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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2020

Kashif Munir and Ayesha Kanwal

The objectives of this study are threefold: firstly, to measure the impact of educational inequality on income inequality, and per capita income; secondly, to measure the…

1907

Abstract

Purpose

The objectives of this study are threefold: firstly, to measure the impact of educational inequality on income inequality, and per capita income; secondly, to measure the impact of gender inequality in education on income inequality, per capita income and educational inequality; and lastly, to test the Kuznets inverted U-shape hypothesis between inequality in education and average year of schooling.

Design/methodology/approach

The study has adopted the Marin and Psacharopoulos (1976) model of human capital in which income earned by an individual can be estimated as a function of number of year spent in schooling or education. Gini coefficient is used as a measure of income inequality, while inequality in education is measured by Gini index of educational inequality. Gender inequality in education is measured by the difference between male and female enrolment ratios as a proportion of male enrolment. The study utilizes the data of six South Asian countries, i.e. Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka from 1980 to 2010 at five-year average and employs fixed effect model (FEM) and random effect model (REM) for estimation.

Findings

Result suggests that educational inequality and average year of schooling have positive and significant impact on income inequality. Primary (basic) education and tertiary (higher) education reduce income inequality, while secondary education widens income inequality. Negative relationship exists between educational inequality and per capita income. Unequal distribution of education among boys and girls at primary level increases income inequality, while reduces income inequality at tertiary level. Gender inequality in secondary and tertiary level of education reduces per capita income, while unequal distribution of education among boys and girls further increases the educational inequality. Kuznets inverted U-shape hypothesis does not hold between education expansion and educational inequality, while weak U-shape relationship exists in South Asian countries.

Practical implications

Government has to provide free education in poor regions and makes employment programs to reduce the income and educational inequality respectively, while to remove gender inequality in education it is necessary to build more schools especially for girls. Government has to launch different online education programs for expansion in education at all levels.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literature by analyzing whether the inequality in income increases (decreases) due to increase (decrease) in educational and gender inequality in South Asian countries. This study contributes in the existing literature by developing a measure of educational and gender inequality in education in South Asian countries.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-04-2020-0226.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 December 2019

Kashif Munir and Mahnoor Bukhari

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of three modes of globalization, i.e. trade globalization, financial globalization and technological globalization…

1706

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of three modes of globalization, i.e. trade globalization, financial globalization and technological globalization, separately on income inequality on the Asian emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses Hecksher–Ohlin and the Stolper–Samuelson theorem as a theoretical model for the relationship between globalization and income inequality. The study uses pooled least square (POLS) and instrumental variable least square (IVLS) estimation technique but prefers the IVLS over POLS due to the problems of omitted variable biased and endogeneity. Due to unavailability of data for all the Asian emerging economies, the study uses the following 11 countries, i.e. Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand, from 1980 to 2014 for the trade and technological globalization model and from 1990 to 2014 for the financial globalization model.

Findings

Trade globalization significantly contributes to reduce income inequality in the Asian emerging economies. The impact of financial globalization on income inequality suggests that financial integration causes an increase in income inequality. Therefore, the benefits of financial globalization are not evenly distributed among the rich and the poor. The impact of technological globalization significantly contributes in the reduction of income inequality.

Practical implications

Government has to invest in research and development activities, establish efficient financial system, reduce trade restrictions and provide subsidies that help to increase the volume of trade.

Originality/value

This study contributes in the existing literature by analyzing the impact of trade globalization, financial globalization and technological globalization on income inequality in Asian emerging economies. The study provides useful guidelines to policy makers and governments to make effective policies in relation to globalization and income inequality that lead toward economic growth and reducing income inequality.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2018

Kashif Munir and Ayesha Ameer

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the long-run as well as short-run effect of economic growth, trade openness, urbanization and technology on environmental…

1296

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the long-run as well as short-run effect of economic growth, trade openness, urbanization and technology on environmental degradation (sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions) in Asian emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes the augmented STIRPAT model and uses the panel cointegration and causality test to analyze the long-run and short-run relationships. Due to the unavailability of data for all Asian emerging economies, the study focuses on 11 countries, i.e. Bangladesh, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand, and uses balance panel from 1980 to 2014 at annual frequency.

Findings

Results showed that the inverted U-shape hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curve holds between economic growth and SO2 emissions. While technology and trade openness increases SO2 emissions, urbanization reduces SO2 emissions in Asian emerging economies in the long run. Unidirectional causality flows from urbanization to SO2 emissions and from SO2 emissions to economic growth in the short run.

Practical implications

Research and development centers and programs are required at the government and private levels to control pollution through new technologies as well as to encourage the use of disposed-off waste as a source of energy which results in lower dependency on fossil fuels and leads to reduce emissions.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature by analyzing the effects of urbanization, economic growth, technology and trade openness on environmental pollution (measured by SO2 emissions) in Asian emerging economies. This study provides the essential evidence, information and better understanding to key stakeholders of environment. The findings of this study are useful for individuals, corporate bodies, environmentalist, researchers and government agencies at large.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2018

Kashif Munir and Zanib Javed

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of export composition (diversification or specialization) on economic growth of South Asian countries, while export…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of export composition (diversification or specialization) on economic growth of South Asian countries, while export diversification is further categorized into horizontal and vertical export diversification.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses Cobb-Douglas production function, in which export is augmented in the production function. To analyze the non-linear relationship (inverted U- or U-shape) with economic growth, square term of exports Herfindahl index, horizontal, and vertical export diversification are introduced in the model. Panel data of four countries of South Asia, i.e. Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka is utilized from 1990 to 2013 at annual frequency under fixed effect model.

Findings

Exports Herfindahl index represented inverted U-shape relationship with economic growth. An increase in export diversification lead to higher economic growth initially, however, after the threshold level, export specialization have positive impact on economic growth. Horizontal export diversification is not beneficial for economic growth initially, however, after the threshold level, introducing new sector increases economic growth in South Asian countries. Vertical export diversification has insignificant and U-shaped relationship with economic growth.

Practical implications

Education and skill formation are essential components for creativity and innovation, therefore attention must be paid toward labor training and education. Government must encourage the exporters to increase diversification in their export portfolio as well as provide incentives and technical assistance for research and development in the manufacturing sector.

Originality/value

This study contributes by analyzing the non-linear relationship between export composition, i.e. diversification (horizontal and vertical) or specialization and economic growth in South Asian countries. The study is useful to boost the potential level of exports on sustainable economic growth of South Asian countries. This study provides the essential evidence, information and better understanding to key stakeholders of exports.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Kashif Munir and Ayesha Ameer

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the long-run as well as short-run nonlinear effect of foreign direct investment (FDI), economic growth (EG) and industrialization…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the long-run as well as short-run nonlinear effect of foreign direct investment (FDI), economic growth (EG) and industrialization on environmental degradation (carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions) in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies a nonlinear autoregressive distributive lag methodology to examine the long-run and short-run relationship among the variables. FDI, EG and industrialization are decomposed into positive and negative variations to examine the nonlinear relationship with CO2 emissions. Granger causality test is used to examine the direction of causality among the variables. The study uses annual time-series data of Pakistan from 1975 to 2016.

Findings

An increase in FDI has a positive and significant effect on CO2 emissions in the long run, while a decrease in FDI has a negative and insignificant effect on CO2 emissions. An increase in EG has a positive and significant effect, while a decrease in EG has a negative and insignificant effect on CO2 emissions in the long run. An increase in industrialization has a positive and significant effect on CO2 emissions, while a decrease in industrialization has a negative and insignificant effect on CO2 emissions. Unidirectional causality flows from CO2 emissions to a positive partial sum of FDI, EG, industrialization and a negative partial sum of EG in the short run.

Practical implications

The government has to establish the environmental regulation for industrial sectors. Research and development centers are required at government and private levels to control pollution through new technologies. Regulations and restrictions are required on the foreign investor to adopt friendly environmental policies.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature by analyzing the nonlinear effects of FDI, industrialization and EG on environmental pollution in Pakistan. The main significance of this investigation is to provide the essential evidence, information and better understanding to key stakeholders of the environment.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 March 2019

Kashif Munir and Maryam Sultan

The purpose of this study is to analyze the export competitiveness of Pakistan with border-sharing countries, i.e. Afghanistan, China, India and Iran for the year 2014.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the export competitiveness of Pakistan with border-sharing countries, i.e. Afghanistan, China, India and Iran for the year 2014.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses revealed symmetric comparative advantage (RSCA) index to measure export competitiveness with border-sharing countries. The study has split the results into highest and marginal comparative advantage and disadvantage according to the rank.

Findings

Pakistan is exporting 160, 155, 133 and 60 commodities at three-digit level of Standard International Trade Code (Rev 3) classification to Afghanistan, China, India and Iran, respectively. The results suggest that Pakistan has highest and marginal comparative disadvantage in more than half of these commodities exported to border-sharing countries. Pakistan can improve its market share for rice in Afghanistan, China and Iran. Special measures and productive efforts are required to improve the export competitiveness of cotton, textile yarn and cotton fabric in border-sharing countries.

Practical implications

Pakistan has to adopt special strategies to improve the competitiveness of those commodities that fall in marginal comparative advantage and disadvantage. To increase the volume of cross-border trading, political and diplomatic channels are required among the countries especially the border-sharing countries.

Originality/value

Export competitiveness of Pakistan is analyzed for all the commodities exported to border-sharing countries and categorized into highest and marginal comparative advantage and disadvantage. To avoid the problem of asymmetry in Balassa index revealed comparative advantage, RSCA index is used.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Kashif Munir and Faqeer Syed Umaid Shahid

This study examines the long-run and short-run impact of demographic factors, i.e. life expectancy, fertility rate and young dependency ratio in determining the economic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the long-run and short-run impact of demographic factors, i.e. life expectancy, fertility rate and young dependency ratio in determining the economic growth of South Asian countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical foundation of the study relies on demographic transition theory and incorporates life expectancy, fertility rate and young dependency ratio into the production function by means of human capital component. The study uses annual panel data of four South Asian courtiers, i.e. Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka from 1980 to 2018 and utilizes panel ARDL model to analyze the long run and short run impact of demographic factors on economic growth.

Findings

Results show that real stock of capital, fertility rate and life expectancy are positively related with economic growth, while an increase in young dependency ratio reduces economic growth in South Asian countries in the long run. Short-run dynamics show that real stock of capital and life expectancy have insignificant impact on economic growth, while young dependency ratio has negative and significant as well as life expectancy has positive and significant impact on economic growth in South Asian countries. Unidirectional causality exists from young dependency ratio and fertility rate to GDP per capita in the short run.

Practical implications

Government has to design policies for better health and education facilities to yield high economic growth as well as better infrastructure and macroeconomic stability to facilitate capital accumulation in the region to foster economic growth.

Originality/value

This study considerably adds into the existing literature by providing better understanding of various demographic aspects and their economic inference by highlighting the demographic changes that South Asia has endured. This study is also beneficial for policymakers and growth analysts in generating effective and sustainable policies regarding population dynamics and economic development of the region.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Kashif Munir and Maryam Sultan

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of taxes on economic growth in the long run as well as in the short run.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of taxes on economic growth in the long run as well as in the short run.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses simple time series model, where real GDP is dependent variable and different forms of taxes are explanatory variables under ARDL framework from 1976 to 2014 at annual frequency for Pakistan.

Findings

Direct taxes have positive relation with economic growth in the long run. Sales tax, tax on international trade (tariffs) and other indirect taxes have positive impact on economic growth of Pakistan in the long run as well as in the short run. However, sales tax and other indirect taxes impact negatively on economic growth in the short run after one year because people realize decline in their real income.

Practical implications

Government should increase direct taxes by increasing tax base. Indirect taxes usually indicate negative impact after one and two years; therefore, government should decrease its reliance on indirect taxes. Government should promote tax awareness among the people which increase the tax morale of people and increase the tax base.

Originality/value

Taxes are disaggregated into direct and indirect taxes, while indirect taxes have been further disaggregated into excise duty, sales tax, surcharges, tax on international trade and other indirect taxes. This study provides useful insight for policy makers in designing taxes and their effect on growth.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Kashif Munir and Shahzad Arshad

The purpose of this paper is to examine the long-run and short-run relationship between factor accumulation (i.e. physical capital and human capital) and economic growth…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the long-run and short-run relationship between factor accumulation (i.e. physical capital and human capital) and economic growth by calculating the stocks of human capital and real physical capital.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses endogenous growth model, where GDP per worker is the dependent variable and factor accumulation (real physical capital per worker and human capital) is the explanatory variable under the autoregressive distributive lag framework from 1973 to 2014 for Pakistan.

Findings

The results suggest that there is a long-run relationship between factor accumulation and GDP per worker in Pakistan. Findings of the study are consistent with the endogenous growth model suggesting that accumulation of human capital increases labor productivity, employment level and per capita income, and causes economic growth.

Practical implications

Developing countries like Pakistan should increase share of human capital for economic development. Government should invest in the education sector because investment in human capital has a large potential of productivity growth and welfare increase in developing countries.

Originality/value

This study challenges the notion of human capital and real physical capital stock used by different researchers. Considering human capital as a core factor of production, a series of human capital as average year of schooling is calculated by utilizing the perpetual inventory method.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 October 2019

Amjed Javid, Awais Irshad, Munir Ashraf, Abdur Rehman, Shagufta Riaz and Kashif Iqbal

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of plasma treatment on the performance and color strength of pigment printed polypropylene nonwovens fabrics.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of plasma treatment on the performance and color strength of pigment printed polypropylene nonwovens fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

Melt spun nonwoven fabrics have been treated with plasma discharge using oxygen as a reactive gas to activate their surfaces for better interfacial interactions. The untreated and plasma treated fabrics are printed using pigment print pastes to investigate the print properties of nonwoven fabrics that are correlated to surface characteristics. The printed fabrics are characterized through FTIR, color fastness to washing and rubbing, flexural rigidity and moisture management observations.

Findings

The fabrics treated with oxygen plasma exhibited higher wettability, higher overall moisture management capability, enhanced color strength and superior color fastness to washing. However, bending length and flexural rigidity have been increased.

Originality/value

This study offers promising findings regarding the surface activation of polypropylene nonwovens for enhanced performance, comfort and color fastness characteristics.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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