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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

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Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

Abstract

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Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7656-1306-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2010

Keyong Dong and Ying Liu

The purpose of this paper is to: summarize the major research that has been conducted regarding cross‐cultural issues in China; show the current practices on cross‐cultural

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to: summarize the major research that has been conducted regarding cross‐cultural issues in China; show the current practices on cross‐cultural management in Chinese organizations; and then identify future research needs on cross‐cultural management in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Meta‐analysis was carried out to summarize research of cross‐cultural management in China.

Findings

Empirical studies on cross‐cultural management in China have been conducted since the 1990s, and numerous empirical studies have been done in the past two decades across different level of constructs and practices (individual, group and organization). Among all the intercultural research concerning China, there are mainly two common types: the first type focuses on foreign managers and employees, center on their adjustment and performance in Chinese culture; and the second type of study examines Chinese who work with these foreigners in the multinational management setting. Furthermore, in recent years, emphases have been shifted from examining the effects of culture on single variables to examining the relationships among same and different level of variables.

Research limitations/implications

Systematic conceptual model development and assessment of important topics are in great need. Although there is an increasing amount of comparative studies being done in China, very few studies have been conducted to study Chinese firms that are doing business abroad, which represents one of the most critical problems in the field of cross‐cultural management research in China. Most studies focus on cultural value identification and practical issues in Western global companies, which is concerned with comparison between Eastern and Western culture. Research should be conducted to study cultural differences among eastern countries, for example, countries in Asia.

Practical implications

Future cross‐culture management practices in China should follow several basic principles: be applicable, that is, build unique organizational culture that is embedded in the host country; be practical, since there is no well‐developed multinational culture in China, new culture should be concerned with both sides; be systematic, cross‐culture management practices should have supporting system; be equal, no single culture is better than another; cultural penetration, two different cultures have mutual impact; merit‐based appointment and promotion, use local personnel, not just talents from the home country. In Chinese settings, the most common cross‐cultural management interventions include: cross‐cultural training, cross‐cultural communication system and unified organizational culture.

Originality/value

This paper comprehensively reviews the research and practices on cross‐cultural management in China; identifies topics that have been studied in individual, group and organizational level. Implications on cross‐cultural selection, training are provided based research evidence.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Miguel Morales and Riadh Ladhari

The purpose of this paper is to examine the methodological approaches adopted in cross‐cultural service quality (CCSQ) research and the extent to which these approaches…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the methodological approaches adopted in cross‐cultural service quality (CCSQ) research and the extent to which these approaches have adhered to the general principles of established cross‐cultural research methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

A search was conducted to identify CCSQ papers published between 1995 and 2009. The authors searched four well‐known online databases: ABI Inform (Proquest Direct), Emerald Library, ScienceDirect, and EBSCOhost. This search identified 40 studies, which were examined according to three broad groups of methodological issues: research design, instrumentation and data collection, and data analysis and measurement.

Findings

Despite the acknowledged contributions that these selected studies have made to the services‐marketing field, it is evident from this review that researchers have frequently overlooked many important aspects of cross‐cultural research methodology. These methodological deficiencies are discussed and various remedies are suggested.

Originality/value

There has been a growing research interest in comparative cross‐cultural service‐quality in recent decades. As this relatively new branch of service‐quality research becomes more prominent, it seems opportune to examine the methodological approaches adopted in these studies and the extent to which these approaches have adhered to the general principles of established cross‐cultural research methodology. This is the first work to examine such a large number of CCSQ studies.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Diana Farcas and Marta Gonçalves

The purpose of this paper is to inductively develop a model of cross-cultural adaptation for emerging adult self-initiated expatriates (SIEs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to inductively develop a model of cross-cultural adaptation for emerging adult self-initiated expatriates (SIEs).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 18 Portuguese emerging adult SIEs, aged between 18 and 29 years, residing in the UK from 5 months to 2 years. The analysis of these interviews through a grounded theory, using computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (Atlas.ti), allowed describing what constitutes participants’ cross-cultural adaptation and what are its determinants.

Findings

Five dimensions of cross-cultural adaptation emerged (cultural, emotional, social, practical and work), along with 18 determinants related with four different levels: personal, interpersonal, societal and situational. These determinants are related with the pre- and post-relocation phases of participants’ expatriation experience and some of them act as buffers, capturing a more integrative picture of the cross-cultural adaption process.

Research limitations/implications

In order to enhance the validity of the inductively identified relationships between cross-cultural adaptation and its determinants, the authors consider that they could be empirically tested.

Originality/value

This study points to several contributions in the fields of cross-cultural adaptation, emerging adulthood and self-initiated expatriation. By considering this study’s sample, the authors contributed to Farcas and Gonçalves’ (2016) call for more research focusing on emerging adult SIEs. In doing so, the authors simultaneously addressed the gap in the emerging adulthood literature regarding the focus on non-university samples of emerging adults. The methodology of this study can also be considered a contribution. By conducting interviews with emerging adult SIEs and analyzing them through a grounded theory approach, the authors were able to develop a model of cross-cultural adaptation. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first model which was inductively developed, enabling a broad understanding of emerging adult SIEs’ cross-cultural adaptation, in terms of what constitutes and influences it.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Andrea Fischbach

Within the last two decades there has been an increased interest in the issue of work and emotion within work and organizational psychology and related fields. Although…

Abstract

Within the last two decades there has been an increased interest in the issue of work and emotion within work and organizational psychology and related fields. Although the cross-cultural perspective has a long tradition in research on emotions, organizational behavior researches on the dynamic of emotions at work have devoted surprisingly little attention to cross-cultural issues. In this paper, an attempt is made to show how important and useful a cross-cultural perspective is for understanding the role of emotion in the workplace. First, a review of recent publications of cross-national cross-cultural research of emotion at work is presented. In this, the focus is exclusively on cross-national organizational behavior studies of specific emotions with national culture as an explanatory variable. The aim of this is to identify core findings of cross-cultural research on emotion in organizational behavior and some gaps in this burgeoning literature. Second, a review is presented of findings on cross-cultural similarities and differences in emotion, culture-specific norms, and values and their effect on emotion. The aim of this is to identify the implications of these findings for future research on emotion at work. Third, a review of methodological issues in cross-cultural research is presented followed by some recommendations to further advance this area of research.

Details

Emotions in Groups, Organizations and Cultures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-655-3

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Joost Bücker, Olivier Furrer and Tanja Peeters Weem

The purpose of this paper is to assess the cross-cultural equivalence of the four-dimensional 20-item Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) and the two-dimensional 12-item…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the cross-cultural equivalence of the four-dimensional 20-item Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) and the two-dimensional 12-item cultural intelligence (CQ) short scale. Furthermore, the study elaborates on the results by discussing the differences between culturally equivalent and culturally non-equivalent items.

Design/methodology/approach

Data gathered from 607 students with a Chinese or Dutch background and mature international experience serve to test the cross-cultural equivalence of the CQS.

Findings

This study addresses the lack of clarity concerning the cross-cultural equivalence of the CQS in the extended domain of empirical research involving CQ. Furthermore, the consequences of the cultural equivalence tests are discussed.

Practical implications

Comparing CQ scores across cultures is only meaningful with the use of the adjusted, two-dimensional scale. Practitioners must be aware of the emic-etic character of the measurement instrument they use.

Originality/value

This study addresses the lack of clarity concerning the cross-cultural equivalence of the CQS in the extended domain of empirical research involving CQ. Furthermore, the consequences of the cultural equivalence tests are discussed.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Irvine Clarke

The study investigates extreme response style (ERS) in cross‐cultural research. Through a four‐country application of the Greenleaf ERS measure, finds that ERS varies…

Abstract

The study investigates extreme response style (ERS) in cross‐cultural research. Through a four‐country application of the Greenleaf ERS measure, finds that ERS varies between cultures and across response formats. Evidence is also found that the acquiescence response style (ARS) varies between cultures and response formats. Through a series of ANOVAs, it is shown how a post hoc response style adjustment can be used to minimize between‐group differences for ERS and ARS. Finally, this study illustrates how cross‐cultural market researchers, using a marketing‐oriented survey instrument like the CETSCALE, could reach erroneous conclusions by failing to adjust for between‐group difference in ERS. Implications for cross‐cultural marketing research are discussed.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Guohua He, Yanfei Wang, Xinnian Zheng, Zisheng Guo and Yu Zhu

This study explores how paternalistic leadership (PL) influences Chinese expatriates' work engagement in a cross-cultural context, and examines how expatriates'…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores how paternalistic leadership (PL) influences Chinese expatriates' work engagement in a cross-cultural context, and examines how expatriates' cross-cultural adaptability sets a boundary condition for this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from two-wave surveys of 82 supervisors and 318 Chinese expatriate teachers from 57 Confucius Institutes in 18 countries. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

Benevolent and moral leadership as job resources are negatively related to work–family conflict (WFC), whereas the job demand of authoritarian leadership positively relates to WFC. Further, WFC mediates the effect of PL styles on Chinese expatriates' work engagement. Cross-cultural adaptability moderates the negative relationship between WFC and work engagement, and the indirect effect of PL styles on work engagement through WFC.

Practical implications

Organizations should consider WFC an important intervening mechanism linking PL and Chinese expatriates' work engagement. Cross-cultural organizations can mitigate the negative impact of WFC on work engagement by enhancing expatriates' cross-cultural adaptability.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the PL–work engagement relationship via a work–family interface, which contributes to integrating leadership and work–family outcomes. It enriches research on the JD-R model by showing that job resources and job demands affect employee outcomes through the mediation of stressors. Furthermore, this study identifies a new personal resource by examining cross-cultural adaptability's moderating role.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Rodoula H. Tsiotsou

Cross-cultural research constitutes a pivotal topic for marketing; however, the literature indicates that there are a few studies analyzing social media reviews from a…

Abstract

Purpose

Cross-cultural research constitutes a pivotal topic for marketing; however, the literature indicates that there are a few studies analyzing social media reviews from a cross-cultural perspective using cultural proximity (supra-national level) as a proxy of culture. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify cross-cultural differences in service evaluations and specifically, in hotel appraisals among tourists from Central, Eastern (including Post-Soviet States), Northern and Southern Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach has been taken by studying online user-generated ratings of hotels on Trip Advisor. In total, 1,055 reviews of five hotels in Greece were used for the study.

Findings

Multivariate analysis of variance and analysis of variances results confirm cultural differences in overall service evaluations and attributes (value, location, sleeping quality, rooms, cleanliness and service) of tourists from various European regions. Specifically, Eastern Europeans uploaded more reviews than any other European group, whereas Northern Europeans were more generous in their appraisals than Eastern, Southern and Central Europeans.

Practical implications

The results of the study could be used for segmentation purposes of the European tourism market and for recognizing, which aspects of their services need to be improved based on the segments they serve. Moreover, managers should encourage Northern and Eastern Europeans to upload their reviews as both groups are more generous in their evaluations. Moreover, the findings are useful to marketers of other services.

Originality/value

To the author’s knowledge, this is the first study that examines cross-cultural differences in hotel appraisals from a supra-national perspective including developed (Northern and Western Europe), developing (Southern Europe) and emerging tourism markets (Eastern Europe).

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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