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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Martin Freedman and Bikki Jaggi

Carbon dioxide emissions are considered to be one of the main culprits in global warming and the Kyoto Protocol specifically targets reductions in carbon dioxide to reduce…

Abstract

Carbon dioxide emissions are considered to be one of the main culprits in global warming and the Kyoto Protocol specifically targets reductions in carbon dioxide to reduce global warming. Because the fossil burning electric utility plants are the primary industrial source of carbon dioxide emissions, we examine how effective the U.S. electric utility companies have been in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. We evaluate 1998 carbon dioxide emissions in relation to the emissions of the base year of 1990 set by the Kyoto Protocol. We also examine whether adequate disclosures are being made by the utilities to reflect their pollution performance. The findings show that the total amount of carbon dioxide emissions increased by 35% in 1998 compared to 1990, but on a relative basis, they decreased from 205 to 204lbs/MMBTU. Though we detect some support for a positive association between pollution disclosures and pollution emissions, the electric utilities in general do not disclose much about global warming or carbon dioxide.

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Re-Inventing Realities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-307-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

R. Sathiendrakumar

Society has to find ways and means to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, to prevent global warming when considering inter‐generational equity…

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6302

Abstract

Society has to find ways and means to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, to prevent global warming when considering inter‐generational equity with respect to environmental quality. The aim of the carbon dioxide emission control is to keep the level of carbon dioxide below a certain threshold level. This paper deals with the various policy instruments that are available to control greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. The criteria that should be used in selecting the appropriate policy instruments in controlling carbon dioxide emissions are: efficiency, equity and flexibility. Based on these criteria, the author is of the view that in the short‐run it is important for all the countries to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. However, in the long‐run, it may be possible to use the Kyoto targets to achieve an international carbon dioxide emission tradable permit system.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 30 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Jonathan Chenoweth

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a range of different travel and tourism options, and quantifies the carbondioxide emissions resulting from…

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1963

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a range of different travel and tourism options, and quantifies the carbondioxide emissions resulting from international vacations, breaking down emissions categories into those resulting from transport, accommodation and recreation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses summary data to review a range of possible vacation scenarios and examines their relative carbondioxide emissions in order to compare the relative climatic impact of different forms of tourism and vacation options.

Findings

The paper concludes that intercontinental flights and cruise ship travel are particularly carbon‐intensive, which suggests that these two forms of tourism will be particularly vulnerable to any policy initiative to curb or price carbon emissions. Ends by considering whether climatically responsible international tourism is possible, and outlines some low‐carbon options.

Originality/value

The paper relates data on carbon emissions to the implications for tourism arising from climate change.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Book part
Publication date: 13 June 2017

David Hone

Abstract

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Putting the Genie Back
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-447-7

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Rabiul Islam and Ahmad Bashawir Abdul Ghani

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship among energy consumption (EC), carbon dioxide emission, economic growth, foreign direct investment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship among energy consumption (EC), carbon dioxide emission, economic growth, foreign direct investment, population, poverty, and income of four Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, namely, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, and the Philippines.

Design/methodology/approach

An econometric analysis was used to achieve the goal of this study taking the period of 1995-2014.

Findings

The results of the study motivated the researcher to recommend that four ASEAN countries, namely, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, and the Philippines should increase their energy efficiency, increase the share of green energy from their total energy use, and increase energy conservation in order to reduce the unnecessary wastage of energy.

Originality/value

The findings validate that economic growth, population, and income have positive and statistically significant impacts on EC, while carbon dioxide emission, foreign direct investment and poverty have negative impacts on EC for Malaysia. Economic growth, income and poverty have positive and statistically significant impacts on EC, while carbon dioxide emission, foreign direct investment and population have negative impacts on EC for Singapore. Carbon dioxide emission and foreign direct investment have positive and statistically significant impacts on EC, while economic growth, population, poverty and income have negative impacts on EC for the Philippines. Finally, economic growth, carbon dioxide emission and income have positive and statistically significant impacts on EC, while foreign direct investment, population and poverty have negative impacts on EC for Malaysia.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 13 June 2017

David Hone

Abstract

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Putting the Genie Back
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-447-7

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Book part
Publication date: 13 June 2017

David Hone

Abstract

Details

Putting the Genie Back
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-447-7

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Paul Adjei Kwakwa, Hamdiyah Alhassan and George Adu

Even though many studies have attempted to understand the drivers of carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption to help tackle environmental issues, not much has been…

Abstract

Purpose

Even though many studies have attempted to understand the drivers of carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption to help tackle environmental issues, not much has been done to estimate the effect of natural resources extraction on these two variables. This paper aims to analyze the long-run and short-run carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption effect of natural resources extraction in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical foundation for this study is the Stochastic Impacts Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model. Secondary Data sourced from World Development Indicators (2018) for the period of 1971-2013 were used. Estimation was done by using the autoregressive distributed lag.

Findings

It was found among other things that urbanization, and extraction of natural resources contribute to Ghana’s carbon dioxide emission, while official development assistance helps in reducing carbon dioxide emission in the long run. Again, while income and extraction of natural resources increase energy consumption, urbanization and official development assistance reduce environmental degradation in the long run. Regarding the short run, income and urbanization both increase energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission; trade openness and official development assistance decrease both carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption.

Research limitations/implications

The implications from the results include the need to strictly enforce laws regulating extractive activities in the country to ensure a safe environment; and also to raise tariff and non-tariff barriers on products that do not promote a friendly environment and vice versa.

Originality/value

The effect of natural resources extraction on carbon emission and energy consumption is examined.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2011

Nolana E. Lynch

Discussion on the phenomenon of climate change has bombarded our society within recent times. Scientists are consistently doing research, which indicates that many decades…

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350

Abstract

Discussion on the phenomenon of climate change has bombarded our society within recent times. Scientists are consistently doing research, which indicates that many decades of development has resulted in a rapid increase of greenhouse gases existing in the Earth’s atmosphere. This has exacerbated the natural Global warming effect and climatic variability provides evidence that the Earth’s climatic cycle is in fact being altered. In an attempt to reduce the percentage of greenhouse gases emitted, the concept of Carbon Management and the Carbon Footprint has been established. These tools are being introduced to promote more sustainable resource consumption patterns but in order to successfully initiate and sustain any new pattern of behaviour within a society, gender differences should be considered. The first and second waves of feminist theories have resulted in “gender” being given consideration in public policies and programmes in developed countries. Developing countries are slowly following. Even though gender equality is still a controversial issue, there is great need for gender to be included in all decision‐making processes to ensure that sustainable development is achieved. For this study, a gender analysis was conducted on carbon footprint data to identify whether there is a difference in the response to sustainable lifestyles. The strengths and weaknesses within each sub‐group were analysed. Emphasis was placed on how the socially‐accepted behaviours of each gender affected their energy usage, consumption and waste management practices. The detailed findings can be used to develop public awareness campaigns and programmes specially designed to fit the needs of each gender, thereby promoting equal development opportunities and ensuring that national sustainable development objectives are achieved in a shorter period.

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World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Pierre van Tonder and Malcolm Shaun Low

There is an increase in greenhouse gasses and global climate change is frequently reported on. What can be done? Certainly to try and reduce the carbon footprint, which is…

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64

Abstract

Purpose

There is an increase in greenhouse gasses and global climate change is frequently reported on. What can be done? Certainly to try and reduce the carbon footprint, which is not a new topic, by encouraging applications and activities for concrete during its lifetime (Portland Cement Association, 2019). This study aims to focus on introducing CO2 to normal and fly ash concrete and thus investigating the effect on the carbon footprint of the samples and the effectiveness of the CO2 introduction methods, namely, carbonated water addition during the mixing process and by means of an infusion pipe directly into the concrete when the samples are casted and have been casted.

Design/methodology/approach

The feasibility of carbon dioxide storage within concrete is determined by investigating the effects of introduced carbon dioxide into concrete samples and the effectiveness of the concrete at storing carbon dioxide. The concrete was mixed in a 1:3:3 ratio for the OPC or blended 52.5 R cement:sand:stone (22 mm) with a 28 day strength of 50 MPa. Samples were also prepared containing low-grade fly ash cement contents ranging from 15% to 60%. CO2 was introduced to the concrete via carbonated mixing water and an infusion pipe system directly to the hardening concrete cubes. In total, 16 g CO2 bicycle carbon dioxide inflators and valve system were used to infuse the concrete over a period of a week until the canister was emptied with valve release on the lowest setting. A compression test was carried out to determine the strength of the concrete cubes with, and without, the introduction of carbon dioxide. Results were also obtained using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS) to determine how the carbon dioxide changed the microscopic composition and chemical composition of the concrete. A microcontroller with carbon dioxide sensors was used to gather carbon dioxide emission data for a period of three months.

Findings

The compressive strength tests show by introducing carbon dioxide to the concrete, the compressive strength has increased by as much as 13.86% as expected from the literature. Furthermore, by infusing carbon dioxide with the fly ash blended cement, will give a higher strength compared to the control with ordinary portland cement. This correlates to an overall reduction in cost for the structure. The optimal fly ash content for the control with minimal strength degradation is 30%. Where the optimal fly ash content for the concrete with carbon dioxide stored within, is 45%. The SEM analysis showed the concrete with sequestered carbon dioxide has significantly more calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel formation, thus the strength increase. Furthermore, the carbon dioxide emission test showed the concrete with infused carbon dioxide stores carbon dioxide more efficiently compared to the control sample. With the data showing the infused sample releases 11.19% less carbon dioxide compared to the control sample. However, the carbonated water sample releases 20.9% more carbon dioxide when compared to the control sample. Thus the introduction of carbon dioxide by means of infusion is more effective.

Practical implications

This is a practical pilot investigation of carbon dioxide introduction via two methods, one being infusion of CO2 into normal concrete and fly ash concrete and two, mixing normal and fly ash concrete with carbonated water. These results show, cheaper cement can be used to achieve equivalent or better strength. This can help in the reduction of the construction industry’s carbon footprint.

Originality/value

By reducing the construction industry’s carbon footprint with this research results, a saving can not only be made financially in the construction industry, but this will help to preserve our environment for future generations.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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