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This research chapter focuses on gender issues and women’s health concerns relevant to leprosy disease and their implications for leprosy control program in Southeast…
This research chapter focuses on gender issues and women’s health concerns relevant to leprosy disease and their implications for leprosy control program in Southeast Nigeria. Four research questions guided the study, two of which were to ascertain the ways in which gender affect both awareness of leprosy and community support and post-treatment reintegration of persons affected by leprosy (PAL) into their communities.
A sample size of 1,116 adults drawn through cluster and random sampling methods were the study participants from whom quantitative data were collected via questionnaire. Qualitative data were generated through focus group discussion (FGD) among PAL, and in-depth interview (IDI) of both leprosy control staff, and other stakeholders purposively drawn from the area. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was employed to process data, while frequency tables, bar charts, and chi-square were used to present, analyze, and test the hypothesis.
The study found that level of awareness about leprosy (which has several local names in the area) was relatively high (89.6%). However, significant differences exist in levels of awareness on leprosy between males and females. Also, men were perceived as less likely to comply with treatment instructions due to their gender roles of family economic upkeep. Males affected by leprosy were also found to encounter severest forms of social discrimination and post-treatment reintegration challenges.
The study scope was limited to the examination of public perception of gender issues and women’s healthcare concerns related to leprosy and their implications for leprosy control program in Southeast Nigeria. Only PAL registered with Nigeria’s Leprosy Control Programme participated with other non-patient respondents. The study focused on social aspects of leprosy (other than its biophysical component).
The implication of the research outcome includes need for deliberate strategy by leprosy control team to improve the level of awareness/knowledge as well as treatment compliance across gender. Similarly, differential mode of social reaction (to male and female gender) affected by leprosy should be addressed. Above all, aggressive public enlightenment through public, private, and local media and prohibition of sociocultural practices that promote spread of leprosy were stressed as measures to enhance leprosy control in the area.
Originality/Value of Paper
The study fills the knowledge gap with respect to gender issues and women’s healthcare concerns related to leprosy and their implications for leprosy control program in Southeast Nigeria. Findings from the concluded research set it apart and differed with earlier and similar studies elsewhere. For instance, men affected by leprosy in the area encounter severest forms of negative social reaction; are less compliant to treatment plans and less aware of leprosy when compared with females. All these affirm the position of the chapter that gender issues relevant to leprosy differ according to cultural setting, time, and place of inquiry and do not align to any universal scheme.
Investigates leprosy as both a medical and social problem, particularly as the sufferer loses the ability to hold an economically productive role, affecting their social…
Investigates leprosy as both a medical and social problem, particularly as the sufferer loses the ability to hold an economically productive role, affecting their social status and acceptance in the family. Surveys two areas in Tamil Nadu (India) to collect data on the extent of deformity and to assess if there is any difference in acceptance in the family depending on the individual)s deformity or non‐deformity. Suggests, from findings, that sufferers of leprosy are actually at greater risk of dehabilitation from their families, due to the social stigma of the disease affecting the family’s standing within the community. Indicates the need for prevention or correction of deformities, as it appears to be degree of physical attractiveness which influences interpersonal behaviour in the home, work place, school, health setting and other communal places. Discusses World Health Organization policies on leprosy and the economics of deformity.
Outlines the discoveries and developments in the treatment of leprosy over the last century. Looks at the progress towards the elimination of the disease. Profiles the…
Outlines the discoveries and developments in the treatment of leprosy over the last century. Looks at the progress towards the elimination of the disease. Profiles the problems in India and the factors which hinder elimination. Looks at the position of women with this disease including age, caste, educational level, occupation, marital status, mate selection, nature of marriage and precedence of leprosy among relatives before considering knowledge and type of treatment and the present role of government. Covers the role of vaccination.
[L]ife has become increasingly dangerous in the erratically moving river. The relatively closed circles of development agents may turn into dangerous vortices. Promises…
[L]ife has become increasingly dangerous in the erratically moving river. The relatively closed circles of development agents may turn into dangerous vortices. Promises are empty, concrete practices of implementation lose their meaning. All of a sudden everything seems to be in a mess, and any kind of order seems to have been lost. (Quarles van Ufford, 1999, p. 292)
In the 1960s thalidomide, a popular new drug considered to be safe and effective, was revealed to cause severe nerve damage and birth defects in newborn infants, prompting…
In the 1960s thalidomide, a popular new drug considered to be safe and effective, was revealed to cause severe nerve damage and birth defects in newborn infants, prompting health officials to ban the use of the drug and tighten overall restrictions on new drugs and drug use. Twenty years later, after recognizing the positive effects of thalidomide when treating patients with leprosy and its potential role in the treatment of certain types of cancer and cases of HIV/AIDS, the Celgene corporation would be forced to contend with stringent FDA regulations, liability concerns, public skepticism, and poor mass media portrayal in order to secure the drug's approval.
To illustrate how regulators are subject to political pressure, which companies much recognize and consider when making business decisions.
In 2007, Nigeria commenced a nationwide behavioural change communication (BCC) intervention to increase uptake of tuberculosis (TB) care services. The purpose of this…
In 2007, Nigeria commenced a nationwide behavioural change communication (BCC) intervention to increase uptake of tuberculosis (TB) care services. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of TB BCC intervention on knowledge and perception of TB in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria.
This is a cross-sectional study carried out in December 2009 in which a total of 1,200 respondents (620 males and 580 females) from six local government areas (three urban and three rural), selected by multi-stage sampling technique were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire.
The survey showed that most of the respondents had access to radio and about half to television. Access to media was significantly higher in urban areas than rural areas. Radio and community were the commonest sources of information of TB. The majority of the respondents were aware of that there was a message, however, ability to recall the content of the message varied. Significant association was observed between knowledge of the health education message and knowledge of TB transmission, that TB is curable and of appropriate care-seeking behaviour. Access to this media health education intervention was determined by age, gender, educational status, literacy, religion and access to media.
The study showed that TB BCC is associated with high-level awareness of TB disease and appropriate care-seeking behaviour. Socio-demographic characteristics and locality were found to influence access to mass media communication. Therefore, consideration should be given to the appropriateness of medium of communication in the design of TB BCC. However, there is need to combine it with other strategies to reach the disadvantaged population.
This study is the first population-based survey to ascertain access to TB-related BCC intervention and its effect on knowledge and care-seeking behaviour of this study population.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the conceptualisation of the Smart Sustainable City (SSC) with new concepts of resilience thinking in relation to urgent societal…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the conceptualisation of the Smart Sustainable City (SSC) with new concepts of resilience thinking in relation to urgent societal challenges facing the built environment. The paper aims to identify novel methodologies for smart reuse of heritage sites with a pluralist past as integral to inclusive urban development.
SSC concepts in the global literature are studied to define a new reference framework for integrated urban planning strategies in which cultural resilience and co-creation matter. This framework, augmented by UNESCO’s holistic recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL), was tested in two investigative projects: the historic centre of South Africa’s capital Tshwane and the proximate former Westfort leprosy colony.
The research confirms that SSC concepts need enlargement to become more inclusive in acknowledging “cultural diversity” of communities and engaging “chrono-diversity” of extant fabric. A paradigm shift in the discourse on integrated urban (re)development and adaptive reuse of built heritage is identified, influenced by resilience and sustainability thinking. Both projects show that different architectural intervention strategies are required to modulate built fabric and its emergent qualities and to unlock embedded cultural energy.
Together with a critical review of SSC concepts and the HUL in relation to urban (re)development, this paper provides innovative methodologies on creative adaptation of urban heritage, reconciling “hard” and “soft” issues, tested in the highly resilient systems of Tshwane.
Business administration, brand management, marketing management, international marketing, strategic marketing.
Business administration, brand management, marketing management, international marketing, strategic marketing.
This case is suitable for MBA students with exposure to marketing strategy and basic marketing. It may also be useful for junior and middle level marketing professionals during their training programs. This case-study may find its application while teaching strategic marketing, marketing management, international marketing and pharmaceutical management.
Unicare Formulations was a reputable pharmaceutical company in India. It started small and with the growth of the industry it could capture significant market share in it chosen segments. It introduced brands in small and niche areas with low innovation and where bigger companies showed little interest. It also infused new blood through outside talent. It brought newer brands to its brand portfolio. A relatively new but promising brand – Tbgo – was struggling. Its marketing head was confused whether to continue with the brand. He needs advice based on management principles.
Expected learning outcomes
After covering this case study, a student should be able to: use SWOT and environmental analyses to solve complex business problems; explain segmentation, targeting and positioning (STP) and shall be able to use those for preparing marketing strategy; use 4Ps in different combinations in planning brand strategies; use Ansoff's model (product-market grid); use Porter's generic strategy to analyze brand performance and to take appropriate action for brand revival; and internalize the intricacies of brand-building and their impacts on the business performance of a firm.
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Marketing tools used in public policy may not be purely commercial but based on non-commercial marketing exchanges also. This paper aims to make a case for the practice of…
Marketing tools used in public policy may not be purely commercial but based on non-commercial marketing exchanges also. This paper aims to make a case for the practice of social marketing principles to aid the context of public policy.
The approach is to draw out the key implementable learnings (KILs) from the analysis of the five public policy initiatives in the USA, India and Sri Lanka. A case situation with the context of child labour policy in India is proposed to use these KILs.
This paper concludes that the implementation of any policy is a challenging exercise and dependent on a large number of factors. However, KILs derived from successful social marketing programs deal with umbrella campaigns, prevailing socio-cultural environment, bottom-up communication, upstream approach to engage with stakeholders and targeted media advocacy could prove useful when the objective is to induce behaviour change as a part of the policy execution.
This paper evaluates the learnings from social marketing campaigns and their relevance to public policy programs. It also considers a case to demonstrate the application of the concept.