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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2021

Rozbeh Madadi, Ivonne M. Torres, Reza Fazli-Salehi and Miguel Ángel Zúñiga

In this paper, two studies examine the effects of Hispanic-targeted ads on three consumer-brand relationships (i.e. brand love, brand attachment and attitude toward the brand) and…

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Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, two studies examine the effects of Hispanic-targeted ads on three consumer-brand relationships (i.e. brand love, brand attachment and attitude toward the brand) and their behavioral outcomes. Additionally, this paper aims to examine how product involvement moderates these effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 demonstrates the linkages between three consumer–brand relationships (i.e. brand love, brand attachment and attitude toward the brand) and their antecedents. In Study 2, by testing the nomological network of the antecedents and consequences of brand love, the authors extend the results of the previous study.

Findings

Study 1 provides evidence that ethnic advertising has the strongest effect on brand love in comparison with other alternative consumer-brand relationship constructs. In Study 2, results show that only for low-involvement products, the perceived similarity of customers with Hispanic models in ads could lead to a higher positive attitude toward the ad. However, in the high-involvement condition, perceived similarity did not mediate the relationship between those constructs, which is in line with Elaboration Likelihood Model.

Practical implications

From the practical and managerial perspective, this paper proposes that managers should concentrate on ads with ethnic cues, especially for low involvement products. Hence, it would be worthwhile for companies to consider ads with ethnic cues to effectively develop deep consumer–brand relationships.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the effects of targeted ads on deeper relationships (e.g. brand love) and its behavioral consequences. Therefore, the authors show how Hispanic targeted ads could lead to deep consumer–brand relationships which encompass both the mind and heart of customers.

Objetivo

En este trabajo, dos estudios examinan los efectos de los anuncios dirigidos a los hispanos en tres relaciones entre el consumidor y la marca (el amor por la marca, el apego a la marca y la actitud hacia la marca) y sus resultados conductuales. Además, examinamos cómo la implicación del producto modera estos efectos.

Diseño

El Estudio 1 demuestra los vínculos entre tres relaciones consumidor-marca (el amor a la marca, el apego a la marca y la actitud hacia la marca) y sus antecedentes. En el Estudio 2, al comprobar la red nomológica de los antecedentes y las consecuencias del amor a la marca, ampliamos los resultados del estudio anterior.

Resultados

El Estudio 1 aporta pruebas de que la publicidad étnica es la que más influye en el amor a la marca, en comparación con otros constructos alternativos de relación entre los consumidores y la marca. En el Estudio 2, los resultados muestran que sólo en el caso de los productos de baja implicación, la similitud percibida de los clientes con los modelos hispanos en los anuncios podría conducir a una mayor actitud positiva hacia el anuncio. Sin embargo, en la condición de alta implicación, la similitud percibida no medió en la relación entre esos constructos, lo que está en consonancia con el Elaboration Likelihood Model.

Implicaciones practices

Desde el punto de vista práctico y de gestión, este trabajo propone que los gestores se centren en los anuncios con señales étnicas, especialmente para los productos de baja implicación. Por lo tanto, valdría la pena que las empresas tuvieran en cuenta los anuncios con señales étnicas para desarrollar eficazmente relaciones más estrechas entre el consumidor y la marca.

Originalidad/valor

Este trabajo investiga los efectos de los anuncios dirigidos en las relaciones profundas (i.e., el amor a la marca) y sus consecuencias conductuales. Por lo tanto, mostramos cómo los anuncios dirigidos a los hispanos podrían conducir a relaciones profundas entre el consumidor y la marca que abarcan tanto la mente como el corazón de los clientes.

目的

本文的两项研究考察了以西班牙裔为目标的广告对三种消费者-品牌关系(即品牌喜爱、品牌依恋和对品牌的态度)及其行为结果的影响。此外, 我们还研究了产品参与是如何调节这些影响的。

设计

研究1展示了三种消费者-品牌关系(即品牌喜爱、品牌依恋和对品牌的态度)与其前因之间的联系。另外, 通过在研究2中测试品牌热爱前因后果的法理网络, 我们扩展了之前研究的结果。

研究结果

研究1提供的证据表明, 民族广告对品牌喜爱的影响强于其他的消费者品牌关系建构。研究2的结果显示, 与西班牙裔模特的相似性只有在低介入产品中被感知, 才会让顾客产生对广告的更高积极态度。然而, 在高介入条件下, 感知相似性并没有调解这些建构之间的关系, 这与细化可能性模型是一致的。

实际意义

从实践和管理的角度来看, 本文建议管理者应该把注意力集中在有民族线索的广告上, 尤其是低介入产品。因此, 为了有效地发展深层次的消费者-品牌关系, 企业考虑带有民族线索的广告是值得的。

原创性

本文研究了目标广告对深层关系(如品牌喜爱)的影响及及其行为后果。因此, 我们展示了以西班牙裔为目标的广告是如何能够导致一个深层次, 顾客思想与心灵上的消费者-品牌深层关系。

Article
Publication date: 12 May 2022

Rozbeh Madadi, Ivonne M. Torres, Reza Fazli-Salehi and Miguel Ángel Zúñiga

From a distinctiveness theory and elaboration likelihood model (ELM) perspective, this study aims to investigate the determinants, the direct and indirect effects of ethnic…

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Abstract

Purpose

From a distinctiveness theory and elaboration likelihood model (ELM) perspective, this study aims to investigate the determinants, the direct and indirect effects of ethnic identification on brand attachment, brand love and behavioral outcomes. The authors examine two types of products (high- vs low-involvement).

Design/methodology/approach

In a survey, participants were randomly assigned to four conditions consisting of two high-involvement (i.e. a smart watch and a car) and two low-involvement (i.e. a soda/soft drink and a shampoo) stimuli. A total of 192 respondents participated in this study; 39% were male, 61% were female and 90% were 18-22 years old.

Findings

In line with ELM, the authors offer evidence that ethnic advertising is more effective for low-involvement products targeted at African American consumers. Results also showed that brand attachment partially mediates the effect of ethnic identification with the ad (EthIdenAD) and brand love. In summary, the structural equation modeling (SEM) results support the efficacy of ethnic-targeted ads for developing brand attachment, brand love and behavioral outcomes.

Practical implications

Using ethnically targeted ads to target minority groups may not be sufficient to increase the efficacy of ads. According to distinctiveness theory, African Americans with different levels of ethnic identification will respond differently to ad attitudes, brand attachment, brand love, identification with the model in the ad and varying degrees of belief that the ad was targeted toward them.

Originality/value

This study examines the effect of ethnically targeted advertising on brand love, and behavioral outcomes with the mediation effect of brand attachment and moderation effect of product involvement. The results of this study suggest several theoretical and practical implications for marketing and brand management, including directions for advertising strategy and consumer–brand relationships.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Elmira Shahriari, Ivonne M. Torres, Miguel Angel Zúñiga and Nourah Alfayez

This paper aims to explore the influence of four types of imagery stimuli (i.e. visual, olfactory, gustatory and auditory) on food craving intensity based on the Elaborated…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the influence of four types of imagery stimuli (i.e. visual, olfactory, gustatory and auditory) on food craving intensity based on the Elaborated Intrusion theory and the central role of mental imagery in the food craving experience. The roles of overall perception of sensory imagery attributes and perceived availability in moderating this process were also tested. The aim is to extract the positive aspects of food cravings by increasing them and shifting them toward healthy foods.

Design/methodology/approach

In an online experiment, 314 participants were randomly primed with each imagery condition. After being exposed to either healthy or unhealthy food pictures, participants completed a questionnaire measuring their craving state, trait food craving, imaging ability, BMI, dietary restraint, hunger and mood. At the end, the impact of food craving intensity on marketing outcomes (i.e. willingness to pay, price sensitivity and food intake) were tested.

Findings

As predicted, visual imagery was found to be the strongest stimulus inducing food craving followed by olfactory, gustatory and auditory stimuli. Furthermore, the results indicate that perceived availability of food is the only important variable moderating this process. Additionally, the results show that hunger makes consumers more susceptible to food cravings than mood. Moreover, food craving intensity showed significant impact on the two marketing outcomes: willingness to pay and food intake.

Research limitations/implications

First, the authors used a cheeseburger as unhealthy food and salad as healthy food, future studies can increase the generalizability of the findings by using other types of food. Second, physiological and psychological disorders should be considered and studied as influential factors on food cravings in future studies. Third, future studies should include some behavioral measures besides the analysis of state and trait craving. Fourth, although the main objective of this study was to compare the effect of different imagery stimuli on consumers’ food craving, there was no control (no-stimulus) condition.

Practical implications

Marketing strategists may benefit from the fact that encouraging consumers to visualize some specific type of food product along with informing them about its availability will elevate their craving for that food product. Hence, using this strategy in shopping environments could be beneficial. In the context of improving people’s diet, our results showed that encouraging people to visualize healthy foods (e.g. fruits and vegetables) might be more helpful than priming them with the benefits of eating healthy.

Originality/value

There has been a recent enthusiastic interest in identifying the role of food related mental imagery and stimuli in consumers’ decision making and their final consumption (Christian et al., 2016). Nevertheless, very few studies in marketing have paid attention to these underpinning stimuli driving food craving and the significant influence of this food craving phenomenon on marketing outcomes.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2023

Elmira Shahriari, Hamid Abbassi, Ivonne M. Torres, Miguel Ángel Zúñiga and Nourah Alfayez

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which cultural differences and slogan meaning type affect the role of comprehension in attitude toward the ad (Aad) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which cultural differences and slogan meaning type affect the role of comprehension in attitude toward the ad (Aad) and attitude toward the brand (Abrand) formation.

Design/methodology/approach

In an online experiment, a total of 256 adult participants from the USA (ranged in age from 19 to 26 years old) and 184 participants from France (ranged in age from 18 to 28) were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions (slogan: single meaning vs polysemous) in a between-subjects experimental design. After getting exposed to the ad, participants responded to questions related to their Aad, Abrand, comprehension, uncertainty avoidance and demographics.

Findings

Results from this research demonstrate the moderating effect of uncertainty avoidance and slogan type (single meaning vs polysemous) on the relationship between comprehension and Aad. The authors show that for polysemous (and not single meaning) slogans, comprehension results in more favorable Aad for low uncertainty avoidance individuals than for high uncertainty avoidance individuals. In addition, the authors demonstrate the mediating effect of Aad in the relationship between comprehension and Abrand.

Research limitations/implications

The authors used nationality as a proxy for culture. Future research should include other cultural dimensions in the development of conceptual models and analysis of data. Another limitation is that the authors used a college student sample for this research. A more representative sample should be used in future research to examine cultural differences in interpreting adverting messages. One other limitation concerns the measurement tool the authors used to measure objective versus subjective comprehension in this research. While the theoretical foundations of the two modes of comprehension are clear and robust, improved measurement tools can enhance the validity and reliability of future research. Finally, the authors suggest that future research examine the effect of such variables as figure-ground contrast, figure attractiveness, stimulus repetition, prototypicality, symmetry and semantic or visual priming that may impact the processing of brand slogans.

Practical implications

This study argues that the processing of brand slogans in advertising is impacted by culture. Individuals from different cultures perceive and comprehend brand slogans differently. This study contributes to the research stream that examines the influence of cultural dimensions on the effectiveness of advertising by focusing more precisely on the impact of uncertainty avoidance (one of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions). In the case of single meaning slogans, advertisers might diminish the use of objective comprehension advertising strategies to influence both individuals with high and low uncertainty avoidance. In the case of polysemous slogans, advertisers should consider that consumers with high uncertainty avoidance (vs low uncertainty avoidance) are impacted more by subjective comprehension (vs objective comprehension) when forming Aad and Abrand.

Originality/value

This research contributes meaningfully to the marketing literature by examining previous work on ad slogan processing through subjective vs objective comprehension and extending the analysis by incorporating culture as an important factor.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 August 2023

Anita G. Rodriguez, Rozbeh Madadi, Erin Baca Blaugrund, Ram N. Acharya, O. John Idowu, Miguel Ángel Zúñiga and Ivonne M. Torres

The purpose of this study is to investigate genetically modified food labeling effects on dietary restrained consumers’ perception and purchase intention based upon various labels…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate genetically modified food labeling effects on dietary restrained consumers’ perception and purchase intention based upon various labels and food type – whole versus processed.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (food type: whole vs processed) × 2 (product label: genetically modified organism [GMO] vs nongenetically modified organism [non-GMO]) research design was used in two steps. In the first step, the authors distributed 1,000 surveys, of which 858 surveys were used, and in the second step, the authors distributed 1,000 surveys and were able to use 891 surveys.

Findings

Results show that respondents with higher levels of dietary restraint have higher levels of perceived healthfulness. In addition, respondents with higher perceived healthfulness levels have a higher level of purchase intention for whole/GMO products, whole/non-GMO products, processed/GMO products and processed/non-GMO products. Moreover, the results show that individuals have higher purchase intention for whole/non-GMO than the whole/GMO products, whole/GMO than the processed/non-GMO products and processed/non-GMO than the processed/GMO products.

Research limitations/implications

A future longitudinal study with assigned tracking numbers is suggested. Given that four different blocks were randomized, comparing data among individual participants would be interesting, as the ability to compare responses would be feasible among the four separate blocks.

Originality/value

The results of this study may assist the government in policy development, food manufacturers in labeling techniques used and consumers by increasing transparency and information availability.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 February 2023

Rozbeh Madadi, Ivonne M. Torres, Reza Fazli-Salehi and Miguel Ángel Zúñiga

This research study examines how changing the logo to one that depicts social distancing impacts consumers’ attitude toward the brand, attitude toward social distancing…

Abstract

Purpose

This research study examines how changing the logo to one that depicts social distancing impacts consumers’ attitude toward the brand, attitude toward social distancing guidelines, intention to follow social distancing guidelines, purchase intention, logo evaluation and word of mouth (WOM).

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (logo type: conventional vs. novel) X 2 (product involvement: high vs. low) between-subjects experimental design was employed. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was run on the dependent variables (i.e. attitude toward the brand, attitude toward social distancing guidelines, intention to follow social distancing guidelines, purchase intention, logo evaluation and WOM).

Findings

The results indicate a significant moderating effect of product involvement. Individuals who were exposed to a novel logo for a low-involvement product demonstrated improved purchase intentions, attitudes towards the brand, WOM and intentions to follow social distancing guidelines.

Practical implications

From a practical perspective, the results suggest that managers at global brands should consider their brand’s response to the COVID-19 crisis. For example, Nike chose to frame its consumers’ athletic habits as a lifesaving call to action with a new advertising copy that proposed, “If you ever dreamed of playing for millions around the world, now is your chance: play inside, play for the world,” to stress the necessity for people to stay at home.

Social implications

From a theoretical perspective, the results of this study add to the emerging literature on CSR and logo changing, and particularly on following social distancing guidelines introduced in response to COVID-19, by exploring the link between COVID-19 advertising in promotional materials (logo changing) and outcomes such as attitude toward the brand, attitude toward social distancing guidelines, intention to follow social distancing guidelines, purchase intention, logo evaluation and WOM.

Originality/value

This research study adds to the literature on CSR and logo changing, primarily the contribution is based on the understanding of the impact of social distancing guidelines introduced in response to COVID-19. More specifically, this research study contributes toward the understanding of the link between COVID-19 advertising in promotional materials (e.g. logo changing) and outcomes such as attitude toward the brand, attitude toward social distancing guidelines, intention to follow social distancing guidelines, purchase intention, logo evaluation and WOM.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 35 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Reza Fazli-Salehi, Ivonne M. Torres, Rozbeh Madadi and Miguel Ángel Zúñiga

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of country affinity, ethnocentrism and product quality judgment on self-brand connection regarding both domestic and foreign…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of country affinity, ethnocentrism and product quality judgment on self-brand connection regarding both domestic and foreign brands.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involved an online experiment and was conducted using online questionnaires. Sampling was done among undergraduate students of a Southwestern university in the US. The data was analyzed using SEM with PLS.

Findings

The results showed, for foreign brands, consumer self-brand connection increased through the effect of country affinity and product quality judgment. For domestic brands, self-brand connection was influenced by ethnocentrism (and not country affinity or product quality judgment).

Research limitations/implications

This study only focused on one industry (i.e. Television industry), and the authors recommend future studies examine a broader range of industries. Moreover, other country related constructs such as national identity need to be examined in future studies.

Practical implications

Marketers focusing on global branding and international marketing can benefit from the findings of this paper by understanding the routes through which consumers build self-brand connections in foreign vs domestic settings. Additionally, marketers can, more effectively, invest their resources by focusing on the factors that can be influential (i.e. ethnocentrism for domestic brands vs country affinity and product judgment for foreign brands).

Originality/value

This study examines the effect of country affinity, ethnocentrism and product quality judgment for consumers' domestic country as well as a foreign country. Moreover, this study contributes toward the global branding literature by incorporating self-brand connection as a behavioral outcome.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2022

Reza Fazli-Salehi, Mahshid Jahangard, Ivonne M. Torres, Rozbeh Madadi and Miguel Ángel Zúñiga

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of interaction-based features of social media reviewing channels and vloggers’ self-disclosure in consumers’ parasocial…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of interaction-based features of social media reviewing channels and vloggers’ self-disclosure in consumers’ parasocial interaction with vloggers.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted using an online survey, and data was collected using Amazon MTurk. The respondents were asked to think of an online reviewing channel that they watch regularly and subsequently responded to a series of questions. The analysis was conducted using structural equation modeling via AMOS.

Findings

Both channel interactivity and vloggers’ self-disclosure displayed a positive impact on consumers’ parasocial interaction with vloggers, which eventually led to perceived trustworthiness, brand identification, communal–brand connection with the channel, purchase intention toward the recommended products and willingness to pay a premium price for extra services.

Research limitations/implications

Future research can examine the robustness of the findings by using a sample of internet users who are similar in terms of frequency, enthusiasm and duration of active usage.

Originality/value

Marketing managers can benefit from the findings of this study by understanding the dynamics of how influencers shape consumer perception and behavior. Owners of reviewing channels can gain insight on how to strengthen their bond with their viewers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2021

Reza Fazli-Salehi, Ivonne M. Torres, Rozbeh Madadi and Miguel Ángel Zúñiga

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of self-related traits on consumer self-brand connection (SBC) and communal-brand connection (CBC) in public vs private…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of self-related traits on consumer self-brand connection (SBC) and communal-brand connection (CBC) in public vs private consumption. Marketing practitioners will benefit by understanding the consumer traits that can be triggered and focused on in advertising campaigns. Moreover, it is important to know which traits have a significant impact on each product category section (i.e. public vs private use).

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment used a between-subjects design with two randomized blocks of publicly used brands and privately used brands. Within each block, the relationship between independent variables (narcissism and need for uniqueness [NFU]) and dependent variables (SBC, CBC and purchase intention) were analyzed using SmartPLS.

Findings

The results showed that narcissism has a significant positive impact on consumers’ SBC for publicly consumed products, no effect was found for CBC. NFU shows a significant positive impact on SBC and CBC for both categories. The results also showed a positive impact for SBC on purchase intention, no effect was found for CBC.

Research limitations/implications

Future research can examine brand names that people favor the most and test whether individuals’ narcissism and NFU is influential on their SBC and CBC with the brands, regardless of the exposure to the visual cues provided in this paper. Moreover, there are more behavioral outcomes that need examination. For example, it would be fruitful to see whether attitude toward the ad, or brand attitude are affected by consumers’ narcissism and NFU.

Practical implications

The results contribute to the effectiveness of advertising in different industries. For instance, brand managers and marketing practitioners can benefit by understanding which product types are more attractive to consumers based on their tendency toward uniqueness. Moreover, narcissism is another common trait that can be used to target consumers. Thus, certain product types may be more attractive to consumers based on their narcissism tendencies.

Originality/value

Despite the popularity of SBC and CBC research, there is limited knowledge about the consumer traits which can stimulate and enhance these concepts. As such, an important question that needs to be addressed is: “What consumer personality traits lead to higher SBC and CBC?” When it comes to self-concept, a limited number of studies exist that explore the actual types of personality or self-concept that generate a desired connection between the “self” and brands.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Reza Fazli-Salehi, Mohammad Rahim Esfidani, Ivonne M. Torres and Miguel Angel Zúñiga

Universities are increasingly encountering high levels of national and international competition. In order for universities to continue with their business success and expansion…

Abstract

Purpose

Universities are increasingly encountering high levels of national and international competition. In order for universities to continue with their business success and expansion, they have relied on developing and maintaining a differentiated brand identity by improving their branding strategy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents of students’ identification with the brand of public universities in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

Sampling was done in multiple stages. In the first stage – using stratified sampling – students were recruited from distinct degree programs and universities based on the Iranian national demographic proportions. In the second stage, convenient sampling was used within each degree program category. For data collection, the interviewer distributed questionnaires among students regardless of age and gender. The number of questionnaires distributed in each university (i.e. the sample size in each university) was determined using the number of students in the country and percentage of students at each university.

Findings

The results showed support for the hypothesized positive relationship between brand identification and the antecedent factors including prestige, interorganizational and intraorganizational competition. On the other hand, the results showed no significant relationship between brand identification and the antecedent factors including distinctiveness and memorable experience. Outcomes (i.e. word-of-mouth, active engagement and loyalty) of brand identification were also tested and their relationships with brand identification are supported.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in the higher education sector in one cosmopolitan Iranian city (i.e. Tehran) to which Iranians from other cities travel to for studying. Thus, the results of this survey include a variety of sub-cultures. In the future, a study that incorporates all major metropolitan cities of Iran may increase the generalizability of the findings. Unrelated to the purpose of this study, a future research study may extend the currently studied geographical dimensions and examine the antecedents of students’ identification with the brand of public universities across different nations using a cross-cultural approach.

Practical implications

A study of the antecedents of students’ identification with the university brand can provide a guide for universities to manage their brand and marketing strategies. Managers of higher education institutions can take important steps in establishing a link between students and university brands. Managers can highlight interorganizational competitions. The authors recommended universities publicize and honor students’ success in academic competitions on the university website, via ceremonies dedicated to the student winners, and using print banners that identifies their name and achievement, among other mediums. Additionally, competitions can be promoted among students through professors and motivational speeches from recognized leaders.

Originality/value

Results revealed that brand prestige of public universities positively affects students’ identification. This study highlights the importance of national and international rankings of universities and the sensitivity of students to such rankings. Undoubtedly, this is evident in Iranian students’ behavior in selecting their university. Additionally, this study showed that brand distinctiveness of public universities does not significantly affect students’ identification with the university brand. Further examination is recommended to help explain this finding and a cross-cultural comparison will assist in this endeavor.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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