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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2022

Yufan Shang, Yan Pan and Malika Richards

Organizations use enterprise social media (ESM) platforms to operate, function, and develop. However, the effectiveness of the use of ESM is inconclusive. This study aims…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizations use enterprise social media (ESM) platforms to operate, function, and develop. However, the effectiveness of the use of ESM is inconclusive. This study aims to explore the mechanism and boundary conditions of the relationship between employee ESM use and job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a 2-wave survey design, with a final sample of 481 employees from a large automobile company.

Findings

The results indicate that ESM use is beneficial and detrimental to job performance. On the one hand, ESM use is positively related to work overload, decreasing job performance. On the other hand, ESM use is positively associated with informational support, increasing job performance. A mediation test revealed that both work overload and informational support mediate the relationship between ESM use and job performance. Furthermore, job autonomy weakens the positive relationship between ESM use and work overload, but strengthens the positive relationship between ESM use and informational support.

Originality/value

This study provides a more balanced view of how ESM use influences job performance by demonstrating the opposing mediating roles of work overload and informational support. Further, this study fills a research gap by considering job characteristics when examining the boundary conditions of ESM use. Third, this study validates the generalization of the job demands-resources model in social media research.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Jatin Pandey

Job performance is an important variable, which primarily affects outcomes at three levels: the micro level (i.e. the individual), the meso level (i.e. the group) and the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Job performance is an important variable, which primarily affects outcomes at three levels: the micro level (i.e. the individual), the meso level (i.e. the group) and the macro level (i.e. the organisation). This paper aims to identify, analyse and synthesise factors that affect job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Through an extensive integrative review of literature, this study identifies and classifies the factors that affect job performance. A synthesised model based on the schema of demands, resources and stressors is also developed.

Findings

The demands identified are grouped into physical, cognitive and affective. Stressors adversely affecting job performance are classified at an individual level, job level and family level. Finally, resources are classified at an individual level, job level, organisational level and social level.

Research limitations/implications

This review enhances the job demands-resources (JD-R) model to job demands-resources-stressors (JD-R-S) model by identifying a separate category of variables that are neither job demands nor resources, but still impede job performance.

Practical implications

The subgroups identified under demands, resources and stressors provide insights into job performance enhancement strategies, by changing, managing or optimising them.

Originality/value

This study helps in better understanding the factors that go on to impact job performance differentially, depending on the group to which they belong. It gives a holistic picture of factors affecting job performance, thereby integrating classifying and synthesising the vast literature on the topic.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2010

Veerle Brenninkmeijer, Evangelia Demerouti, Pascale M. le Blanc and I.J. Hetty van Emmerik

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands‐resources model.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands‐resources model.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was conducted among 146 teachers in secondary education. It was expected that detrimental effects of job demands (i.e. workload, interpersonal conflict) on emotional exhaustion would be more pronounced among individuals with a strong prevention focus (oriented towards safety and security). Favorable effects of job resources (i.e. autonomy, social support) on motivational outcomes were expected to be more pronounced among individuals with a strong promotion focus (oriented towards growth and development).

Findings

The hypotheses regarding the moderating role of prevention focus were confirmed, but the moderating effect of promotion focus appeared to be exactly opposite to expectations. The effect of job resources on motivational outcomes was more pronounced for individuals with a weak promotion focus.

Originality/value

To the best of one's knowledge, this is the first study to examine the role of regulatory focus in the job demands‐resources model. The study shows that regulatory focus is important in explaining individual responses to job demands and resources and may therefore be a relevant factor in career development.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Cristina Rubino, Christa L. Wilkin and Ari Malka

Recent years have seen an explosion in the study of emotions in organizations, and although emotions play a central role in the job stress process, their role is largely…

Abstract

Recent years have seen an explosion in the study of emotions in organizations, and although emotions play a central role in the job stress process, their role is largely neglected in empirical stressor–strain studies. Our chapter aims to build consensus in the literature by showing that discrete emotions provide a mechanism through which stressors exert their impact on well-being. By examining a larger domain of stressors, emotions, and well-being, we begin to develop and expand upon the nomological network of emotions. In an effort to build on the job demands–resources (JD-R) model, which includes both job demands (i.e., negative stimuli such as time pressure) and resources (i.e., positive stimuli such as autonomy), we include both negative and positive discrete emotions with the expectation that negative emotions will generally be linked to demands and positive emotions will be linked to resources. We also propose that there may be circumstances where demands trigger negative discrete emotions and lead to greater experienced strain, and conversely, where resources arouse positive discrete emotions, which would positively affect well-being. The model in our chapter sheds light on how discrete emotions have different antecedents (i.e., job demands and resources) and outcomes (e.g., satisfaction, burnout, performance), and as such, respond to calls for research on this topic. Our findings will be of particular interest to organizations where employees can be trained to manage their emotions to reduce the strain associated with job stressors.

Details

The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Job Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-586-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Marieke van den Tooren and Jeroen de Jong

The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the main propositions of the job demands-resources (JDR) model are moderated by type of contract (i.e. temporary contract…

2878

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the main propositions of the job demands-resources (JDR) model are moderated by type of contract (i.e. temporary contract vs permanent contract).

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected in a large, heterogeneous sample from different countries, sectors, and jobs (n=3,845). Hypotheses were tested by means of multilevel analyses.

Findings

Results showed moderate support for the main effects of job demands (job insecurity and time pressure) and job resources (autonomy and social support) and weak support for the buffer effect of job resources in the prediction of job satisfaction and general health. The impact of contract type on the main propositions of the JDR model appeared to be weak. Yet, the evidence that was found suggests that temporary workers may be more tolerant to job insecurity and more likely to benefit from the buffering role of autonomy than permanent workers.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate whether the relation between job demands and job resources and employee health and well-being differs for permanent workers and temporary workers.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Jack K. Ito and Céleste M. Brotheridge

This article seeks to apply the challenge–hindrance conceptualization of demands to a model that relates stressors to emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction…

1852

Abstract

Purpose

This article seeks to apply the challenge–hindrance conceptualization of demands to a model that relates stressors to emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Supervisory support, a resource, is posited as a precursor to demands, and work–family conflict (WFC) and interpersonal conflict (IPC) at work are expected to mediate the demand–strain and job satisfaction relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross‐sectional self‐report survey included a sample of 600 government employees in Canada.

Findings

In addition to directly influencing job satisfaction, supervisory support reduces strain and increases motivation by decreasing hindrances and interpersonal conflict. Also, although, challenge and hindrance demands are both positively associated with strain, task complexity is positively associated with job satisfaction, whereas role ambiguity and interpersonal conflict are negatively associated with job satisfaction. Furthermore, work–family conflict and interpersonal conflict fully mediate the effects of supervisory support, role conflict, and task complexity on strain, and they reduce the effects of ambiguity on strain. Thus, these factors have limited effects on strain by themselves; rather, they act on strain through emotional demands.

Research limitations/implications

Some challenges have a strong connection with resources, yet also induce strain. Future models should incorporate the challenge‐hindrance approach to classifying demands and should examine challenge demands that motivate people to engage in stressful activities. Also, although work‐family conflict and interpersonal conflict at work concern different spheres, future research should incorporate both spheres and employ emotional demands as mediating variables.

Practical implications

Given that some challenges can be motivating yet stressful, the consequences of interventions can be difficult to forecast. Results point to the importance of carefully designing interventions and the role of WFC and IPC as potential levers in managing strain arising from complex jobs and other types of challenges.

Originality/value

This paper considers a unique model of demands, resources, and outcome variables that contributes to the knowledge about how to address stress.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 October 2009

I.J. Hetty van Emmerik, Arnold B. Bakker and Martin C. Euwema

Departing from the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model, the paper examined the relationship between job demands and resources on the one hand, and employees' evaluations of…

3375

Abstract

Purpose

Departing from the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model, the paper examined the relationship between job demands and resources on the one hand, and employees' evaluations of organizational change on the other hand.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 818 faculty members within six faculties of a Dutch university. Data were analyzed using multilevel analyses with faculty as the grouping variable.

Findings

For the job demands, results show that emotional demands, but not workload, are negatively related to more favorable evaluations of organizational change. Regarding job resources, results show that support from the supervisor, job control, and opportunities for professional development is associated with more favorable evaluations of organizational change. Moreover, job control and support from the supervisor buffered the negative relationship between emotional demands and favorable evaluations of organizational change.

Research limitations/implications

One of the clear implications of this study is that organizations should try to provide their employees with adequate resources together with the ascertaining of jobs with low job demands such that people can fulfill their job without severe adverse working outcomes. If it is impossible to reduce or optimize specific demands, additional job resources should be provided.

Originality/value

The finding that job resources are important in shaping evaluations of organizational change perceptions is consistent with the idea that employees with enough resources will be motivated to do their job and to be motivated to participate in change processes. Employees, who perceive their work environment and their job as highly resourceful, are more likely to anticipate into a pending change effort.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2010

Jason Kain and Steve Jex

Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model is one of the most widely studied models of occupational stress (de Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman, & Bongers, 2003). The key…

Abstract

Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model is one of the most widely studied models of occupational stress (de Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman, & Bongers, 2003). The key idea behind the job demands-control model is that control buffers the impact of job demands on strain and can help enhance employees’ job satisfaction with the opportunity to engage in challenging tasks and learn new skills (Karasek, 1979). Most research on the job demands-control has been inconsistent (de Lange et al., 2003; Van Der Deof & Maes, 1999), and the main reasons cited for this inconsistency are that different variables have been used to measure demands, control, and strain, not enough longitudinal research has been done, and the model does not take workers’ individual characteristics into account (Van Der Deof & Maes, 1999). To address these concerns, expansions have been made on the model such as integrating resources, self-efficacy, active coping, and social support into the model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001b; Johnson & Hall, 1988; Demerouti, Bakker, de Jonge, Janssen, & Schaufeli, 2001a; Landsbergis, Schnall, Deitz, Friedman, & Pickering, 1992). However, researchers have only been partially successful, and therefore, to continue reducing inconstencies, we recommend using longitudinal designs, both objective and subjective measures, a higher sample size, and a careful consideration of the types of demands and control that best match each other theoretically.

Details

New Developments in Theoretical and Conceptual Approaches to Job Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-713-4

Article
Publication date: 14 January 2020

Happy Paul, Pawan Budhwar and Umesh Bamel

The purpose of this paper is to propose and empirically test a model that examines subjective well-being (SWB) components (affect balance and life satisfaction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and empirically test a model that examines subjective well-being (SWB) components (affect balance and life satisfaction, colloquially referred to as “happiness”), as the intervening variables between resilience and organizational commitment (OC), drawing on appraisal theory and job demands‒resources model.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an employee sample (n=345) from Indian organizations, this study uses structural equation modeling to confirm the differential mediating mechanism for OC dimensions.

Findings

The results suggest that resilience can create a pathway for positive emotions and increase life satisfaction, which, in turn, can help an employee to stick to the organization. Notably, findings indicate that affect balance fully mediates the linkages between resilience and affective commitment, whereas life satisfaction fully mediates the relationship between resilience and continuance commitment.

Practical implications

Besides making useful contributions to the concerned literature, the findings also have useful messages for managers and organizations trying to develop a committed workforce by building employee resilience.

Originality/value

Although previous studies have supported the relationship between resilience and OC, to date, no study has analyzed the motivational and cognitive process through which resilience relates to each dimension of OC (i.e. affective, normative and continuance).

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2022

Gang Li, Qiqi Zheng and Mengyao Xia

Due to the fact that most employees have been forced to work remotely during the lockdown resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, there is great concern about how to…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the fact that most employees have been forced to work remotely during the lockdown resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, there is great concern about how to alleviate increased stress among employees through human resource (HR) practices. Drawing upon the job demands-control (JDC) model and the job demands-resources (JDR) model, this study empirically investigated the direct effect of HR practices on employee stress in enforced remote work and the mediating role of sources of stress (SoS) and sense of control (SoC).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through an online survey platform called Wenjuanxing from March 15 to 22, 2020 in Hubei, China and from April 22 to 29, 2022 in Shanghai, China. Respondents scanned the QR code on WeChat to enter the platform. A total of 511 valid questionnaires were received with a response rate of 75.4%. After controlling demographic variables, the authors used the mediation modeling and PROCESS tool to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

HR practices negatively affect stress in enforced remote work among employees. Both SoS and SoC partially mediate the relationship between HR practices and stress. HR practices can alleviate stress via decreasing SoS and enhancing SoC, respectively. Moreover, employee care and training are found to be two key factors of HR practices to help employees alleviate stress in enforced remote work.

Originality/value

Lockdown as an extreme external condition has brought great challenges in employee work arrangement as well as HR practices. Although the relationship between HR practices and job stress was studied previously, there is a lack of research on the effects of HR practices on stress in enforced remote work due to lockdown. It advances knowledge on HR practices' stress-reducing effect in the context of remote work and provides suggestions for HR practitioners on ways of alleviating employee stress in remote work.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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