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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Philip J. Kitchen, Gayle Kerr, Don E. Schultz, Rod McColl and Heather Pals

The purpose of this paper is to review, critique and develop a research agenda for the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). The model was introduced by Petty and Cacioppo…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review, critique and develop a research agenda for the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). The model was introduced by Petty and Cacioppo over three decades ago and has been modified, revised and extended. Given modern communication contexts, it is appropriate to question the model’s validity and relevance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a conceptual approach, based on a fully comprehensive and extensive review and critique of ELM and its development since its inception.

Findings

This paper focuses on major issues concerning the ELM. These include model assumptions and its descriptive nature; continuum questions, multi-channel processing and mediating variables before turning to the need to replicate the ELM and to offer recommendations for its future development.

Research limitations/implications

This paper offers a series of questions in terms of research implications. These include whether ELM could or should be replicated, its extension, a greater conceptualization of argument quality, an explanation of movement along the continuum and between central and peripheral routes to persuasion, or to use new methodologies and technologies to help better understanding consume thinking and behaviour? All these relate to the current need to explore the relevance of ELM in a more modern context.

Practical implications

It is time to question the validity and relevance of the ELM. The diversity of on- and off-line media options and the variants of consumer choice raise significant issues.

Originality/value

While the ELM model continues to be widely cited and taught as one of the major cornerstones of persuasion, questions are raised concerning its relevance and validity in 21st century communication contexts.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2020

Amani Alsalem, Park Thaichon and Scott Weaven

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of several social-cognitive models that have been lately applied in public health and donation contexts. The current review…

Abstract

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of several social-cognitive models that have been lately applied in public health and donation contexts. The current review included the elaboration likelihood model (ELM), the prototype willingness model (PWM), and the organ donation model (ODM). This review also details and discusses the main strengths and limitations of these models. Importantly, this review helps to identify the gap of the current social marketing and health-care literature. In particular, this chapter provides a solid theoretical foundation and has initiated further pathways for future researchers who are interested in the fields of public health and social change literature, organ donation context, as well as social-cognitive decision-making models. The significance of this review is defined by advancing public health practitioners, social marketing communicators, and educationalists, evidencing how conceptual models can inform and guide the research.

Details

A Guide to Planning and Managing Open Innovative Ecosystems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-409-6

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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Nirma Sadamali Jayawardena

The purpose of this theoretical paper is to introduce a conceptual model to investigate e-learning persuasion through gamification elements using the social psychology…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this theoretical paper is to introduce a conceptual model to investigate e-learning persuasion through gamification elements using the social psychology theory of elaboration likelihood model (ELM).

Design/methodology/approach

The author systematically reviewed several theoretical and empirical papers which applied the ELM in various settings. Based on the literature, the author identified six research prepositions which facilitate to investigate e-learning persuasion through gamification.

Findings

This study contributes to the existing literature by identifying an ELM-based conceptual model which can be used to empirically investigate the e-learning persuasion using gamification elements. Accordingly, the central route persuasion could be conducted through argument quality, demographic differences and technology context facilitated through gamification elements. The peripheral route persuasion could be conducted through variables such as source credibility, social presence and message content.

Practical implications

This study contributes important findings to the e-learning research by introducing a conceptual model–based on the social psychology theory of ELM. Thereby, this study introduces a method for the future researchers, to investigate the e-learning persuasion using gamification elements. Further, future researchers can use this model to investigate the e-learning persuasion through gamification in different contexts including primary, secondary and tertiary educational levels.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study can be considered as the first theoretical paper which developed an ELM-based conceptual model to investigate the e-learning persuasion through gamification in education context.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2008

Rita Martenson

The purpose of this research is to contribute to the understanding of how customer contact persons influence attitudinal and behavioral loyalty in three different customer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to contribute to the understanding of how customer contact persons influence attitudinal and behavioral loyalty in three different customer groups, who differ in terms of their motivation and ability to understand stock market information. The mutual fund product is one of last century's big success stories. Consumers invest a lot of money in complex financial products that they do not understand. Therefore, they need professional advice to make decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a nationally representative random sample of mutual fund owners. The elaboration likelihood (EL) model predicts that high, moderate, and low elaborators are different. Three such customer groups were therefore analyzed.

Findings

A path model shows that customer contact persons influence attitudinal and behavioral loyalty and that the impact is higher for high elaborators (higher knowledge and motivation to process stock market information) than for low elaborators. This suggests that the role of the contact person differs for different customer groups, i.e. the notion of multiple roles for variables.

Research implications/limitations

Future studies of complex services should acknowledge that different groups of consumers with different needs, preferences, and behaviors have different needs and preferences, and that they react differently

Practical implications

Customer contact persons must be rewarded for delivering value to customers. Unless they do, they will loose their unique opportunity to influence customers' decisions. They must adapt their communication to different customer groups, and acknowledge that the perception of what is valuable advice may differ.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates that a very simple and easy to use model can show the value of customer contact persons. All linkages in the model are tested, which is not done in prior research. In addition, different groups of consumers have different needs, preferences, and behaviors, a fact that is almost never acknowledged in prior research.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Xianjin Zha, Li Li, Yalan Yan, Qian Wang and Gang Wang

The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) provides a general framework for understanding the basic processes underlying the effectiveness of persuasion. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) provides a general framework for understanding the basic processes underlying the effectiveness of persuasion. The purpose of this paper is to utilize the ELM to understand the basic processes underlying the effectiveness of persuasion to use digital libraries for getting information.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey data collection was conducted in one comprehensive university. The partial least squares structured equation modelling was employed to verify the research model.

Findings

Source credibility and reputation have positive effects on information usefulness which further significantly impacts digital library usage for getting information. The effect of information quality on information usefulness is overpowered by reputation. Information need positively moderates the effect of information quality on information usefulness and negatively moderates the effect of reputation on information usefulness.

Practical implications

Digital libraries enormously influence the way how individuals gather information over the world. However, the important status of digital libraries as conventional information sources in practice invites appreciation by more and more people. The authors believe the findings of this study provide useful insights for facilitating digital libraries to be fully accessed and utilized.

Originality/value

This study explores the effects of the central route (information quality) and the peripheral route (source credibility and reputation) on digital library usage for getting information by extending the ELM with information need as a motivation variable, presenting a new lens for digital library research and practice alike.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 68 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2018

Juan Shi, Ping Hu, Kin Keung Lai and Gang Chen

As a new communication paradigm, social networking sites (SNS) have boosted information diffusion and viral marketing. Prior researchers have identified various factors…

Abstract

Purpose

As a new communication paradigm, social networking sites (SNS) have boosted information diffusion and viral marketing. Prior researchers have identified various factors affecting information dissemination on SNS. However, they often focus on limited factors and there is a lack of an integrated theoretical framework that explains aspects of relevant factors. Besides, the research on the impacts of relationships on individual retweeting behavior is still controversial. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework to systematically investigate the determinants of individual dissemination behavior on SNS based on the elaboration likelihood model (ELM). Moreover, the authors also examine the relative importance of those relevant factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors randomly selected 1,250 members of Twitter and crawled posts published by each member since he/she created the Twitter account using Twitter API. The authors processed the data to create panel data and tested hypotheses with the panel logit model.

Findings

Factors both on the central route and on the peripheral route of ELM have positive impacts on individual dissemination behavior. Among them, information receiver-related factor and relationships-related factors are the most influential. Contrastingly, source-related factors are the least influential. Furthermore, the authors find that social tie strength mediates almost 50 percent of the effect of value homophily on individual dissemination behavior.

Originality/value

The authors are the first to directly apply ELM to examine individual dissemination behavior on SNS. By integrating factors into the two information processing routes, They incorporate relevant factors into the model and systematically analyze their impacts on individual retweeting behavior on SNS. The research offers at least one explanation for the contradictory findings about the effect of homophily on individual sharing behavior in previous research. The authors propose new variables that gauge topical relevance and interpersonal value homophily on SNS.

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Morgan Atwood and Cristian Morosan

This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the effective use of Facebook within the hotel industry. It explored which current Facebook practices are…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the effective use of Facebook within the hotel industry. It explored which current Facebook practices are effective/persuasive using the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) as the main theoretical foundation.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an experimental design, the effects of consumers’ exposure to treatments, involving different levels of elaboration and source credibility, were examined to determine whether consumer’s process information from Facebook communication through a central or peripheral route.

Findings

The results of this research showed that consumer attitudes are affected by the source credibility, but not by the level of elaboration. Also, intentions to stay at the hotel and intentions to engage with the hotel brand via social media were not affected by the level of elaboration or source credibility.

Research limitations/implications

This study presents an important step forward in understanding how consumer persuasion takes place in an online environment. Also, this paper provides a first-hand account of the manner in which social media adds value to a business organization. In addition, this paper provides insight on how consumers process online information.

Originality/value

As this is the first conceptualization of the ELM in a social media context, this study is uniquely able to explain the concept of persuasion in the hotel industry. Such knowledge is invaluable to academics and hotel decision makers, especially because the research provides specific insights on the manner in which attitudes change in consumers.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 October 2020

Paula Rodríguez-Torrico, Sonia San-Martín and Rebeca San José Cabezudo

Nowadays some consumers consider themselves as “omnichannels” – they combine both physical and digital channels expecting a seamless shopping experience – since they view…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays some consumers consider themselves as “omnichannels” – they combine both physical and digital channels expecting a seamless shopping experience – since they view their shopping process from a multiple-channel viewpoint. Giving that situation, the aim of this paper is to test the role of consumers’ omnichannel tendency (omni-tendency) in the information processing in the digital channel.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), emotions as well as utilitarian and hedonic experiences are proposed to understand consumer attitude towards the digital store. Through a survey, data were collected from 284 digital shoppers. PLS path modelling and PLS-MGA were used to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The results confirm that emotions positively affect the evaluation of the experiences, which in turn improves the attitude towards the digital store. Focusing on the differences among consumers, the findings show that for consumers with low omni-tendency the emotions are key to improve the evaluation of their experiences. Moreover, regarding the attitude, consumers with more omni-tendency follow the central route to process the information; and consumers with less omni-tendency follow the peripheral route.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature in three ways. First, this research includes the study of omni-tendency, as a consumer trait, in the information processing developed in the digital channel, ignored in the literature. Second, this work contributes to information processing theories in digital context confirming, specifically the applicability of ELM into the omnichannel context. This offers support to the application of traditional theories to explain new phenomena. Third, and in line with the previous contribution, this work goes a step further in understanding ELM theory by including other constructs –the omni-tendency and emotions– to explain the information processing in the digital context.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 44 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Tao Zhou

The purpose of this research is to draw on the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) to examine users' information adoption intention in online health communities (OHC).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to draw on the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) to examine users' information adoption intention in online health communities (OHC).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected 350 valid responses using a survey and conducted the moderated regression analysis to examine the research model.

Findings

The results indicated that users' information adoption intention is influenced by both central cues (argument quality) and peripheral cues (source credibility and emotional support). In addition, self-efficacy moderates the effect of both central cues and peripheral cues on information adoption intention.

Originality/value

Previous research has focused on the effect of individual motivations such as reciprocity and benefits on user behavior, and has seldom disclosed the influencing process of external factors on OHC users' behavioral decision. This research tries to fill the gap by adopting ELM to uncover the mechanism underlying OHC users' information adoption.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2020

Lili Shang, Junjie Zhou and Meiyun Zuo

Social media greatly enhances public access to health information and thus attracts older adults who tend to attach more importance to their health. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Social media greatly enhances public access to health information and thus attracts older adults who tend to attach more importance to their health. This study aims to identify the factors that contribute to the likelihood of older adults' health information sharing on social media.

Design/methodology/approach

By drawing on health belief (HBM) and elaboration likelihood models (ELM), a novel conceptual model integrating older adults' health belief and information processing is established to uncover the factors. Online survey data from 290 Chinese older adult users of WeChat, the most popular social media platform in China, were collected to test the research model.

Findings

As health belief-related variables, perceived susceptibility is positively associated with health information-sharing intention (HISI), while perceived severity negatively influences HISI, which is contrary to prior findings. For information processing, the positive impacts of argument quality and source credibility on HISI are fully mediated by perceived usefulness.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first studies to explore the initiative use of information and communication technology among older adults. The new theoretical perspective proposed herein considers health belief and information processing perspectives in a complementary manner and can facilitate an overall analysis of the factors influencing older adults' HISI in a social media context. This study also furthers understandings of the ELM and expands the theory of HBM to take the age of decision makers into account.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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