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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2019

Uchenna Daniel Ani, Hongmei He and Ashutosh Tiwari

As cyber-attacks continue to grow, organisations adopting the internet-of-things (IoT) have continued to react to security concerns that threaten their businesses within…

Abstract

Purpose

As cyber-attacks continue to grow, organisations adopting the internet-of-things (IoT) have continued to react to security concerns that threaten their businesses within the current highly competitive environment. Many recorded industrial cyber-attacks have successfully beaten technical security solutions by exploiting human-factor vulnerabilities related to security knowledge and skills and manipulating human elements into inadvertently conveying access to critical industrial assets. Knowledge and skill capabilities contribute to human analytical proficiencies for enhanced cybersecurity readiness. Thus, a human-factored security endeavour is required to investigate the capabilities of the human constituents (workforce) to appropriately recognise and respond to cyber intrusion events within the industrial control system (ICS) environment.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach (statistical analysis) is adopted to provide an approach to quantify the potential cybersecurity capability aptitudes of industrial human actors, identify the least security-capable workforce in the operational domain with the greatest susceptibility likelihood to cyber-attacks (i.e. weakest link) and guide the enhancement of security assurance. To support these objectives, a Human-factored Cyber Security Capability Evaluation approach is presented using conceptual analysis techniques.

Findings

Using a test scenario, the approach demonstrates the capacity to proffer an efficient evaluation of workforce security knowledge and skills capabilities and the identification of weakest link in the workforce.

Practical implications

The approach can enable organisations to gain better workforce security perspectives like security-consciousness, alertness and response aptitudes, thus guiding organisations into adopting strategic means of appropriating security remediation outlines, scopes and resources without undue wastes or redundancies.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates originality by providing a framework and computational approach for characterising and quantify human-factor security capabilities based on security knowledge and security skills. It also supports the identification of potential security weakest links amongst an evaluated industrial workforce (human agents), some key security susceptibility areas and relevant control interventions. The model and validation results demonstrate the application of action research. This paper demonstrates originality by illustrating how action research can be applied within socio-technical dimensions to solve recurrent and dynamic problems related to industrial environment cyber security improvement. It provides value by demonstrating how theoretical security knowledge (awareness) and practical security skills can help resolve cyber security response and control uncertainties within industrial organisations.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Séverine Deneulin

The paper aims to examine the relationship between creating capabilities and political liberalism. It argues that the reality of climate change calls for the capabilities

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine the relationship between creating capabilities and political liberalism. It argues that the reality of climate change calls for the capabilities approach to be more rooted in a relational anthropology which the Aristotelian ethical tradition is more akin to.

Design/methodology/approach

It discusses how traces of this ethical tradition can be found in Nussbaum's capabilities approach itself: affiliation as an architectonic capability leads to the common good being the end of political action, and practical reason as an architectonic capability leads to reasoning being structured by concerns for the common good.

Findings

The paper suggests some practical implications of an Aristotelian version of the capabilities approach.

Originality/value

The paper seeks to build an account of social justice based on the capabilities approach with Aristotelian roots.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2020

Nicholas Mathew, Rajshekhar (Raj) Javalgi, Ashutosh Dixit and Andrew Gross

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of emerging market professional service small and medium-sized enterprises’ (PSF SME) internal competencies and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of emerging market professional service small and medium-sized enterprises’ (PSF SME) internal competencies and capabilities on their ability to establish relationship value among clients and achieve superior financial performance. This study addresses the paucity of research on emerging market PSF SMEs and their ability to build value for their clients.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 251 senior managers or owners of PSF SMEs who were from an emerging market economy but had operations in various foreign markets. The two-step structural equation modeling procedure was used to analyze the data and investigate the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

The results show the positive impacts of the PSF SME’s human capital on innovativeness, service capabilities and relationship value. Human capital also had indirect positive impacts on relationship value and financial performance. Service capabilities were found to have a positive impact on relationship value and financial performance. In addition, innovativeness was found to have a positive impact on financial performance.

Practical implications

Emerging market PSF SMEs can gain competitive advantages and build solid long-term relationships with clients in the global marketplace when they focus on strengthening their human capital resources and successfully leveraging their innovativeness and service capabilities.

Originality/value

The study fills a gap in international business and management literature by offering guidance on how emerging market PSF SMEs can effectively use their internal resources and capabilities to build solid relationships with clients, deliver superior services and achieve global marketplace success.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Vilma Seeberg

The human development and capability approach (HDCA) and its associated participatory method is receiving growing attention as a useful conceptual development for…

Abstract

The human development and capability approach (HDCA) and its associated participatory method is receiving growing attention as a useful conceptual development for comparative international education. HDCA challenges the economism so prevalent in world development thinking and, instead, looks at development as a process of enhancing persons’ incrementally achieved substantive freedoms from deprivations. The centrality of the person replaces the centrality of income growth.

The application of HDCA to the study of the role of education that promotes social justice change is illustrated by using an empowerment-capability framework to the long-term study of the benefits of village schooling for rural girls in western China.

Using HDCA to identify influences on social change, we derive a much more nuanced and valuable multi-dimensional view of human development, which enables us to draw broad implications for more effective policy. National policies should use a multi-dimensional informational base including equality, sustainability, and non-market dimensions of well-being as well as market production.

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

Dilip Subramanian, Joan Miquel Verd, Josiane Vero and Bénédicte Zimmermann

The aim of this paper is to introduce the special issue of the International Journal of Manpower on capabilities, work and human resource policies and practices. After…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to introduce the special issue of the International Journal of Manpower on capabilities, work and human resource policies and practices. After presenting the main concepts of the capability approach, inspired by Amartya Sen's work, the paper goes on to review the major findings of the contributions to this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Bringing together economists and sociologists, the special issue develops a relevant range of qualitative and quantitative research methods.

Findings

The special issue adopts the capability approach as a yardstick to assess corporate policies from the combined perspective of economic and human development. It asks how firms can contribute to developing sustainable human capabilities at work.

Originality/value

Human resource management is mainly oriented towards optimising workers’ labour for the benefit of employers and shareholders. The papers in this issue provide some well‐documented suggestions on how to break with a reductionist understanding of employees as “human capital”, considered from the sole viewpoint of economic efficiency, by introducing a shift in perspective towards an integrated approach, embracing both economic and human development.

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2019

Curtis Sproul, Kevin Cox and Amanda Ross

The purpose of this paper is to investigate different types of investment actions undertaken by entrepreneurial firms to determine how these actions influence performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate different types of investment actions undertaken by entrepreneurial firms to determine how these actions influence performance. Specifically, the effects of entrepreneurial action with regards to investments in human capital, the capabilities of the firm and the competitive dynamics of the business relative to other firms are examined. These actions are examined in conjunction with the offering of products, services or both, to determine the benefits of specific actions for firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample is taken from the confidential version of the Kauffman Firm Survey (KFS). The data are analyzed using a fixed effects model.

Findings

Results show that investment in human capital development actions and capability development actions improve firm performance. Further, investment in human capital development actions is shown to have the largest positive impact on the performance of firms that offer products only. Competitive positions actions have the greatest positive impact on firms that offer products and services.

Research limitations/implications

Results contribute to multiple theoretical lenses within the context of entrepreneurship and demonstrate applicability of theory related to entrepreneurial action to other established theories. Findings also demonstrate that different entrepreneurial actions benefit firms that offer products or services in different ways. Limitations of the study are those associated with survey research generally, such as self-reported measures, non-response bias and the KFS specifically such as survivorship bias and variance in survey items across years.

Originality/value

The consideration of firms whose primary focus is the selling of products compared to services and how they moderate specific actions is novel and valuable. Theoretical development tying human capital, competitive dynamics and dynamic capabilities to entrepreneurial action creates new avenues for inquiry.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Hsiu-Fen Lin

Grounded in the resource-based view and social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to develop a research model that offers a comprehensive understanding of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Grounded in the resource-based view and social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to develop a research model that offers a comprehensive understanding of the antecedents and consequences of electronic supply chain management (e-SCM) diffusion.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from 142 managers (in charge of e-SCM projects in their companies) of large Taiwanese firms were collected and used to test the hypotheses using hierarchical moderated regression analysis.

Findings

The results indicate that information technology deployment capability, operational capability, human resource capability, and knowledge sharing are important antecedents of e-SCM diffusion. In turn, higher levels of e-SCM diffusion lead to greater competitive performance. This study also finds that knowledge sharing plays a moderating role by strengthening the relationship between organizational capabilities (e.g. operational capability and human resource capability) and e-SCM diffusion.

Practical implications

Managers should recognize that human resource development activities (recruiting, training, and managing valuable e-SCM personnel) are an important source of e-SCM diffusion. Similarly, managers must establish the connection between human resource capabilities and e-SCM diffusion (i.e. “soft-side” e-SCM) such as hiring and retaining skilled e-SCM personnel, training and development for e-SCM personnel, and measuring e-SCM personnel’s global mindset over time.

Originality/value

Theoretically, this study aims to provide a research model that is capable of understanding the antecedents and consequences of e-SCM diffusion. From the managerial perspective, the findings of this study provide valuable decision guides for practitioners to help them identify and develop firm internal capabilities and social mechanisms that foster e-SCM diffusion.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Magnus Söderlund and Eeva-Liisa Oikarinen

Firms have begun to introduce virtual agents (VAs) in service encounters, both in online and offline environments. Such VAs typically resemble human frontline employees in…

Abstract

Purpose

Firms have begun to introduce virtual agents (VAs) in service encounters, both in online and offline environments. Such VAs typically resemble human frontline employees in several ways (e.g. the VAs may have a gender and a name), which indicates the presence of an assumption by VA designers – and by firms that employ them – that VA humanness is a positively charged characteristic. This study aims to address this assumption by examining antecedents to perceived humanness in terms of attribution of agency, emotionality and morality, and the impact of perceived humanness on customer satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was distributed online to participants who had been interacting with existing VAs, and they were asked to focus on one of them for this study. The questionnaire comprised measures of antecedents to perceived humanness of VAs, perceived humanness per se and customer satisfaction. A structural equation modeling approach was used to assess associations between the variables.

Findings

Attributions of agency, emotionality and morality to VAs contributed positively to the perceived humanness of the VAs, and perceived humanness was positively associated with customer satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Additional humanness capabilities should be explored in further research.

Practical implications

Firms using VAs in service encounters should make attempts to maximize perceived VA humanness, and this study shows that it may be beneficial if such attempts comprise signals that VAs have agency, emotionality and morality.

Originality/value

By examining VAs in terms of a set of fundamental human capabilities, the present study contributes to existing research on human–VA service encounters, which to date has focused on more superficial VA characteristics (such as if the VA has a face and gender).

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2017

Sukanya Panda and Santanu Kumar Rath

The purpose of this study underpins investigation of the impact of human IT capabilities (comprising business functions, interpersonal management and technology management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study underpins investigation of the impact of human IT capabilities (comprising business functions, interpersonal management and technology management expertise) on organizational agility (in terms of sensing and responding agilities). The moderating influence of IT infrastructure spending on this human IT–agility linkage is also thoroughly investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data collected from 300 IT personnel working in various publicly owned banking groups functioning across India are used for this study and structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to assess the human IT–agility link.

Findings

The two-fold research findings highlight the following: first, human IT capabilities enable both the sensing and responding components of agility and second, firms need to focus on translating huge and impudent IT investments into building superior capabilities to effectively shape agility.

Originality/value

This study greatly contributes to the information system (IS) literature by examining human IT capability and agility in terms of second-order constructs and provides a more holistic and comprehensive understanding of this unique relationship. The study precisely investigates the manner in which distinct human IT capability dimensions interact with both types of agilities along with the moderating effect of IT spending on this linkage.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2018

Santanu Mandal

Health-care supply chains must focus on efficient deployment of resources for ensuring optimal supply chain performance. With efficient supply chain (SC) performance…

Abstract

Purpose

Health-care supply chains must focus on efficient deployment of resources for ensuring optimal supply chain performance. With efficient supply chain (SC) performance, health-care entities would be able to address their patients’ requirements with great speed. This is the essence of health-care agility. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to focus on developing health-care agility through human capital, that is, innovative idea generation capabilities and specialised knowledge possessed by the firm employees. Because information technology (IT) capabilities play a dominant role in information exchange crucial to supply chain operations; the study considered the moderating role of three IT capabilities, viz. outside-in, spanning and inside-out IT capabilities on human capital and health-care SC performance association, and on health-care supply chain performance and health-care agility association.

Design/methodology/approach

Because the constructs used in the study mainly deals with issues specifically related to hospitals and their associated supply chains, the study collected perceptual responses from senior hospital managers. Perceptual responses were received through face-to-face interviews with 212 hospital managers working in different hospitals. The collected responses were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling.

Findings

Findings suggests positive influences of human capital on health-care SC performance and health-care agility. Furthermore, health-care SC performance was also found to result in enhanced health-care agility. The study further revealed positive moderation of outside-in, spanning and inside-out IT capabilities on human capital and health-care SC performance association and on health-care SC performance and health-care agility association.

Originality/value

The study addressed the importance of human capital in providing faster services to patients (i.e. agility) in health-care supply chains through improved SC performance. Furthermore, the study addressed the importance of different IT capabilities that enhance the importance of human capital in providing efficient and faster services through efficient SC performance.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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