The Job Demands‐Resources model: state of the art

Arnold B. Bakker (Erasmus University Rotterdam, Institute of Psychology, Department of Work and Organizational Psychology, Rotterdam, The Netherlands)
Evangelia Demerouti (Utrecht University, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Utrecht, The Netherlands)

Journal of Managerial Psychology

ISSN: 0268-3946

Publication date: 3 April 2007



The purpose of this paper is to give a state‐of‐the art overview of the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model


The strengths and weaknesses of the demand‐control model and the effort‐reward imbalance model regarding their predictive value for employee well being are discussed. The paper then introduces the more flexible JD‐R model and discusses its basic premises.


The paper provides an overview of the studies that have been conducted with the JD‐R model. It discusses evidence for each of the model's main propositions. The JD‐R model can be used as a tool for human resource management. A two‐stage approach can highlight the strengths and weaknesses of individuals, work groups, departments, and organizations at large.


This paper challenges existing stress models, and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well being. In addition, it outlines how the JD‐R model can be applied to a wide range of occupations, and be used to improve employee well being and performance.



Bakker, A. and Demerouti, E. (2007), "The Job Demands‐Resources model: state of the art", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp. 309-328.

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Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2007, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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