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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2018

Julia Moeller, Zorana Ivcevic, Arielle E. White, Jochen I. Menges and Marc A. Brackett

The purpose of this paper is to use the job demands-resources model to investigate intra-individual engagement-burnout profiles, and demands-resources profiles.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use the job demands-resources model to investigate intra-individual engagement-burnout profiles, and demands-resources profiles.

Design/methodology/approach

A representative sample of the US workforce was surveyed online. Latent profile analysis (LPA) and configural frequency analysis examined intra-individual profiles and their inter-relations.

Findings

A negative inter-individual correlation between engagement and burnout suggested that burnout tends to be lower when engagement is high, but intra-individual analyses identified both aligned engagement-burnout profiles (high, moderate, and low on both variables), and discrepant profiles (high engagement – low burnout; high burnout – low engagement). High engagement and burnout co-occurred in 18.8 percent of workers. These workers reported strong mixed (positive and negative) emotions and intended to leave their organization. Another LPA identified three demands-resources profiles: low demands – low resources, but moderate self-efficacy, low workload and bureaucracy demands but moderate information processing demands – high resources, and high demands – high resources. Workers with high engagement – high burnout profiles often reported high demands – high resources profiles. In contrast, workers with high engagement – low burnout profiles often reported profiles of high resources, moderate information processing demands, and low other demands.

Originality/value

This study examined the intersection of intra-individual engagement-burnout profiles and demands-resources profiles. Previous studies examined only one of these sides or relied on inter-individual analyses. Interestingly, many employees appear to be optimally engaged while they are burned-out and considering to leave their jobs. Demands and resources facets were distinguished in the LPA, revealing that some demands were associated with resources and engagement.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2017

Eric G. Harris and David E. Fleming

The purpose of this study is to more closely examine the trait antecedents and outcomes of frontline employee productivity propensity. The study is the first to use a job

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to more closely examine the trait antecedents and outcomes of frontline employee productivity propensity. The study is the first to use a job demands-resources perspective on productivity propensity and it reveals that the inclusion of the construct into service worker personality studies significantly improves the explanatory ability of hypothesized models.

Design/methodology/approach

The study follows a job demands-resources perspective and uses an empirical study that included two subsamples: banking and health care. Path analyses were performed using two-group modeling to test the hypotheses. Mediation and hierarchical regressions were also used.

Findings

The findings indicate that the conscientiousness trait has a consistent effect on productivity propensity. More importantly, the findings reveal that productivity propensity influences role ambiguity, job satisfaction and self-rated service performance and that the addition of the construct into personality studies significantly improves the explanatory ability of personality models.

Research limitations/implications

This study presents further evidence that productivity propensity is an important construct in services research. Beyond previously established influences on bottom-line service productivity and manager-rated work performance, the current work indicates that it also influences FLE stress, engagement and work outcomes.

Practical implications

Managers work under pressures to ensure service productivity and are well aware of the importance of selecting job applicants who will fit the service role. This study provides additional evidence that the productivity propensity work resource should be considered when selecting employees. The work also suggests that customer workload and the standardization of the service environment impacts the influence of productivity propensity on service outcomes.

Social implications

Given the importance of transformative service experiences that uplift the experiences of consumers and employees, the productivity propensity of frontline service employees not only impacts the ability of the employee to satisfy customer needs, but also leads the employee to experience increased job satisfaction.

Originality/value

This work is the first work to consider the effects of productivity propensity from a job demands-resources perspective and, as such, the first to examine the influence of the construct on job satisfaction and service delivery.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Arnold B. Bakker and Evangelia Demerouti

The purpose of this paper is to give a state‐of‐the art overview of the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to give a state‐of‐the art overview of the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model

Design/methodology/approach

The strengths and weaknesses of the demand‐control model and the effort‐reward imbalance model regarding their predictive value for employee well being are discussed. The paper then introduces the more flexible JD‐R model and discusses its basic premises.

Findings

The paper provides an overview of the studies that have been conducted with the JD‐R model. It discusses evidence for each of the model's main propositions. The JD‐R model can be used as a tool for human resource management. A two‐stage approach can highlight the strengths and weaknesses of individuals, work groups, departments, and organizations at large.

Originality/value

This paper challenges existing stress models, and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well being. In addition, it outlines how the JD‐R model can be applied to a wide range of occupations, and be used to improve employee well being and performance.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2022

Yufan Shang, Yan Pan and Malika Richards

Organizations use enterprise social media (ESM) platforms to operate, function, and develop. However, the effectiveness of the use of ESM is inconclusive. This study aims…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizations use enterprise social media (ESM) platforms to operate, function, and develop. However, the effectiveness of the use of ESM is inconclusive. This study aims to explore the mechanism and boundary conditions of the relationship between employee ESM use and job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a 2-wave survey design, with a final sample of 481 employees from a large automobile company.

Findings

The results indicate that ESM use is beneficial and detrimental to job performance. On the one hand, ESM use is positively related to work overload, decreasing job performance. On the other hand, ESM use is positively associated with informational support, increasing job performance. A mediation test revealed that both work overload and informational support mediate the relationship between ESM use and job performance. Furthermore, job autonomy weakens the positive relationship between ESM use and work overload, but strengthens the positive relationship between ESM use and informational support.

Originality/value

This study provides a more balanced view of how ESM use influences job performance by demonstrating the opposing mediating roles of work overload and informational support. Further, this study fills a research gap by considering job characteristics when examining the boundary conditions of ESM use. Third, this study validates the generalization of the job demands-resources model in social media research.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 February 2022

Rhokeun Park

This study explores the role of intrinsic work values as a motivator in the workplace. By integrating the job demands–resources model and supplies–values fit theory, it…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the role of intrinsic work values as a motivator in the workplace. By integrating the job demands–resources model and supplies–values fit theory, it also investigates whether autonomy and worker co-operatives can strengthen the intrinsic motivation of employees who have strong intrinsic work values.

Design/methodology/approach

Longitudinal surveys collected at 25 worker co-operatives and 27 corporations were analyzed with a model in which a moderated mediation model and a mediated moderation model are integrated.

Findings

The results revealed that individuals with strong intrinsic work values had stronger intrinsic motivation and engaged less frequently in job search behavior. The moderation analyses demonstrated that employees with strong intrinsic work values were more strongly motivated in worker co-operatives than in corporations and that this result was obtained because more autonomy was granted in worker co-operatives than in corporations.

Research limitations/implications

To date, little research has examined the moderating roles of autonomy and worker co-ops in the associations of intrinsic work values with employee motivation and behavior. The present study contributes to the literature on work values and worker co-operatives by providing evidence that autonomy and worker co-operatives can accelerate intrinsic motivation of employees with intrinsic work values.

Practical implications

Managers should grant employees enough autonomy and opportunities to participate in decision-making to stimulate their motivation, especially for employees with strong intrinsic work values.

Originality/value

By integrating the job demands–resources model with the supplies–values fit theory, this study proposes interaction effects of a personal resource with job and organizational resources on intrinsic motivation.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 November 2022

James Chowhan and Kelly Pike

This study, using a comprehensive job demand–resources (JD-R) model, aims to explore the pressures of workload, work–life interface and subsequent impacts on employee…

Abstract

Purpose

This study, using a comprehensive job demand–resources (JD-R) model, aims to explore the pressures of workload, work–life interface and subsequent impacts on employee stress and job satisfaction, with implications for employee job performance, in the context of working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional sample of employees at seven universities (n = 4,497) and structural equation path analysis regression models are used for the analyses.

Findings

The results show that a partial mediation JD-R model was supported, where job demands (such as workload and actual hours worked) and job resources (including expectations, support and job security) have relationships with work interference with personal life and personal life interference with work. These have subsequent negative path relationships with stress. Further, stress is negatively related to job satisfaction, and job satisfaction is positively related to employee job performance.

Practical implications

Potential policy implications include mitigation approaches to addressing some of the negative impacts on workers and to enhance the positive outcomes. Timely adjustments to job demands and resources can aid in sustaining balance for workers in an uncertain and fluid environmental context.

Originality/value

This study makes a contribution to knowledge by capturing sentiments on working arrangements, perceived changes and associated outcomes during a key period within the COVID-19 pandemic while being one of the rare studies to focus on a comprehensive JD-R model and a unique context of highly educated workers' transition to working from home.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 November 2019

Andrea Roberto Beraldin, Pamela Danese and Pietro Romano

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how just-in-time (JIT)-related job demands, problem-solving job demands and soft lean practices (SLPs) jointly influence…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how just-in-time (JIT)-related job demands, problem-solving job demands and soft lean practices (SLPs) jointly influence employee well-being in terms of work engagement and exhaustion.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the job demands-resources model, lean-related job characteristics were classified as resources or demands, and a set of hypotheses was developed to test their effect on work engagement and exhaustion, including the potential interaction between job resources and demands. The hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical regression and structural equation modelling, based on data from 138 workers.

Findings

SLPs act as job resources in a lean company, increasing work engagement and reducing exhaustion. Conversely, JIT-related job demands act as a hindrance, reducing work engagement and increasing exhaustion. However, SLPs can reduce the effect of JIT-related job demands on exhaustion, and JIT-related job demands may enhance the positive effects of SLPs on work engagement.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides no conclusive evidence on the hypothesized role of problem-solving as a challenge job demand.

Practical implications

The results can guide practitioners’ understanding of how to implement lean without harm to employee well-being.

Originality/value

By employing a well-grounded psychological model to test the link between lean and well-being, the study finds quantitative support for: the buffering effect of SLPs on exhaustion caused by JIT-related job demands, and for the role of JIT as a hindrance. These novel findings have no precedent in previous survey-based research. In addition, it reveals the importance of studying SLPs at an individual level, as what matters is the extent to which workers perceive SLPs as useful and supportive.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 39 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Dina Guglielmi, Silvia Simbula, Wilmar B. Schaufeli and Marco Depolo

This study aims to investigate school principals' well‐being by using the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) model as a theoretical framework. It aims at making a significant…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate school principals' well‐being by using the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) model as a theoretical framework. It aims at making a significant contribution to the development of this model by considering not only job demands and job resources, but also the role of personal resources and personal demands as predictors of work engagement and burnout. In particular, it was hypothesised that job demands may mediate the relationship between workaholism and burnout, whereas job resources may mediate the relationship between self‐efficacy and work engagement and burnout.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey study was conducted. In total, 224 school principals (67 percent women) during training activities completed a questionnaire.

Findings

The results of SEM analyses largely supported the hypotheses by showing that personal variables operate as initiators of health impairment and motivational processes.

Research limitations/implications

The study lends support to the literature on individual resources that underlines the role that personal resources play in work engagement and burnout. It contributes to the JD‐R model by highlighting the role of personal demands (i.e. workaholism), which has an effect on the development of burnout in school principals.

Practical implications

The implications of these findings for interventions aimed at the promotion of school principals' well‐being are discussed.

Originality/value

This study advances the understanding of the role played by personal resources and personal demands in the job demands‐resources model. The value added is represented by the study of workaholism as personal demand, which in turn influences job demands and also the health impairment it triggers.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Wilmar B. Schaufeli

The purpose of this paper is to integrate leadership into the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. Based on self-determination theory, it was argued that engaging leaders…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate leadership into the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. Based on self-determination theory, it was argued that engaging leaders who inspire, strengthen, and connect their followers would reduce employee’s levels of burnout and increase their levels of work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted among a representative sample of the Dutch workforce (n=1,213) and the research model was tested using structural equation modeling.

Findings

It appeared that leadership only had an indirect effect on burnout and engagement – via job demands and job resources – but not a direct effect. Moreover, leadership also had a direct relationship with organizational outcomes such as employability, performance, and commitment.

Research limitations/implications

The study used a cross-sectional design and all variables were based on self-reports. Hence, results should be replicated in a longitudinal study and using more objective measures (e.g. for work performance).

Practical implications

Since engaged leaders, who inspire, strengthen, and connect their followers, provide a work context in which employees thrive, organizations are well advised to promote engaging leadership.

Social implications

Leadership seems to be a crucial factor which has an indirect impact – via job demands and job resources – on employee well-being.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates that engaging leadership can be integrated into the JD-R framework.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Jatin Pandey

Job performance is an important variable, which primarily affects outcomes at three levels: the micro level (i.e. the individual), the meso level (i.e. the group) and the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Job performance is an important variable, which primarily affects outcomes at three levels: the micro level (i.e. the individual), the meso level (i.e. the group) and the macro level (i.e. the organisation). This paper aims to identify, analyse and synthesise factors that affect job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Through an extensive integrative review of literature, this study identifies and classifies the factors that affect job performance. A synthesised model based on the schema of demands, resources and stressors is also developed.

Findings

The demands identified are grouped into physical, cognitive and affective. Stressors adversely affecting job performance are classified at an individual level, job level and family level. Finally, resources are classified at an individual level, job level, organisational level and social level.

Research limitations/implications

This review enhances the job demands-resources (JD-R) model to job demands-resources-stressors (JD-R-S) model by identifying a separate category of variables that are neither job demands nor resources, but still impede job performance.

Practical implications

The subgroups identified under demands, resources and stressors provide insights into job performance enhancement strategies, by changing, managing or optimising them.

Originality/value

This study helps in better understanding the factors that go on to impact job performance differentially, depending on the group to which they belong. It gives a holistic picture of factors affecting job performance, thereby integrating classifying and synthesising the vast literature on the topic.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000