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Military technology is traditionally shrouded in secrecy. Even joint research between allies can be a marriage of convenience. But with the end of the Cold War and greater…
Military technology is traditionally shrouded in secrecy. Even joint research between allies can be a marriage of convenience. But with the end of the Cold War and greater European integration, the technological landscape is changing, and a closer interface is emerging between military and civilian technologies. A worldwide stagnation in defence spending is accelerating the take‐up of commercial off‐the‐shelf technologies, while in the aerospace sector, the factors of safety and the environment are becoming at least as important as cost.
Discusses how recent changes in the European defence market have forced leading defence companies to make significant changes to their corporate strategy. Examines these changes, reviews the existing literature on strategic change in the defence sector and provides a detailed case study of British Aerospace. Shows that the process of strategy formulation is complex and changing. Moreover, makes it clear that the defence market is restructuring at a European and international level and that the process of managerial collaboration is intensifying. Says that the future of the defence industry and the strategic focus of defence firms is thus unlikely to remain in the hands of national governments but will be determined at a European or global level.
Following on from the thawing‐out of the cold war and the revolutions of Eastern Europe, the threat of lower armament levels provided opportunities for the rationalisation…
Following on from the thawing‐out of the cold war and the revolutions of Eastern Europe, the threat of lower armament levels provided opportunities for the rationalisation of European defence and its military‐industrial complexes. Coupled with the continuing threat of reduced defence expenditures and increasing competition, defence companies have reacted to the changes with a number of strategic moves involving mergers and acquisitions, market nicheing and diversification, in addition to lay‐offs and plant closures. More recently, moves towards a single European defence industry have been discussed among the major contributing member countries and their industry leaders. The integration of a defence aerospace industry seems well placed to succeed, given French co‐operation, and this should produce a formidable, global competitor. East and Central Europe’s contribution to the equation is questionable, although the early signs are that west European defence companies are establishing firm footholds in the region against strong US competition.
This research paper was written in the Summer of 1995 in partial fulfilment of the requirements for Management 524 within the MBA program at California State University at…
This research paper was written in the Summer of 1995 in partial fulfilment of the requirements for Management 524 within the MBA program at California State University at Fullerton. Its purpose was to determine the effective management strategies within the aerospace industry since the defense budget began to decline in the mid 1980s. Through research of the top aerospace companies (according to the 1995 Fortune 500) over the past decade, this paper examines the various long‐term management strategies employed during the recent recession.
Normalair‐Garrett Ltd., (Stand No. N31) part of the Westland plc Group of Yeovil, Somerset, is exhibiting a wide range of products which demonstrate the company's diverse capabilities in control systems and precision components for the aerospace industry.
THE market for composite materials in the aerospace and defence industries in W. Europe is the subject of a new study by IAL Consultants Ltd. The report which is over 200…
THE market for composite materials in the aerospace and defence industries in W. Europe is the subject of a new study by IAL Consultants Ltd. The report which is over 200 pages long, brings together in one volume the results of a number of recent studies into advanced composites, including the views of over one hundred experts in the polymer supply, fabrication and end use markets. Design engineers and technical managers have contributed to the chapters on prospects for composites in the context of a changing aerospace market. High performance applications such as fighters, helicopters, space and satellite vehicles, missiles and passenger aircraft are discussed in detail. Declining real expenditure on defence equipment but an expansion in civil air traffic has affected the types of components made from advanced composites. Production costs and reproducibility of finished components have been the important development areas for fabricators, while raw materials suppliers have concentrated on producing stronger or stiffer fibres, and high temperature and highly impact tolerant resins.
Federal attempts to stimulate technological innovation have been unsuccessful because of the application of an inappropriate policy framework that lacks conceptual and…
Federal attempts to stimulate technological innovation have been unsuccessful because of the application of an inappropriate policy framework that lacks conceptual and empirical knowledge of the process of technological innovation and fails to acknowledge the relationship between knowledge production, transfer, and use as equally important components of the process of knowledge diffusion. This article argues that the potential contributions of high‐speed computing and networking systems will be diminished unless empirically derived knowledge about the information‐seeking behavior of the members of the social system is incorporated into a new policy framework. Findings from the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project are presented in support of this assertion.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the evolution of “product‐service” (P‐S) strategies in the aerospace sector. Despite the widespread perception that aerospace…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the evolution of “product‐service” (P‐S) strategies in the aerospace sector. Despite the widespread perception that aerospace organisations are advanced in terms of P‐S integration, little is known about the realities of P‐S provision in the sector. Much of the existing literature is normative and prescriptive, focusing upon what organisations aspire to do, but offers little insights into how attempts to integrate products and services occur or the challenges organisations encounter.
This paper presents an in‐depth case study of an international aerospace original equipment manufacturer, referred to as “JetCo”. A total of 18 interviews were conducted with key actors involved in the operationalisation of P‐S strategy within defence aerospace and civil aerospace divisions. In addition, analysis of internal company documentation was also undertaken.
This paper reveals that current P‐S strategy, which builds upon a long history of service offerings, initially evolved separately in each division in response to the particular markets in which they operate. However, there was evidence of a corporate‐wide strategy for P‐S provision being developed across divisions to improve co‐ordination. This was founded on the recognition that P‐S delivery requires the development of a stronger customer orientation, better knowledge and information management strategies and the engagement of employees. A key challenge concerned integrating the product and service parts of the business to ensure consistent delivery of a seamless value offering to customers.
The paper offers fresh empirical evidence into the development of P‐S in an organisation drawn from a sector often flagged as an exemplar of P‐S provision, and provides insights into the complex realities of P‐S implementation and delivery. Notably, it highlights the challenge of attempting to embed an organisation‐wide “service culture” in pursuit of integrated P‐S delivery, and questions the nostrums and overly simplistic models which pervade the current solutions discourse.
To examine supply chain competences necessary to efficiently and/or effectively succeed in aftermarket support.
Using the aerospace industry as a context, this paper provides a brief overview of aftermarket support practices and trends and discusses the broader implications for aftermarket supply chain managers.
There are multiple approaches to aftermarket support. Which approach should be used depends on key variables including: technology, need for visibility and/or traceability, and need for collaborative product commerce.
This paper is a general review. Future research should examine resources necessary in individual industries, other forms of relationships, and the influence of new technologies.
In many industries, there are significant opportunities for incremental profit in aftermarket support. Collaborative product commerce, alliances, a number of new technologies (e.g. web commerce), and security needs may play critical roles in determining whether or not a company's aftermarket support practices will be profitable. Firms without competences in these areas should seek help from trusted partners to fill competence gaps.
This paper explores an often ignored but significant line of business – aftermarket support. Lessons demonstrated in this paper may be used in a number of industries that rely on aftermarket support for incremental profit.
This paper presents a discussion on the benefits of utilizing variable pay as a component of employee compensation. Several types of variable pay or variable compensation…
This paper presents a discussion on the benefits of utilizing variable pay as a component of employee compensation. Several types of variable pay or variable compensation plans are reviewed. Plans that seem well suited to highly educated, professional employees are examined in detail. Case studies are presented that illustrate how variable pay or compensation has been applied by a variety of for‐profit aerospace and defense engineering organizations. These case studies are followed by a description of a small class of non‐profit aerospace and defense engineering organizations known as Federally Funded and Design Centers (FFRDCs). Two variable pay plans that appear to be the most appropriate for the FFRDCs are recommended. A modified gainsharing group vehicle pay plan is recommended. A complementary individual skill‐based variable pay element is also endorsed.