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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2021

Rozbeh Madadi, Ivonne M. Torres, Reza Fazli-Salehi and Miguel Ángel Zúñiga

In this paper, two studies examine the effects of Hispanic-targeted ads on three consumer-brand relationships (i.e. brand love, brand attachment and attitude toward the…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, two studies examine the effects of Hispanic-targeted ads on three consumer-brand relationships (i.e. brand love, brand attachment and attitude toward the brand) and their behavioral outcomes. Additionally, this paper aims to examine how product involvement moderates these effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 demonstrates the linkages between three consumer–brand relationships (i.e. brand love, brand attachment and attitude toward the brand) and their antecedents. In Study 2, by testing the nomological network of the antecedents and consequences of brand love, the authors extend the results of the previous study.

Findings

Study 1 provides evidence that ethnic advertising has the strongest effect on brand love in comparison with other alternative consumer-brand relationship constructs. In Study 2, results show that only for low-involvement products, the perceived similarity of customers with Hispanic models in ads could lead to a higher positive attitude toward the ad. However, in the high-involvement condition, perceived similarity did not mediate the relationship between those constructs, which is in line with Elaboration Likelihood Model.

Practical implications

From the practical and managerial perspective, this paper proposes that managers should concentrate on ads with ethnic cues, especially for low involvement products. Hence, it would be worthwhile for companies to consider ads with ethnic cues to effectively develop deep consumer–brand relationships.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the effects of targeted ads on deeper relationships (e.g. brand love) and its behavioral consequences. Therefore, the authors show how Hispanic targeted ads could lead to deep consumer–brand relationships which encompass both the mind and heart of customers.

Objetivo

En este trabajo, dos estudios examinan los efectos de los anuncios dirigidos a los hispanos en tres relaciones entre el consumidor y la marca (el amor por la marca, el apego a la marca y la actitud hacia la marca) y sus resultados conductuales. Además, examinamos cómo la implicación del producto modera estos efectos.

Diseño

El Estudio 1 demuestra los vínculos entre tres relaciones consumidor-marca (el amor a la marca, el apego a la marca y la actitud hacia la marca) y sus antecedentes. En el Estudio 2, al comprobar la red nomológica de los antecedentes y las consecuencias del amor a la marca, ampliamos los resultados del estudio anterior.

Resultados

El Estudio 1 aporta pruebas de que la publicidad étnica es la que más influye en el amor a la marca, en comparación con otros constructos alternativos de relación entre los consumidores y la marca. En el Estudio 2, los resultados muestran que sólo en el caso de los productos de baja implicación, la similitud percibida de los clientes con los modelos hispanos en los anuncios podría conducir a una mayor actitud positiva hacia el anuncio. Sin embargo, en la condición de alta implicación, la similitud percibida no medió en la relación entre esos constructos, lo que está en consonancia con el Elaboration Likelihood Model.

Implicaciones practices

Desde el punto de vista práctico y de gestión, este trabajo propone que los gestores se centren en los anuncios con señales étnicas, especialmente para los productos de baja implicación. Por lo tanto, valdría la pena que las empresas tuvieran en cuenta los anuncios con señales étnicas para desarrollar eficazmente relaciones más estrechas entre el consumidor y la marca.

Originalidad/valor

Este trabajo investiga los efectos de los anuncios dirigidos en las relaciones profundas (i.e., el amor a la marca) y sus consecuencias conductuales. Por lo tanto, mostramos cómo los anuncios dirigidos a los hispanos podrían conducir a relaciones profundas entre el consumidor y la marca que abarcan tanto la mente como el corazón de los clientes.

目的

本文的两项研究考察了以西班牙裔为目标的广告对三种消费者-品牌关系(即品牌喜爱、品牌依恋和对品牌的态度)及其行为结果的影响。此外, 我们还研究了产品参与是如何调节这些影响的。

设计

研究1展示了三种消费者-品牌关系(即品牌喜爱、品牌依恋和对品牌的态度)与其前因之间的联系。另外, 通过在研究2中测试品牌热爱前因后果的法理网络, 我们扩展了之前研究的结果。

研究结果

研究1提供的证据表明, 民族广告对品牌喜爱的影响强于其他的消费者品牌关系建构。研究2的结果显示, 与西班牙裔模特的相似性只有在低介入产品中被感知, 才会让顾客产生对广告的更高积极态度。然而, 在高介入条件下, 感知相似性并没有调解这些建构之间的关系, 这与细化可能性模型是一致的。

实际意义

从实践和管理的角度来看, 本文建议管理者应该把注意力集中在有民族线索的广告上, 尤其是低介入产品。因此, 为了有效地发展深层次的消费者-品牌关系, 企业考虑带有民族线索的广告是值得的。

原创性

本文研究了目标广告对深层关系(如品牌喜爱)的影响及及其行为后果。因此, 我们展示了以西班牙裔为目标的广告是如何能够导致一个深层次, 顾客思想与心灵上的消费者-品牌深层关系。

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Elmira Shahriari, Ivonne M. Torres, Miguel Angel Zúñiga and Nourah Alfayez

This paper aims to explore the influence of four types of imagery stimuli (i.e. visual, olfactory, gustatory and auditory) on food craving intensity based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the influence of four types of imagery stimuli (i.e. visual, olfactory, gustatory and auditory) on food craving intensity based on the Elaborated Intrusion theory and the central role of mental imagery in the food craving experience. The roles of overall perception of sensory imagery attributes and perceived availability in moderating this process were also tested. The aim is to extract the positive aspects of food cravings by increasing them and shifting them toward healthy foods.

Design/methodology/approach

In an online experiment, 314 participants were randomly primed with each imagery condition. After being exposed to either healthy or unhealthy food pictures, participants completed a questionnaire measuring their craving state, trait food craving, imaging ability, BMI, dietary restraint, hunger and mood. At the end, the impact of food craving intensity on marketing outcomes (i.e. willingness to pay, price sensitivity and food intake) were tested.

Findings

As predicted, visual imagery was found to be the strongest stimulus inducing food craving followed by olfactory, gustatory and auditory stimuli. Furthermore, the results indicate that perceived availability of food is the only important variable moderating this process. Additionally, the results show that hunger makes consumers more susceptible to food cravings than mood. Moreover, food craving intensity showed significant impact on the two marketing outcomes: willingness to pay and food intake.

Research limitations/implications

First, the authors used a cheeseburger as unhealthy food and salad as healthy food, future studies can increase the generalizability of the findings by using other types of food. Second, physiological and psychological disorders should be considered and studied as influential factors on food cravings in future studies. Third, future studies should include some behavioral measures besides the analysis of state and trait craving. Fourth, although the main objective of this study was to compare the effect of different imagery stimuli on consumers’ food craving, there was no control (no-stimulus) condition.

Practical implications

Marketing strategists may benefit from the fact that encouraging consumers to visualize some specific type of food product along with informing them about its availability will elevate their craving for that food product. Hence, using this strategy in shopping environments could be beneficial. In the context of improving people’s diet, our results showed that encouraging people to visualize healthy foods (e.g. fruits and vegetables) might be more helpful than priming them with the benefits of eating healthy.

Originality/value

There has been a recent enthusiastic interest in identifying the role of food related mental imagery and stimuli in consumers’ decision making and their final consumption (Christian et al., 2016). Nevertheless, very few studies in marketing have paid attention to these underpinning stimuli driving food craving and the significant influence of this food craving phenomenon on marketing outcomes.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Reza Fazli-Salehi, Ivonne M. Torres, Rozbeh Madadi and Miguel Ángel Zúñiga

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of country affinity, ethnocentrism and product quality judgment on self-brand connection regarding both domestic and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of country affinity, ethnocentrism and product quality judgment on self-brand connection regarding both domestic and foreign brands.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involved an online experiment and was conducted using online questionnaires. Sampling was done among undergraduate students of a Southwestern university in the US. The data was analyzed using SEM with PLS.

Findings

The results showed, for foreign brands, consumer self-brand connection increased through the effect of country affinity and product quality judgment. For domestic brands, self-brand connection was influenced by ethnocentrism (and not country affinity or product quality judgment).

Research limitations/implications

This study only focused on one industry (i.e. Television industry), and the authors recommend future studies examine a broader range of industries. Moreover, other country related constructs such as national identity need to be examined in future studies.

Practical implications

Marketers focusing on global branding and international marketing can benefit from the findings of this paper by understanding the routes through which consumers build self-brand connections in foreign vs domestic settings. Additionally, marketers can, more effectively, invest their resources by focusing on the factors that can be influential (i.e. ethnocentrism for domestic brands vs country affinity and product judgment for foreign brands).

Originality/value

This study examines the effect of country affinity, ethnocentrism and product quality judgment for consumers' domestic country as well as a foreign country. Moreover, this study contributes toward the global branding literature by incorporating self-brand connection as a behavioral outcome.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2021

Reza Fazli-Salehi, Ivonne M. Torres, Rozbeh Madadi and Miguel Ángel Zúñiga

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of self-related traits on consumer self-brand connection (SBC) and communal-brand connection (CBC) in public vs private…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of self-related traits on consumer self-brand connection (SBC) and communal-brand connection (CBC) in public vs private consumption. Marketing practitioners will benefit by understanding the consumer traits that can be triggered and focused on in advertising campaigns. Moreover, it is important to know which traits have a significant impact on each product category section (i.e. public vs private use).

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment used a between-subjects design with two randomized blocks of publicly used brands and privately used brands. Within each block, the relationship between independent variables (narcissism and need for uniqueness [NFU]) and dependent variables (SBC, CBC and purchase intention) were analyzed using SmartPLS.

Findings

The results showed that narcissism has a significant positive impact on consumers’ SBC for publicly consumed products, no effect was found for CBC. NFU shows a significant positive impact on SBC and CBC for both categories. The results also showed a positive impact for SBC on purchase intention, no effect was found for CBC.

Research limitations/implications

Future research can examine brand names that people favor the most and test whether individuals’ narcissism and NFU is influential on their SBC and CBC with the brands, regardless of the exposure to the visual cues provided in this paper. Moreover, there are more behavioral outcomes that need examination. For example, it would be fruitful to see whether attitude toward the ad, or brand attitude are affected by consumers’ narcissism and NFU.

Practical implications

The results contribute to the effectiveness of advertising in different industries. For instance, brand managers and marketing practitioners can benefit by understanding which product types are more attractive to consumers based on their tendency toward uniqueness. Moreover, narcissism is another common trait that can be used to target consumers. Thus, certain product types may be more attractive to consumers based on their narcissism tendencies.

Originality/value

Despite the popularity of SBC and CBC research, there is limited knowledge about the consumer traits which can stimulate and enhance these concepts. As such, an important question that needs to be addressed is: “What consumer personality traits lead to higher SBC and CBC?” When it comes to self-concept, a limited number of studies exist that explore the actual types of personality or self-concept that generate a desired connection between the “self” and brands.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Reza Fazli-Salehi, Mohammad Rahim Esfidani, Ivonne M. Torres and Miguel Angel Zúñiga

Universities are increasingly encountering high levels of national and international competition. In order for universities to continue with their business success and…

Abstract

Purpose

Universities are increasingly encountering high levels of national and international competition. In order for universities to continue with their business success and expansion, they have relied on developing and maintaining a differentiated brand identity by improving their branding strategy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents of students’ identification with the brand of public universities in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

Sampling was done in multiple stages. In the first stage – using stratified sampling – students were recruited from distinct degree programs and universities based on the Iranian national demographic proportions. In the second stage, convenient sampling was used within each degree program category. For data collection, the interviewer distributed questionnaires among students regardless of age and gender. The number of questionnaires distributed in each university (i.e. the sample size in each university) was determined using the number of students in the country and percentage of students at each university.

Findings

The results showed support for the hypothesized positive relationship between brand identification and the antecedent factors including prestige, interorganizational and intraorganizational competition. On the other hand, the results showed no significant relationship between brand identification and the antecedent factors including distinctiveness and memorable experience. Outcomes (i.e. word-of-mouth, active engagement and loyalty) of brand identification were also tested and their relationships with brand identification are supported.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in the higher education sector in one cosmopolitan Iranian city (i.e. Tehran) to which Iranians from other cities travel to for studying. Thus, the results of this survey include a variety of sub-cultures. In the future, a study that incorporates all major metropolitan cities of Iran may increase the generalizability of the findings. Unrelated to the purpose of this study, a future research study may extend the currently studied geographical dimensions and examine the antecedents of students’ identification with the brand of public universities across different nations using a cross-cultural approach.

Practical implications

A study of the antecedents of students’ identification with the university brand can provide a guide for universities to manage their brand and marketing strategies. Managers of higher education institutions can take important steps in establishing a link between students and university brands. Managers can highlight interorganizational competitions. The authors recommended universities publicize and honor students’ success in academic competitions on the university website, via ceremonies dedicated to the student winners, and using print banners that identifies their name and achievement, among other mediums. Additionally, competitions can be promoted among students through professors and motivational speeches from recognized leaders.

Originality/value

Results revealed that brand prestige of public universities positively affects students’ identification. This study highlights the importance of national and international rankings of universities and the sensitivity of students to such rankings. Undoubtedly, this is evident in Iranian students’ behavior in selecting their university. Additionally, this study showed that brand distinctiveness of public universities does not significantly affect students’ identification with the university brand. Further examination is recommended to help explain this finding and a cross-cultural comparison will assist in this endeavor.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2010

Elten Briggs, Timothy D. Landry and Ivonne M. Torres

The primary goal of this study is to examine how services advertising strategy relates to the prevalence of minority portrayals in magazine advertisements.

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1900

Abstract

Purpose

The primary goal of this study is to examine how services advertising strategy relates to the prevalence of minority portrayals in magazine advertisements.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a content analysis method. Over 1,000 advertisements were collected, and 455 were employed in the study. Chi‐square difference tests were used to test hypotheses. A second sample was collected to verify some initial findings.

Findings

It was found that minority models were more likely to appear in advertisements for services than in advertisements for goods. Differences were also found across types of services. Asian models were overrepresented in advertisements for technologies, a product category with a strong services influence.

Research limitations/implications

Emphasis was placed on portrayals of African‐Americans and Asians, so findings are most directly applicable to these groups. The generalizability of the results may be limited to the types of publications from which the sample was drawn.

Practical implications

Given the frequency of minority portrayals in advertisements for services, especially for particular types of services, managers must consider implementing this approach to reach these customer groups. Those already implementing portrayals of minority models must be mindful of the negative effects of stereotyping.

Originality/value

The paper considers services advertising strategy in light of changes in the make‐up of the US population. It applies the same theoretical approach to explain differences in the frequency of minority portrayals in services advertising versus goods advertising, and across different types of services.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Miguel Angel Zúñiga, Ivonne M. Torres and Mihai Niculescu

This paper aims to show that high ethnic identifying Hispanics and Whites pursue different routes discussed in the Elaboration Likelihood Model when processing single…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to show that high ethnic identifying Hispanics and Whites pursue different routes discussed in the Elaboration Likelihood Model when processing single meaning versus polysemous slogan ads. The authors found that high ethnic identifying Hispanics used the peripheral route (processing fluency) to a higher extent compared to Whites who used the central route (comprehension) to process ads.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, 310 undergraduate students of a Southwestern university were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (slogan: single meaning vs polysemous) in a between-subjects experimental design. Subsequently, participants responded to statements measuring constructs of interest and demographics. Participants were debriefed at the end of the survey.

Findings

It was found that high ethnic identifying Hispanics used the peripheral route (processing fluency) to a higher extent compared to Whites who used the central route (comprehension) to process advertisements. Results suggest that while polysemous slogans are similarly interpreted by subject independent of their ethnic identification score, for single-meaning slogans, the impact of comprehension on attitudes toward the advertisement (AAD) is significantly different for low (vs high) ethnic identification individuals.

Research limitations/implications

A future study needs to study brand attitudes and purchase intentions. Additionally, strategies in developing advertisements that influence comprehension or processing fluency need to be studied.

Practical implications

This paper ' s contribution to the processing fluency literature is to propose that ethnic identification and slogan meaning are variables that have great potential in influencing consumers’ perceptions about advertisements. Advertisers will have these variables to control to maximize the persuasiveness of advertisements.

Originality/value

Minimal research focusing on polysemy in marketing exists. In advertising, comprehension is commonly studied, leaving processing fluency out. This research addresses the issue by focusing on how single-meaning and polysemous slogans are processed (via comprehension or processing fluency) by consumers and how their ethnic identification affects their AAD.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Ivonne M. Torres and Elten Briggs

The study seeks to examine two variables of interest to marketers in the area of services advertising, ethnicity and service involvement. The goal of this study is to…

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2383

Abstract

Purpose

The study seeks to examine two variables of interest to marketers in the area of services advertising, ethnicity and service involvement. The goal of this study is to investigate the relative effectiveness of ethnic‐targeting in services advertising, specifically, Hispanic‐targeted advertising. The purpose of this research is to understand what types of services can benefit from Hispanic‐targeted service advertising and develop practical implications for practitioners trying to spend advertising dollars more efficiently.

Design/methodology/approach

The impact of the advertising model's ethnicity on post‐exposure attitude toward high and low involvement service brands was explored.

Findings

The results of this quasi‐experimental study suggest that appealing to strong Hispanic identifiers may be highly desirable in terms of creating favorable attitudes toward service brands when advertising low involvement services, where, by definition, the consumer does not engage in intensive decision making and considers few attributes. Since few attributes are evaluated, obvious attributes such as ethnicity can easily influence choice. Finally, the findings of this study suggest that employing Hispanic‐targeted advertising may not be an effective strategy in promoting high‐involvement services since consumers consider more attributes and, therefore, ethnicity does not play a major role.

Originality/value

Of interest to marketers in the area of services advertising, ethnicity and service involvement.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2020

Manuel Jesus Ramirez, Ivonne Eliany Roman, Edgar Ramos and Andrea Stefano Patrucco

This paper aims to explore the antecedents and performance outcomes of supply chain integration in the agri-food industry in Latin America, a context that the literature…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the antecedents and performance outcomes of supply chain integration in the agri-food industry in Latin America, a context that the literature on supply chain management has not extensively addressed. The quinoa supply chain, an industry that has encountered a boost in market demand in the past year, is selected as the unit of analysis. Supply chain integration dynamics are analyzed to provide recommendations about integration strategies and benefits in the agricultural sector.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model was designed in this study, which includes the drivers (i.e. trust and commitment) and outcomes (i.e. operational and economic performance) of supply chain integration. The relationships were verified through a unique survey, the data of which were collected from 79 respondents operating at different levels of the Peruvian quinoa supply chain (i.e. suppliers, producers and customers). The proposed hypotheses were tested through the partial least squares (PLS) regression.

Findings

The results underscore the relevance of trust and commitment as enablers of supply chain integration initiatives in the agri-food industry. These factors are particularly essential for involving the farmers who are the most upstream actors in the supply chain and characterized by unstructured organizations. A high level of integration in these types of supply chain enhances the capacity to improve operational performance, which in turns positively affects the main economic indicators.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the discussion of supply chain integration in the agri-food industry, which remains unexplored thus far. It relies on a multitier collection of responses, which is extended to all the levels of the quinoa supply chain, thereby providing the study with a unique depth of analysis. Furthermore, this work contributes to the ongoing discourse on the performance impact of supply chain integration, which several SCM scholars have recently questioned.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

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720

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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