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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Andrea Sestino and Cesare Amatulli

This study aims at exploring the role of perceived disease seriousness in consumers’ preference for generic versus branded drugs, by shedding light on new factors…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at exploring the role of perceived disease seriousness in consumers’ preference for generic versus branded drugs, by shedding light on new factors impacting consumer purchase behaviour for pharmaceutical products.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study based on a quantitative analysis has been conducted with a sample of 100 participants who have been presented with two different scenarios: one related to more serious disease (as in cardiological disease) and one related to less serious disease (as in the seasonal flu). This paper considered Italy as a research setting where the recent mandatory prescription of the active ingredient by doctors leaves the final purchase decision in consumers’ hands

Findings

Results show that, although consumers are free to choose whether to buy a branded or a generic prescribed active ingredient, their choice is mainly driven by the role of the brand. Consumers’ intention to buy generic drugs is higher in the case of diseases perceived as less serious, while the intention to buy branded drugs is higher in the case of disease perceived as more serious.

Originality/value

This study contributes to marketing research and practice by proposing that consumers’ perceived seriousness of their disease should be considered as a further factor in identifying new marketing strategies in those contexts in which the choice between branded or generic drugs is free.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2011

Stephen Nutt and Lauren Limb

This paper seeks to report the key findings of two studies which were undertaken by Rare Disease UK to: understand patients' and their families' experiences of living with…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to report the key findings of two studies which were undertaken by Rare Disease UK to: understand patients' and their families' experiences of living with a rare disease; identify issues preventing research and access to good quality information, care, treatment and support; identify examples of good practice; and develop recommendations to improve service provision for patients with rare diseases and encourage research.

Design/methodology/approach

Across the two reports discussed, a range of methods were used including: a survey of patients/family members; five multi‐stakeholder working groups; conference workshops; a consultation paper; interviews; and desk research.

Findings

There are a number of detailed findings across the two reports. At a broad level, the findings identify that despite the diverse range of rare diseases each with different symptoms and prognoses, patients often face similar issues. The report also identifies a number of possible solutions to facilitate research, speed up diagnosis, improve co‐ordination of care and ensure high‐quality information is available to patients and professionals.

Practical implications

The findings and recommendations in the two reports discussed are informing the development of a UK plan for rare diseases by all four of the UK's health departments. This plan will be the first strategic approach to improving service provision for all patients with rare diseases in the UK.

Originality/value

Very little research has been conducted into the experiences of patients with rare diseases or on how to improve service provision for all rare diseases in the UK. As a result, the two reports offer a substantial body of new evidence.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Nicky Mendoza and Norma McGough

This paper gives an overview of the prevalence, symptoms, diagnosis and management of coeliac disease and associated disorders. It also gives some background to gluten…

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Abstract

Purpose of the paper

This paper gives an overview of the prevalence, symptoms, diagnosis and management of coeliac disease and associated disorders. It also gives some background to gluten testing in foods and developments in identification of gluten‐free foods at consumer level.

Design/methodology/approach

The most up‐to‐date literature on various aspects of the disease have been considered and included in the report.

Findings

Coeliac disease is now known to affect one in 100 of the population, including both adults and children. As more is understood about the pathophysiology of the disease and antibody screening techniques improve rates of diagnosis are increasing. The biopsy is still required for a firm diagnosis. The range of symptoms that is now recognised is far wider than previously thought, but symptoms are still often missed, or mis‐diagnosed as IBS. The treatment for coeliac disease is the gluten‐free diet, which controls the symptoms and reduces the risk of complications such as osteoporosis and gut cancer. Prescriptions of gluten‐free foods are known to improve adherence to the diet, and with the range of suitable foods in supermarkets increasing rapidly, gluten‐free living is becoming easier.

Originality/value

Information on several aspects of coeliac disease are presented in this paper to give the non‐expert a general, up‐to‐date overview of the disease.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

Ulrika Svensk

The disease management approach to improving health care, at the system as well as the hospital level, has proved to be very powerful, producing unprecedented results in…

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554

Abstract

The disease management approach to improving health care, at the system as well as the hospital level, has proved to be very powerful, producing unprecedented results in reducing costs while improving quality of care and patient satisfaction. The Boston Consulting Group (BCG), working with a variety of leading managed care providers and pharmaceutical clients, has pioneered the development and dissemination of the disease management concept. Defines the disease management approach and outlines how it differs from the traditional component management approach. Also describes the key elements of disease management, characteristics to look for in a candidate disease, and results achieved so far. Finally, discusses the three strategic roles a health‐care player can take in disease management.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 9 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Eric Arnaud Diendéré, Karim Traoré, Jean-Jacques Bernatas, Ouedan Idogo, Abdoul Kader Dao, Go Karim Traoré, P. Delphine Napon/Zongo, Solange Ouédraogo/Dioma, René Bognounou, Ismael Diallo, Apoline Kongnimissom Ouédraogo/Sondo and Pascal Antoine Niamba

The purpose of this paper is to study the factors associated with the occurrence of diseases and beriberi among prisoners incarcerated in the two largest Remand and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the factors associated with the occurrence of diseases and beriberi among prisoners incarcerated in the two largest Remand and Correctional Facilities (RCF).

Design/methodology/approach

This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study carried out from April 20 to May 19, 2017, in the RCFs of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso. All prisoners who consulted and those referred to the health center by the health-care team were included in the study. Complaints and diagnosed diseases information were collected using the second version of the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2). The authors used a logistic regression model to perform univariate and multivariate analyses.

Findings

Of the 1,004 prisoners from the two RCFs included in the study (32.6%), 966 (96%) were male. The median age was 31.6 years. The distribution of diseases diagnosed using the ICPC-2 showed a predominance of gastrointestinal tract, skin and respiratory tract diseases among 206 (19.3%), 188 (17.6%) and 184 (17.2%) prisoners, respectively. A total of 302 prisoners (30.1%) had clinical beriberi, and 80 prisoners (8%) were underweight. Being incarcerated for more than nine months was independently associated with a high risk of digestive and respiratory diseases as well as beriberi.

Research limitations/implications

This study highlighted higher frequencies of digestive, skin and respiratory complaints and diseases in the two largest detention centers in Burkina Faso. These diseases are variously related to age, penal status and length of incarceration. In addition, underweight and thiamin vitamin deficiency responsible for beriberi are more frequent in adult prisoners, those not attending school, convicted prisoners and those with a length of stay in detention of more than nine months. These concrete results should help define a strategy and priority actions needed to reduce morbidity in prisons.

Practical implications

The actions should include the intervention of specialists in the field of common diseases in prisons, the improvement of individual hygiene conditions and environment, the improvement of the quality and quantity of the food ration, a strategy to reduce prison overcrowding. Other actions must be planned to allow specific groups such as women and minors to have access to health care that is adapted to them. Beyond the central concern of promoting the rights of prisoners and humanizing prisons, actions to improve the health of prisoners are part of an overall public health approach with its socio-economic and environmental implications.

Social implications

There is a need for a strong commitment from the State to develop a prison health policy that prioritizes the prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases that are particularly prevalent in this context, without forgetting mental health and nutrition. This requires a collaboration of stakeholders based on better intersectorial communication, the implementation of a monitoring and evaluation system for the health of prisoners, an enhancement of the status of health-care providers working in prisons and an increase in the funding allocated to the health of prisoners with the mobilization of the necessary funds.

Originality/value

This study uses a primary health care classification to assess the health of inmates in a prison in Africa. It contributes to the weak evidence around prison health surveillance and health profiling of prisoners in Africa.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Koki Hirata, Kunichika Matsumoto, Ryo Onishi and Tomonori Hasegawa

The purpose of this article is to clarify the social burden of Japan’s three major diseases including Long-term Care (LTC) burden.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to clarify the social burden of Japan’s three major diseases including Long-term Care (LTC) burden.

Design/methodology/approach

A modification of the Cost of Illness (COI)—the Comprehensive-COI (C-COI) was utilized to estimate three major diseases: cancer, heart disease, and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). The C-COI consists of five parts: medical direct cost, morbidity cost, mortality cost, formal LTC cost and informal LTC cost. The latter was calculated by two approaches: opportunity cost approach (OC) and replacement approach (RA), which assumed that informal caregivers were substituted by paid caregivers.

Findings

The C-COI of cancer, heart disease and CVD in 2017 amounted to 10.5 trillion JPY, 5.2 trillion JPY, and 6.7 trillion JPY, respectively (110 JPY= 1 US$). The mortality cost was preponderant for cancer (61 percent) and heart disease (47.9 percent); while the informal LTC cost was preponderant for CVD (27.5 percent). The informal LTC cost of the CVD in OC amounted to 1.8 trillion JPY; while the RA amounted to 3.0 trillion JPY.

Social implications

The LTC burden accounted for a significant proportion of the social burden of chronic diseases. The informal care was maintained by unsustainable structures such as the elderly providing care for the elderly. This result can affect health policy decisions.

Originality/value

The C-COI is more appropriate for estimating the social burden of chronic diseases including the LTC burden and can be calculated using governmental statistics.

Details

Public Administration and Policy, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1727-2645

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2016

Adem Hiko and Gelgelo Malicha

This chapter reviews factors responsible for climate change, impacts of the change on animal health, zoonotic diseases, and their linkage with One-Health program.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter reviews factors responsible for climate change, impacts of the change on animal health, zoonotic diseases, and their linkage with One-Health program.

Design/methodology/approach

This chapter is based on the available literature related to climate change and its effect on animal health and production from different points. The causes and change forcers of climate change, direct and indirect effects of the change on animal health management, host–pathogen–vector interaction, and zoonotic diseases are included. Inter-linkage between climate change and One-Health program are also assessed.

Findings

Beside natural causes of climatic change, greenhouse gases are increasing due to human activities, causing global climate changes which have direct and indirect animal health and production performance impacts. The direct impacts are increased ambient temperature, floods, and droughts, while the indirect are reduced availability of water and food. The change and effect also promote diseases spread, increase survival and availability of the pathogen and its intermediate vector host, responsible for distribution and prevalence of tremendous zoonotic, infectious, and vector-borne diseases. The adverse effect on the biodiversity, distribution of animals and micro flora, genetic makeup of microbials which may lead to emerging and re-emerging disease and their outbreaks make the strong linkage between climate change and One-Health.

Practical implications

Global climate change is receiving increasing international attention where international organizations are increasing their focus on tackling the health impacts. Thus, there is a need for parallel mitigation of climate change and animal diseases in a global form.

Originality/value

Most research on climate change is limited to environmental protection, however this chapter provides a nexus between climate change, animal health, livestock production, and the One-Health program for better livelihood.

Details

Climate Change and the 2030 Corporate Agenda for Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-819-6

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2003

Beth E Jackson

Epidemiology is often described as “the basic science of public health” (Savitz, Poole & Miller, 1999; Syme & Yen, 2000). This description suggests both a close…

Abstract

Epidemiology is often described as “the basic science of public health” (Savitz, Poole & Miller, 1999; Syme & Yen, 2000). This description suggests both a close association with public health practice, and the separation of “pure” scientific knowledge from its application in the messy social world. Although the attainability of absolute objectivity is rarely claimed, epidemiologists are routinely encouraged to “persist in their efforts to substitute evidence for faith in scientific reasoning” (Stolley, 1985, p. 38) and reminded that “public health decision makers gain little from impassioned scholars who go beyond advancing and explaining the science to promoting a specific public health agenda” (Savitz et al., 1999, p. 1160). Epidemiology produces authoritative data that are transformed into evidence which informs public health. Those data are authoritative because epidemiology is regarded as a neutral scientific enterprise. Because its claims are grounded in science, epidemiological knowledge is deemed to have “a special technical status and hence is not contestable in the same way as are say, religion or ethics” (Lock, 1988, p. 6). Despite the veneer of universality afforded by its scientific pedigree, epidemiology is not a static or monolithic discipline. Epidemiological truth claims are embodied in several shifting paradigms that span the life of the discipline. Public health knowledges and practices, competing claims internal and external to epidemiology, and structural conditions (such as current political economies, material technologies, and institutions) provide important contexts in which certain kinds of epidemiological knowledge are more likely to emerge.

Details

Gender Perspectives on Health and Medicine
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-239-9

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Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2014

Parnali Dhar Chowdhury and C. Emdad Haque

The purpose of this chapter is to offer reflections on conventional theories concerning causes and determinants of diseases. It also intends to examine both theoretical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to offer reflections on conventional theories concerning causes and determinants of diseases. It also intends to examine both theoretical and empirical bases for adopting an Integrated Social-Ecological Systems (ISES) lens as a tool for understanding complexities related to drivers, determinants and causes of diseases.

Design/methodology/approach

We assessed the theoretical underpinnings of a range of historical and contemporary lenses for viewing infectious disease drivers and the implications of their use when used to explain both personal (i.e. individual) and population health. We examined these issues within the empirical context of the City of Dhaka (Bangladesh) by adopting an ISES lens. Within this study an emphasis has been placed on illustrating how feedback loops and non-linearity functions in systems have a direct bearing upon various aspects of infectious disease occurrences.

Findings

A brief triumph over microbes during the last century stemmed in part from our improved understanding of disease causation which was built using disciplinary-specific, monocausal approaches to the study of disease emergence. Subsequently, empirical inquiries into the multi-factorial aetiology and the ‘web of causation’ of disease emergence have extended frameworks beyond simplistic, individualistic descriptions of disease causation. Nonetheless, much work is yet to be done to understand the roles of complex, intertwined, multi-level, social-ecological factors in affecting disease occurrence. We argue, a transdisciplinary-oriented, ISES lens is needed to explain the complexities of disease occurrence at various and interacting levels. More theoretical and empirical formulations, with evidence derived from various parts of the world, is also required to further the debate.

Originality/value

Our study advances the theoretical as well as empirical basis for considering an integrated human-nature systems approach to explaining disease occurrence at all levels so that factors at the individual, household/neighbourhood, local, regional and global levels are not treated in isolation.

Details

Ecological Health: Society, Ecology and Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-323-0

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2017

Dorit Rubinstein Reiss

Much of the discussion surrounding the antivaccine movement focuses on the decision of parents to not vaccinate their children and the resulting danger posed to others…

Abstract

Much of the discussion surrounding the antivaccine movement focuses on the decision of parents to not vaccinate their children and the resulting danger posed to others. However, the primary risk is borne by the child left unvaccinated. Although living in a developed country with high vaccination rates provides a certain amount of protection through population immunity, the unvaccinated child is still exposed to a considerably greater risk of preventable diseases than one who is vaccinated. I explore the tension between parental choice and the child’s right to be free of preventable diseases. The chapter’s goal is twofold: to advocate for moving from a dyadic framework – considering the interests of the parents against those of the state – to a triadic one, in which the interests of the child are given as much weight as those of the parent and the state; and to discuss which protections are available, and how they can be improved. Specific legal tools available to protect that child are examined, including tort liability of the parents to the child, whether and to what degree criminal law has a role, under what circumstances parental choice should be overridden, and the role of school immunization requirements in protecting the individual child.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-811-6

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