and Guo‐Quan Lu

Traditional chip‐level interconnection materials show many weaknesses given the development trend of microelectronic packaging technology. In order to meet the needs of…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditional chip‐level interconnection materials show many weaknesses given the development trend of microelectronic packaging technology. In order to meet the needs of high‐temperature packaging for wide‐bandgap semiconductors, low‐temperature sintered nano‐silver as a novel semiconductor device‐metallized substrate interconnection material is being developed. One phenomenon that larger interconnection area would cause poor interconnection quality had been found in the industry butut the mechanisms were never previously studied. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The changes in the shear strengths and microstructures of nano‐silver joints induced by the changes of interconnection areas were investigated by shear tests and scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

The increased interconnection area blocks the organic components to be burnout and causes a higher pore ratio. Thus, it reduces the bonding quality. To ensure a good and steady sintering quality, the interconnection area should be limited to 3 × 3 mm2.

Research limitations/implications

A sintering technology or paste with oxygen agent will be studied in the future.

Originality/value

A relationship of shear strength and interconnection area of sintering joints with nano‐silver paste was observed.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

Patrick Xavier and Xu Yan

Telecommunications regulation in Hong Kong (China) is interesting as a case study of pro‐competitive regulation in a geographically small city of some 6.8 million people…

Abstract

Telecommunications regulation in Hong Kong (China) is interesting as a case study of pro‐competitive regulation in a geographically small city of some 6.8 million people. It is also of particular interest because The Office of the Telecommunications Authority, the sector regulator, has for four years running (1999‐2002) been voted the best Asian regulator by readers of Telecom Asia. What policies were applied to warrant this sustained approval rating? This paper examines these policies and suggests further improvements.

Details

info, vol. 4 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

Keywords

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