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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Maike Andresen and Jil Margenfeld

International relocation for work reasons implies uncertainty and stress, resulting in high expatriate failure rates. Hence, organizations should consider employee’s…

1518

Abstract

Purpose

International relocation for work reasons implies uncertainty and stress, resulting in high expatriate failure rates. Hence, organizations should consider employee’s international relocation mobility readiness (IRMR) in selection processes. The purpose of this paper is to identify personal as well as social antecedents of IRMR.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered by an online survey (n=273 German employees) and analyzed using SEM.

Findings

SEM results indicate that attitudinal (boundaryless mindset), biographical (previous international work experience) and social variables (the perceived social endorsement of international relocation mobility) are positively related to IRMR. The positive relationship between personality variables (uncertainty tolerance, proactive personality) and IRMR is mediated by boundaryless mindset.

Research limitations/implications

The sampling method applied limits the generalization of the results.

Practical implications

Results can be applied in personnel selection to find employees with a strong IRMR. Thus, expatriate failure rates could be reduced.

Originality/value

This is the first study that addressed personal as well as social antecedents of IRMR.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Yong-Sik Hwang and Dong Chen

This paper aims to examine Korean jewelry manufacturers operating in China to assess the relationship between their perceptions of external risks and their intentions to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine Korean jewelry manufacturers operating in China to assess the relationship between their perceptions of external risks and their intentions to relocate. The authors hypothesize that foreign firms finding risk in the current external environment are more likely to consider moving their facilities outside China. In particular, this paper explores whether firm performance and technological capability moderate the relationship between perceived external risk and relocation intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Korean jewelry manufacturers were among the first Korean firms entering China in the early 1990s to avoid Korea’s rising labor costs. After 20 years, they face similar external risks in China. The authors collected and analyzed 238 survey samples from Korean jewelry manufacturers operating in China to determine whether perceived external risks affect decisions to relocate. Logistic regression was used to examine the hypotheses. In addition to an empirical method, five case studies related to empirical results have been included.

Findings

Analysis results suggest that firms perceiving riskier managerial and competitive environments are more likely to have relocation intentions. Perceptions of risks from the governmental/political environment and macroeconomic environment have no significant relationship with relocation intentions. Also, firms’ performance and technological capability negatively moderate the relationship between perceptions of managerial competitive environment risks and relocation intentions.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on international business relocation strategies by examining perceptions of external risks that determine whether foreign manufacturing firms will relocate. In addition, the research sheds light on the transformation of Chinese economics from labor-intensive to capital-, technological- and knowledge-intensive structures. By applying multi-methods, this research further elaborates empirical results with five case studies.

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Elizabeth Maly and Eiko Ishikawa

This paper aims to consider the current situation of relocation in Japan after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) in the context of past examples and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to consider the current situation of relocation in Japan after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) in the context of past examples and post-disaster housing relocation projects in other countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Information about international cases of post-disaster housing relocation was gathered though desk and literature review, supplemented by field visits to the sites for direct observation and interviews with people involved in the relocation projects.

Findings

To be successful, residential relocation must consider livelihood, especially in regards to location. Involvement of the residents in the planning and decision making process creates housing relocation projects that better meet residents’ needs. Japan faces some unique challenges, yet shares commonalities with other countries, for example, in tsunami-stricken fishing areas. Housing relocation in Tohoku must strive to be accountable to the needs of the residents and the specific contexts of their communities.

Originality/value

There is still a limited amount of literature in English that considers the issues of relocation in recovery after the GEJE in an international context, especially comprehensive comparisons with multiple countries. Although this paper does not deal with each international case in great detail, the comparison provides a good overview of the key issues for residents in post-disaster relocation, and suggests how lessons from international cases could be applied to the challenges that Japan currently faces in relocation planning in the Tohoku region.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Michael Oyelere and Temitope Oyelere

After reading this chapter you should be able to:

  • Understand what is meant by relocation cost.
  • Explain the management and disbursement of relocating costs.
  • Critically…

Abstract

Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter you should be able to:

  • Understand what is meant by relocation cost.

  • Explain the management and disbursement of relocating costs.

  • Critically evaluate the calculation of relocation costs.

  • Reflect on the role of human resource managers in relation to the future of the costs of relocation.

Understand what is meant by relocation cost.

Explain the management and disbursement of relocating costs.

Critically evaluate the calculation of relocation costs.

Reflect on the role of human resource managers in relation to the future of the costs of relocation.

Details

Financial and Managerial Aspects in Human Resource Management: A Practical Guide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-612-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Erik Rasmussen, Jan Møller Jensen and Per Servais

The primary focus of this paper is to examine the international (import and export) activities of the firm and the impact on the firms' criteria for choice of location and…

2367

Abstract

Purpose

The primary focus of this paper is to examine the international (import and export) activities of the firm and the impact on the firms' criteria for choice of location and the propensity for relocation.

Design/methodology/approach

A web survey was carried out among small and medium‐sized Danish firms. Data used in the present study are based on responses from 622 firms. The analysis is conducted in two sub‐sections. The first section focuses on how export/import intensity is related to the location motives of the firm and the propensity to relocate the firm to another national location or abroad. Pearson's correlation with corresponding test of significance is used to explore the possible relationships between the international engagement and the firm's criteria for choice of location. In the second section the responding firms are classified into one of four categories, as suggested in a local/global typology. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is conducted in order to assess whether there exist any significant differences between the four types of firms with regard to the location motives and relocation propensity for the firms.

Findings

The study shows that the international engagement of the firm influences the need for better location with regard to infrastructure (especially airport and highways) and to a lesser degree other types of infrastructure (railways and harbours). Interestingly, firms put less emphasis on the direct economic factors (infrastructure) compared with access to customers/suppliers, local network and, above all, access to research institutions. The study shows that international firms put significantly more emphasis on the relationship with research institutions than more local firms. The study also indicates that a higher international engagement increases the firm's intention to relocate abroad, which could be one of the unwanted sides of firms' internationalisation.

Originality/value

Guided by insights from location and relocation theory and international entrepreneurship theory, the connection between firms' export and import engagement and the reasons for location and propensity for relocation are explored. The paper also suggests an internationalisation typology of firms that can be used in future research on the internationalisation of the firm.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2018

Jil Weisheit

Employees’ readiness to relocate abroad plays a crucial role for the success or failure of expatriate assignments. Hence, companies should consider employees’ international

Abstract

Purpose

Employees’ readiness to relocate abroad plays a crucial role for the success or failure of expatriate assignments. Hence, companies should consider employees’ international relocation mobility readiness (IRMR) when selecting candidates for international postings. However, past research has conceptualized and measured IRMR heterogeneously, hampering the interpretation and comparability of IRMR research results. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to provide a new conceptualization of IRMR and to give recommendations for its measurement.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the business, psychological and sociological literature, this paper reviews and categorizes how IRMR has been conceptualized and measured. To structure the findings, a directed content analysis was applied. The sample comprises 88 journal articles.

Findings

The results reveal that studies seldom provide a conceptualization of IRMR. While the authors often find a misfit between the studies’ explicit conceptualization and the actual measurement of IRMR, most scales actually measure willingness (i.e. usually a predictor of risky and spontaneous behavior).

Research limitations/implications

Based on the results and the Rubicon model of action phases (Heckhausen and Gollwitzer, 1987), the authors recommend future research to conceptualize IRMR as a dynamic multidimensional construct, covering the different phases of an individual’s decision to relocate internationally. Future, IRMR measurements should also cover the complexity of IRMR, e.g. regarding specific location characteristics.

Practical implications

Companies should consider the whole decision-making process regarding IRMR to apply specific measures at the best possible time.

Originality/value

This paper investigates IRMR scales according to their scientific validity and hence provides the basic ground for future scale development studies.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 January 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

As the rate of growth in trade of developing and developed economies converges, international business is increasingly taking place in a growing assortment of political…

Abstract

Purpose

As the rate of growth in trade of developing and developed economies converges, international business is increasingly taking place in a growing assortment of political and ideological contexts with variable levels of tolerance for plural dissidence. This can create substantial challenges and risks for crosscultural adjustment and increases the potential for assignment failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an authoritarian regime on the process of adjustment amongst expatriate sojourners and draw out lessons for future research and policies for relocation in similar authoritarian contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a qualitative research study over three years making use of participant observation methods as a result of researcher immersion in the local context.

Findings

This study finds that “culture” is an insufficient category for explaining difficulties in cross-cultural adjustment and demonstrates that adjustment difficulties under authoritarianism are heightened in the proximate sociocultural context, with geo-political and ideological dynamics creating more challenging conditions of life. Increased levels of social control act to heighten psychological vulnerability amongst sojourners, resulting in coping behaviours that seek a greater degree of psychological alleviation and companionship through more resource-intensive supportive networks and a tendency toward enclavism, thus inhibiting sociocultural adjustment to the host society.

Research limitations/implications

Research needs to recognise more fully the diverse nature of contexts in cross-cultural adjustment. Future research should explore different types of contexts and assess what sort of challenges may arise in relation to the process of psychological and sociocultural adjustment and the adjustive resources required to overcome them.

Practical implications

The paper contributes to the understanding of the psychological and sociocultural challenges of international relocation in an authoritarian context and serves as valuable insight for relocation planning in similar conditions, which are an ever-increasing feature of international business.

Originality/value

This paper gives a unique insight into international relocation in Cuba and draws out the areas of concern for cross-cultural adjustment under authoritarian conditions, an ever-increasing feature of international business. It serves as an example of how context-based research can inform cross-cultural theory and practice within an evolving landscape of doing business globally.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

Details

Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2017

Frank Fitzpatrick

The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the use of the term “culture shock” in international management studies and cross-cultural research and to propose a…

5719

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the use of the term “culture shock” in international management studies and cross-cultural research and to propose a paradigmatic shift in how the term is understood for future research. The experience of “culture shock” is an established concept within international management studies, engendering an industry of training designed to combat difficulties in relocation. This paper argues that the use of concept is based on a flawed understanding of “culture” and proposes an alternative perspective to help organisations prepare their employees for overseas assignments.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opts for a critical review of literature to examine models of culture shock through time and theories relating to success factors in cross-cultural adjustment. In so doing, the paper revisits the notion of culture shock from a social constructionist perspective within a dialectical framework.

Findings

The paper challenges the notion of culture as an essential, reified concept, arguing that culture shock is not about culture, but about the dynamics of context and how individuals deal with life changes to navigate the challenges that they face.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should focus on context-related, interactive behaviour, framed in discourse processes, rather than predetermined a priori typologies based on cultural stereotypes. This would recognise the discursive nature of social interaction within a dialectical framework, where relational tension emerges as a result of disparity.

Practical implications

The paper contributes to an understanding of the complex range of factors influencing the success of relocation to guide international companies in their policies.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a paradigm shift in the treatment of culture shock towards a more discourse-based concept created through universal cultural and dialectical processes.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Thomas Hippler

Seeks to investigate the adjustment of business relocatees to their host environment. It explores the facets of the relocatees’ adjustment in the following three regions…

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Abstract

Seeks to investigate the adjustment of business relocatees to their host environment. It explores the facets of the relocatees’ adjustment in the following three regions: Germany as the home country and destination for domestic assignments, Western Europe and other countries. It further investigates the stress levels the relocatees display and their motives for accepting or actively seeking relocation. If the results of this survey suggest the existence of Western Europe as a distinct assignment location, these findings will form a valuable basis for the development of policies for intra‐European personnel transfers, particularly in the area of selection, training, development and compensation.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 24 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

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