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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2020

This study has two purposes. Firstly, it aims to investigate whether self-efficacy constitutes one of the mechanisms by which transformational leadership impacts on…

Abstract

Purpose

This study has two purposes. Firstly, it aims to investigate whether self-efficacy constitutes one of the mechanisms by which transformational leadership impacts on employee positivity in reacting to change. Secondly, it aims to investigate whether the extent of change moderates the relationship between transformational leadership, self-efficacy and reactions to change. This study also explores the possibility that when the extent of change is higher, the effectiveness of transformational leadership may be lower.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a sample of employees where the organization was going through significant change. Employee ratings on specific scales were used to measure transformational leadership, self-efficacy, affective commitment to organizational change, and intention to support change. A cumulative change index was used to assess the number of changes employees had experienced during the change process.

Findings

The results confirmed hypothesis 1 that transformational leadership was related to affective commitment and intention to support change and this was to a high level of statistical significance. Testing hypothesis 2 that self-efficacy mediated the effect of transformational leadership on commitment and intention to support change indicated that self-efficacy did mediate in this relationship confirming both hypothesis 2a and 2 b. The results did not support hypothesis 3a, with no significant interaction effect showing that the interaction between transformational leadership and self-efficacy did not differ between low versus high extent of change. However, the results did support hypothesis 3 b with the strength of the positive relationship between self-efficacy and reactions to change differing across high versus low extent of change. For both affective commitment and intention to support change, the interaction of self-efficacy and change index was significant.

Research limitations/implications

Current weaknesses in the transformational leadership research include: a bias towards heroic leadership and away from collective and shared process of leadership, the underlying processes have not been clearly identified, lack of precision about situational variables that may impact on these processes. This paper does not address the first weakness.

Practical implications

Self-efficacy gains importance when the extent of change is high. The results suggest that change managers should adopt a transformational style of leadership to enhance recipients’ self-efficacy to generate positive attitudes and behaviours during change. They also suggest the selection and training of managers in transformational leadership attributes and also the inclusion of this in the monitoring of managers’ behaviours in post. The research outlined in this paper makes a significant contribution to an organization’s capacity to achieve change, particularly when the extent of change is high.

Social implications

This research provides ways in which organizations can better achieve change through positive processes.

Originality/value

Transformational leadership can create a vision of the future and inspire followers to work to achieve it and to build hope and confidence for the future. This can prevent or overcome resistance to or reluctance about change. Lack of alignment of values between employees and the organization can result in change failure. This paper provides original insight into how change can be achieved by transformational leadership building self-efficacy.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Fayez Ahmad and Francisco Guzmán

Despite skepticism, consumers rely on online reviews for their purchase decisions. However, academics mostly argue that skepticism has an inverse relationship with…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite skepticism, consumers rely on online reviews for their purchase decisions. However, academics mostly argue that skepticism has an inverse relationship with consumer decision-making. This study aims to investigate the relationship among skepticism, reliance and consumer purchase decisions in an online review context. It also investigates the moderating role of review self-efficacy and regulatory focus in the relationship between skepticism and reliance on online reviews.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey with a nationally representative sample and two experimental studies are conducted.

Findings

Skepticism negatively affects consumers’ reliance on online reviews and reliance on online reviews mediates the relationship between skepticism and review-based purchase decisions. High review self-efficacy participants tend to rely more on online reviews than low review self-efficacy participants. Promotion-focused people rely more on online reviews than prevention-focused people, despite similar levels of skepticism.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute to the skepticism, self-efficacy and regulatory focus literature. The general framework of the relationship among skepticism, reliance and purchase decision is also applicable in an online review context.

Originality/value

The results provide evidence of a stronger reliance on online reviews of high review self-efficacy and promotion-oriented consumers compared to low review self-efficacy and prevention-oriented consumers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Xiaofan Tang and Shaobo Wei

Based on leadership and self-efficacy theories, this study investigates how team-level ambidextrous leadership influences employees' enterprise system (ES) use via their…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on leadership and self-efficacy theories, this study investigates how team-level ambidextrous leadership influences employees' enterprise system (ES) use via their self-efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study collected data from a cross-sectional survey including 218 employees working in 56 workgroups in a Chinese financial institution. The authors used a cross-level mediation analysis to test the research model.

Findings

The authors find that ambidextrous leadership influences employees' creative self-efficacy and performance self-efficacy and further improves employees' ES use. Moreover, creative self-efficacy mediates the relationship between ambidextrous leadership and explorative use, whereas performance self-efficacy mediates the relationship between ambidextrous leadership and both explorative and exploitative use.

Originality/value

This study first examines the relationships among ambidextrous leadership, self-efficacy and employees' ES use by developing a cross-level model. Furthermore, by considering ambidextrous leadership as an important team-level factor, this study extends a deeper understanding of ambidexterity theory of leadership in the ES context. In addition, our study extends self-efficacy theory by examining the mediating roles of the two types of self-efficacy (i.e. performance self-efficacy and creative self-efficacy) on ambidextrous leadership–ES use relationship.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Adie Irwan Kusumah, Haryadi, Adi Indrayanto and Iwan Setiawan

This study aims to determine the relationship between transformational leadership, self-efficacy, gender, intrinsic motivation and employee performance in mediating and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the relationship between transformational leadership, self-efficacy, gender, intrinsic motivation and employee performance in mediating and moderating roles.

Design/methodology/approach

Respondents in this study were 531 hotel employees (human resources development staff, financial, relationship) in Yogyakarta who were led by women. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses using AMOS 22.0.

Findings

The results show that transformational leadership has a positive and significant effect on employee performance, self-efficacy acts as a mediating variable on the relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance. The results also indicate that gender acts as a moderating variable by strengthening the relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance and intrinsic motivation acts as a moderating variable by strengthening the relationship between self-efficacy and employee performance.

Research limitations/implications

This study has two limitations. First, the research results cannot conclude the company in general because the sampling of this study is limited to the hotel business which is led by women only. Future research is needed to explore more deeply to compare the performance of employees in companies led by women and those led by men. Second, this study uses only one independent variable. Future research needs to be done to explore the effect of other variables on company performance, such as work culture, work environment and job satisfaction.

Practical implications

The main managerial contribution of this study is directed to companies that are interested in developing employee performance. First, self-efficacy is able to mediate transformational leadership in achieving employee performance. Besides this research offers a clear strategy for companies to stimulate their employees to strengthen leadership individually so as to improve the quality of their work. Thus, companies can carry out leadership training that is focused on being able to recognize employees who have low self-efficacy. If this is done, the company can reduce expenses that are not small but can make a significant contribution.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine the mediating and moderating role of transformational leadership, employee performance, self-efficacy, gender and intrinsic motivation, especially in a hotel business led by women in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2021

Farshad Parhamnia, Majid Farahian and Yusef Rajabi

As demonstrated in the literature, teachers’ knowledge sharing, self-efficacy and creativity display certain levels of cause-and-effect and correlational connections from…

Abstract

Purpose

As demonstrated in the literature, teachers’ knowledge sharing, self-efficacy and creativity display certain levels of cause-and-effect and correlational connections from different perspectives. Nonetheless, few studies, if any, have been reported on the interplay of these three concepts in the context of the language classroom. As such, this study aims to test a structural model of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ knowledge sharing, self-efficacy and creativity and specifically to examine the hypothesis that creativity mediates the relationship between EFL teachers’ knowledge sharing and self-efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

The participants were 384 EFL teachers from different language institutes across Iran. The EFL teachers were selected based on random stratified sampling method. To verify the research hypotheses, a quantitative correlational design was used in the present study. The quantitative data was collected using three questionnaires, and then descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Therefore, we used the EFL teachers’ creativity questionnaire developed by Khany and Boghayeri (2014), knowledge sharing behavior scale by Ramayah et al. (2014) and teachers’ self-efficacy questionnaire by Tschannen-Moran and Hoy (2001). To analyze the data, Pearson correlation and multiple regression were run.

Findings

The findings revealed the hypothesized model of relationships among the study variables. The results also confirmed the mediator role of creativity. The implications of the findings in relation to creativity, knowledge sharing and self-efficacy are discussed.

Originality/value

The bulk of research on teacher self-efficacy has concentrated fairly adequately on its relationship with factors such as teachers’ reflective practice, critical thinking, emotional intelligence, personality and student achievement. What seems to be rather missing in this line of research has to do with the exploration of the possible links among knowledge sharing, self-efficacy and creativity as interacting variables, especially in the context of Iran where teachers’ knowledge sharing is lower than expected. More importantly, no previous investigation has tapped into the mediating effect of creativity on the connection between English teachers’ knowledge sharing and self-efficacy.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Adeola Samuel Adebusuyi, Samson Olowo Kolawole, Hassan Salawu Abu, Olubusayo Foluso Adebusuyi and Adesina Adewale Ajulo

This study aims to investigate how new graduates in Nigeria can simultaneously pursue entrepreneurial and professional careers. Specifically, this study tested the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how new graduates in Nigeria can simultaneously pursue entrepreneurial and professional careers. Specifically, this study tested the contextual (socioeconomic status [SES]), person-based (an open personality) and cognitive-person (self-efficacy and outcome expectations) predictors of entrepreneurship, professionalism and leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The study design is cross-sectional. Data were collected from 363 new graduates from Nigerian tertiary institutions. Hypotheses were generated from social cognitive career self-management (CSM) variables. Research instruments were also revalidated for the Nigerian context, and regression path analysis was used to analyze the data.

Findings

This study’s key findings showed that SES and an open personality are predictors of entrepreneurship, professionalism and leadership (EPL) self-efficacy and intentions, entrepreneurial and job outcome expectations. Second, EPL self-efficacy predicted both entrepreneurial and job outcome expectations and served as a mediating variable for SES and an open personality. Third, entrepreneurial outcome expectations related to EPL intentions, whereas job outcome expectations did not. These results suggest that SES and openness personality trait are crucial for developing a versatile career mindset.

Research limitations/implications

This study demonstrated that individuals’ characteristics (i.e. cognitive and personality) and economic resources are crucial determinants of CSM. As this study is cross-sectional, future research could use a longitudinal approach to determine the cause-effect relationship.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first research to examine how new graduates can simultaneously explore entrepreneurial and professional careers in a developing country like Nigeria using the CSM theory.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2021

Swati Alok, Sudatta Banerjee and Swati Singh

This study aims to examine the relationship between work-family conflict (WFC) and personal self-efficacy among career persistent women in India. Further, this…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between work-family conflict (WFC) and personal self-efficacy among career persistent women in India. Further, this relationship was explained with the help of the mediating role of perceived managerial support.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 510 career persistent women working in the Information Technology (IT) sector in India. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and mediation was tested using Process- Macro.

Findings

Findings depicted a positive relationship between WFC and professional self-efficacy demand and self-efficacy challenges. Perceived managerial support was also found to be positively related professional self-efficacy. Furthermore, perceived managerial support was found to have a significant mediating effect in WFC and professional self-efficacy relationships.

Originality/value

Findings of the study may enhance the understanding of WFC in emerging economies, as most of the research has been done in the western context. Findings of the study are crucial, as it highlights the relationship between WFC and professional self-efficacy in the presence of perceived managerial support. Moreover, the paper uniquely discusses the role of WFC in professional self-efficacy among career persistent women in IT sector.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Peter Knight, Karen Peesker and Claudia C. Mich

The purpose of this exploratory study is to investigate the impact of sales education on recent graduates' career preparedness and understand how sales programs might…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory study is to investigate the impact of sales education on recent graduates' career preparedness and understand how sales programs might prepare students better for successful sales careers. We investigate the known competencies leading to sales success that were, or were not, adequately developed by their university sales programs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected and analyzed qualitative data from in-depth interviews with a sample of 20 recent university sales graduates working in a sales career. Over 23 h of interviews were transcribed and analyzed via NVivo. Braun and Clarke’s (2006) framework was applied in this study to code the data.

Findings

The study identifies that while respondents are positive about their overall sales education and feel confident about their knowledge of the sales process, they are not always confident in their ability to deal with ambiguity and the unknown. This study revealed that constructs of self-leadership and career choice self-efficacy deserve further consideration as components of the university sales program curriculum.

Research limitations/implications

As with all exploratory research, there are limits to generalizability; however, this study revealed that the constructs of goal setting, self-leadership and self-knowledge hold promise for further study as a means to increase sales-related self-efficacy and career readiness.

Practical implications

Respondents were positive about their overall sales education experience but identified a need for more effective sales education in cold calling, prospecting and the inherent level of rejection to be prepared for inside sales positions in which sales graduates increasingly start their careers.

Social implications

Lower turnover and better educational preparedness of sales program graduates clearly will accrue socioeconomic benefits.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the impact of sales education on recent graduates’ career preparedness and the first study for this journal to focus on sales as an area of professional competency and related sales pedagogy. Further, the qualitative methodology, which is relatively unique in sales research, provides rich data that is particularly useful for exploratory research to help provide a structure for universities to strengthen their sales programs through targeted training to help students enhance self-leadership and career preparedness.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Hamid Keshavarz, Amir Vafaeian and Ali Shabani

User behavior in online information evaluation is the result of a multitude of factors related to social, cultural, personal and psychological issues. The present study…

Abstract

Purpose

User behavior in online information evaluation is the result of a multitude of factors related to social, cultural, personal and psychological issues. The present study aimed to examine the effects of three important psychological variables including personality, self-efficacy and attitude on online information evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

Four validated measures were administrated in person and online among 355 postgraduate students at Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. For testing the possible relationships among the variables, the reliability, normality and Pearson correlation tests were performed by using SPSS 24.0. Moreover, to test the ten hypotheses of the research, the structural equation modeling was considered using AMOS 26.0.

Findings

The findings confirmed the first five research hypotheses indicating the direct positive relationships among the four variables except for the impact of self-efficacy on attitude. The mediated effects of the variables were not supported except for the mediating role of attitude in the impact of personality on online evaluation behavior. The variable personality was found to be fundamental among the tested paths because it influenced the information evaluation behavior, both directly and indirectly.

Originality/value

The study showed the impacts of the three variables, which demonstrates that online information evaluation is greatly affected by psychological factors.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Farzaneh Yazdani, Tore Bonsaksen, Dave Roberts, Ka Yan Hess and Samaneh Karamali Esmaili

The purpose of this paper is to investigate psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy for Therapeutic Use of Self (SETUS) scales, a questionnaire based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy for Therapeutic Use of Self (SETUS) scales, a questionnaire based on the Intentional Relationship model, and to investigate the factor structure and internal consistency of the English version of three-part SETUS questionnaire in occupational therapy students.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of this cross-sectional study included 155 students with age range 18–30 years, of which 95% were women. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed on the questionnaire scales, including the Self-Efficacy for Therapeutic Mode Use (SETMU), Self-Efficacy for Recognizing Interpersonal Characteristics (SERIC) and Self-Efficacy for Managing Interpersonal Events (SEMIE). The internal consistencies were calculated. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the strength of correlation among the scales.

Findings

The PCA confirmed that the items of each of the three proposed scales loaded strongly on one factor (self-efficacy for three factors of therapeutic mode use, recognizing interpersonal characteristics and managing interpersonal events). The Cronbach’s alpha for the SETMU, SERIC and SEMIE was 0.85, 0.95 and 0.96, respectively. The three scales significantly inter-correlated strongly (r ranging 0.74–0.83, all p < 0.001).

Originality/value

The SETUS questionnaire comprises three valid and reliable scales. It can be used by occupational therapy supervisors as a means to reflect on students’ self-efficacy in components of therapeutic use of self.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

Keywords

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