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Article

Michele Grimaldi, Livio Cricelli and Francesco Rogo

The purpose of the paper is to advance a framework that can assess and analyze the value of patent portfolios. On this purpose, the framework develops a conceptual and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to advance a framework that can assess and analyze the value of patent portfolios. On this purpose, the framework develops a conceptual and comprehensive index, the patent portfolio value index (PPVI), to assess the patent innovation level and suggest economic-strategic guidelines.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have designed and applied a framework that synthesizes into a single index the results of a multiple criteria approach, based on information derived from quantitative objective data (claims, citations, and market coverage), information related to qualitative determinants (strategic positioning and economic importance), and information derived from decision makers’ perceptions and judgments.

Findings

The authors have applied the PPVI to the 3,532 patent portfolio documents in an Italian worldwide player in aerospace and defense market. The combined analysis, provided by the PPVI and a qualitative synoptic representation, has made it possible to understand the strategic positioning and alignment of patents with the core business of the company. The results of the analysis have provided managers with the necessary suggestions regarding action items to be performed: to reinforce, license, try to dismiss, or sell some of the examined patents of the portfolios.

Practical implications

The PPVI supplies a quick procedure to ascertain the profitability of patents and accounts for the value of a patent portfolio from an internal business perspective.

Originality/value

As it is built and defined, the PPVI shows elements of novelty compared to the other indexes existing in the literature, in that it follows a multiple criteria approach by merging quantitative and qualitative information.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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Article

Livio Cricelli, Marco Greco, Michele Grimaldi and Leidy Paola Llanes Dueñas

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between intellectual capital (IC) and performance of public universities in emerging countries in order to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between intellectual capital (IC) and performance of public universities in emerging countries in order to identify patterns and provide recommendations that may turn the universities’ IC into development opportunities, in terms of research, innovation, and education.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis targeted the whole population of the public universities in the Republic of Colombia. A cluster analysis, based on five performance variables, has been conducted. Then, the IC of the universities pertaining to the three resulting clusters has been compared. Subsequently, for each performance variable, the IC of above-average and below-average universities has been benchmarked.

Findings

The results of this study show how different aspects of IC are associated with University performance. Among the many, the authors found that universities should achieve a critical mass to obtain outstanding research and innovation results. The findings also identify the particular importance of both students and scholars’ international mobility programs for most of the performance variables.

Social implications

This study provides a baseline for the assessment of the impact on society of the IC available in the universities of emerging countries. The application may serve as a guide in the choice of public policies, dedicated to the strengthening of the universities’ IC in order to improve their performance.

Originality/value

This paper proposes an innovative model to analyze the relationship between IC and university performance in emerging countries. The model identifies the association between the IC accrued in the universities and their capability of transferring it to the society under the form of science, innovation, and education.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Michele Grimaldi, Livio Cricelli and Francesco Rogo

Several causes may induce firm managers to analyze the actual technology condition of patent portfolios, among which is the need of exploiting patents strategically. In…

Abstract

Purpose

Several causes may induce firm managers to analyze the actual technology condition of patent portfolios, among which is the need of exploiting patents strategically. In this paper, the question of how to support intellectual property (IP) managers of large high technology companies in their strategic decision-making process of evaluating patents is examined. The purpose of this paper is to provide a decision support framework that suggests the suitable exploitation strategy for patents.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes an audit framework able to point out whether patents are aligned to the overall business strategy, to select those that are not aligned, and to identify the most appropriate exploitation strategy for each patent of the portfolio. The framework is structured into two phases: in the first one, patents are selected through the analysis of four dimensions that characterize the value of patents effectively; in the second one, a questionnaire is distributed to IP managers in order to support their decision on patents. The paper illustrates case-based applications of the framework.

Findings

Results of applications show that the framework is able to suggest IP managers the suitable exploitation strategy on four possible alternatives (maintaining, licensing, selling, abandoning) for each patent of their portfolios.

Originality/value

The framework is an innovative and valuable tool to IP managers, and besides its structural formulation, it is appreciable in terms of application expedition and efficiency of performance.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Livio Cricelli, Marco Greco and Michele Grimaldi

– The aim of this article is to expound a holistic intellectual capital index. Moreover, the paper presents its implementation within a real estate organization.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this article is to expound a holistic intellectual capital index. Moreover, the paper presents its implementation within a real estate organization.

Design/methodology/approach

The index is calculated on the basis of 14 structured interviews synthesized through the analytic hierarchy process, min–max normalizations and weighted sums.

Findings

The authors estimate a holistic intellectual capital index and show that an analysis of its components may allow identifying discordances within the organization about the contributions of its value drivers.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed index may be used in a medium-/long-term research to measure the evolution in the organizational intellectual capital and its relation with the top management’s initiatives and the competitive environment changes.

Practical implications

The proposed methodology may integrate the reports prepared for shareholders and stakeholders and provide the top management, with an in-depth understanding of the different perceptions of the organizational human resources.

Originality/value

The authors discuss a holistic index of intellectual capital that allows considering both the performances of the intellectual capital components and the interdependencies among them and also their strategic contribution to the value-creation process. In addition, they propose a novel descriptive statistical analysis of the assessment and management of IC-index components to draw indications for the top management.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 37 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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Article

Livio Cricelli, Michele Grimaldi and Musadaq Hanandi

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to support decision-makers in selecting information systems (ISs) and knowledge management systems (KMSs), by taking…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to support decision-makers in selecting information systems (ISs) and knowledge management systems (KMSs), by taking into consideration factors and perspectives which influence the choice.

Design/methodology/approach

The framework has been built on a hierarchical structure, where selection criteria and sub-criteria are defined and compared, and where alternatives are established and evaluated according to the software market trends. The application of the framework to an empirical study in two leading organizations in Jordan is provided as a validation of the proposed framework.

Findings

The paper presents and applies a methodological framework, based on the analytic hierarchy process approach, to support decision-makers in the choice and in the implementation of an IS.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could address the implementation of the framework within a selected industry. Successively, the framework could be utilized to make a comparison among the selected KMSs of more organizations.

Originality/value

The framework is innovative in so far it can be practicably implemented in every business context, as criteria and sub-criteria cover most of the needs of any organization. It can therefore be considered as a holistic approach for supporting decision-makers in the selection process of an IS.

Details

VINE: The journal of information and knowledge management systems, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

Keywords

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Article

Livio Cricelli and Michele Grimaldi

The evolution of organization, management and production processes is moving towards complexity. The ever growing competition presses firms to give intangible internal and

Abstract

Purpose

The evolution of organization, management and production processes is moving towards complexity. The ever growing competition presses firms to give intangible internal and external exclusive resources the utmost attention. The improvement of the performance, through the retrieval of resources, neither available internally nor achievable autonomously, can be reached by going beyond traditional firm boundaries and by enforcing an external relationship system: proliferation of networks, partnerships, and inter‐organizational collaborations should be, consequently, triggered. The purpose of this paper concerns the evaluation of knowledge impact on relationships among the members of an inter‐organizational collaboration. It also aims to suggest conditions for the improvement of knowledge management in different types of knowledge‐based inter‐organizational collaborations.

Design/methodology/approach

Critical success factors of the networked organizations have been defined. Distinctive characteristics, that cannot be disregarded, whatever the environment, have been singled out from literature analysis; successively, they have been arranged into a classification schema to design knowledge‐based collaboration types. Properties of knowledge and peculiarities of knowledge management processes (identification, creation, storage, sharing/distribution, application, and capitalization/refinement) have been assessed according to the types of the collaborations.

Findings

The theoretical framework can be applied by network managers to adopt the most favourable knowledge management strategy and process, independent of the distinctive characteristics of the collaborations.

Originality/value

The paper provides a theoretical framework to arrange the knowledge‐based inter‐organizational collaborations into an innovative classification schema on the basis of their cognitive, strategic and structural aspects.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article

Michele Grimaldi and Livio Cricelli

This paper aims to define a theoretical model that assesses and measures the intangible asset contribution to company performance. The model keeps in focus the most

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to define a theoretical model that assesses and measures the intangible asset contribution to company performance. The model keeps in focus the most meaningful elements that reflect the success factors, crucial to company business strategy and value creation.

Design/methodology/approach

The model adopts a hierarchical structure. The strategic intangible assets of the company have been divided into value drivers; a series of measurement indicators have been selected to describe the characteristics of each aspect of the intangible company performance. The measurements obtained from numerical indicators, which express the totality of the results achieved by the organizational strategies, are combined to create the hierarchical assessment index (HAI), by assessing quantitative and qualitative company features, through the analytic hierarchy process (AHP).

Findings

The HAI identifies the sources of added value and competitive advantage in each business context; it traces the subordination of every element on company performance, and singles out those intangible assets that improve the company performance, at every level of the hierarchy.

Practical implications

The HAI provides guidelines to understand what are the key intangible factors to create the value of the company and suggests the implementation of corrective strategies.

Originality/value

The HAI is the expression of the combination of the objective measurements of intangible assets with the subjective contributions by the managers. In fact, besides the numerical results of the performance of every element in the hierarchical structure, the managers' opinions about the significance of their performance are also considered. Thus, objective and subjective evaluations jointly contribute to suggest the way to achieving the expected objectives.

Details

VINE, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

Keywords

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Article

Michele Grimaldi, Livio Cricelli and Francesco Rogo

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework which defines, analyses and assesses the intellectual capital (IC) value drivers (VDs) to increase the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework which defines, analyses and assesses the intellectual capital (IC) value drivers (VDs) to increase the value creation of an organization.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed framework is composed by an arrangement of procedural steps. In the first step IC VDs are selected by reason of their relevance and of their occurrences in recent literature. Then, an assessment of the VDs is carried out on the basis of their strategic importance and of their inter-relationships with otherVDs. Finally, an index is constructed from the combination of the static and dynamic characteristics of the selected VDs.

Findings

This integrated framework provides managers with the possibility of monitoring the response of IC performance to their strategic decisions and helps them to adjust and improve measures to reach the prefixed objectives. Managers’ perception is the fundamental input to the assessment of the contribution of the IC to the value creation process.

Originality/value

The modality of building the proposed synthetic index innovates the assessment of IC from a quantitative point of view. The framework offers a high degree of flexibility both in defining and managing IC and in assessing each IC value driver in dependence of any variations in market scenery and of any external or internal input of innovation.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Michele Grimaldi, Livio Cricelli and Marco Greco

Despite the flourishing literature on intellectual capital (IC), few studies explored its features in the perspective of family firms, and even fewer focussed on small…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the flourishing literature on intellectual capital (IC), few studies explored its features in the perspective of family firms, and even fewer focussed on small family firms (SFFs). The purpose of this paper is to analyze how managers and senior employees in SFFs perceive the benefits and costs of intellectual capital assets (ICAs) and provides many insights for future researches.

Design/methodology/approach

Taking the lead from the constructivist epistemology, this instrumental study describes the implementation of a framework for the assessment of ICAs into four SFFs in order to develop general theoretical principles.

Findings

Among the findings, it stands out that most SFFs in the sample especially rely on their internal processes and on their human resources’ knowledge and competences. Furthermore, the authors found much internal disagreement with respect to the expected costs of investing on ICAs, especially within firms operating in more turbulent markets.

Research limitations/implications

Being referred to a multiple case study, the results may not be generalized to other organizations. Nevertheless, they are useful to build theory, either by verification of falsification, and to encourage their future testing in empirical papers.

Practical implications

The implementation of the framework allows identifying internal disagreement with respect to the ICAs’ costs and benefits and exploring their causes. Furthermore, it suggests which should be the ICAs deserving primary attention in order to have the best impact on value creation.

Originality/value

The paper investigates IC in SFFs, thus contributing to fill a remarkable gap in IC literature.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Elena Alberghini, Livio Cricelli and Michele Grimaldi

This paper aims to discuss the individual participation and involvement affecting the user engagement in social media and to answer the following research questions: Is it

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the individual participation and involvement affecting the user engagement in social media and to answer the following research questions: Is it possible to measure the individual participation and involvement of social media within organizations? Which factors should be analysed in order to increase the individual participation in social media? Which KPIs should be selected in order to increase the user ' s engagement and increase individual participation in social media? Can social media in a company be measured in terms of their impact on KM?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a case study that describes how Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are used to monitor and manage the applications of social technologies, which include many tools facilitating the participation and collaboration on the web. The case study was applied to the information and communication technology area of Eni S.p.A., which is an integrated energy company active in over 70 countries in the world.

Findings

Based on the indications obtained from the case study, a methodology is proposed to select and develop the appropriate KPIs in order to manage and monitor the application of social technologies. The methodology turned out to be able to monitor collaboration and knowledge sharing activities among employees and to incentivize participation and involvement of employees who use the company ' s social media.

Practical implications

Organizations can use the suggested methodology as a guideline for managing and monitoring social media inside a company. The possibility of continuously modifying the adopted social media tool by means of corrective actions together with the possibility of adapting the KPIs to new situations make the present methodology an efficient management approach to take on the multifaceted activities of a social media environment.

Originality/value

Few case studies dealing with the applications regarding the implementation and management of social technologies within organizations have been carried out. Similarly, even if some empirical studies have been proposed to analyse what motivates and prevents employees from sharing their knowledge through social media, there appears to be a lack of studies which have taken into consideration the evaluation of the actual benefits in terms of individual involvement and participation, knowledge sharing and increase in performance.

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