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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Steffen Schmidt, Matthias Limbach, Sascha Langner, Klaus-Peter Wiedmann, Levke Albertsen and Philipp Reiter

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of event-related sports sponsorship and ambushing activity using social media video advertising that aim to affect…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of event-related sports sponsorship and ambushing activity using social media video advertising that aim to affect spectators’ implicit and explicit brand information processing.

Design/methodology/approach

A dual model of brand knowledge is used that considers the implicit and explicit information processing of marketing-induced brand messages. A web study was conducted prior to the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Each participant implicitly and explicitly evaluated either one sponsor brand or one ambush brand before and after watching the video advertisement (within-subject design). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate each change of the pre-post testing scores.

Findings

Implicit and explicit brand associations as well as brand behavior were partially affected by the short contact with the advertisements of sponsor brands and ambush brands. In this regard, the implicit association measurements were more sensitive to reveal changes in the brand knowledge structure than their explicit counterparts. Furthermore, sponsorship advertising was slightly more effective than ambush advertising.

Originality/value

The current exploratory study evaluated for the first time the performance of event-related video advertisements that were originally released on social media of sponsor brands and ambush brands. The findings emphasize the necessary requirement of evaluating the implicit processing in addition to the explicit processing of sponsorship information to ensure a holistic evaluation of consumers’ memory with regard to the effectiveness of a sponsorship activity.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Petra Tenbült, Nanne K. de Vries, Ellen Dreezens and Carolien Martijn

New food technologies are of increasing importance but not a lot of research into how people react to these technologies has been conducted. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

New food technologies are of increasing importance but not a lot of research into how people react to these technologies has been conducted. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into how implicit measurements in addition to explicit measurements give insight into how well an attitude towards a food concept, in relation to its familiarity, is predictive for behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

An implicit measurement (EAST) and an explicit questionnaire were used to investigate people's attitudes and attitude strength towards two food technologies (genetic modification and organic production). Correlations between the two measurements were calculated to determine whether familiar food technologies are more predictive for behaviour than relatively unfamiliar food technologies.

Findings

Implicit measurements showed negative associations with genetic modification. Explicit measurements showed neutral associations with genetic modification. In contrast, implicit and explicit measurements showed positive associations with organic production. When a food technology is well known (e.g. organic production), significant correlations between the two measurements were present suggesting that attitudes were predictive for behaviour. In contrast, when a food technology is not well known (e.g. genetic modification), significant correlations were not present suggesting that attitudes were not predictive for behaviour.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the relation between intuitive and explicit reactions in relation with the novelty of food technologies.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 110 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Ting-Hsiang Tseng, George Balabanis and Matthew Tingchi Liu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the inconsistency of explicit and implicit domestic country bias (DCB) across different types of products and in the context of two…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the inconsistency of explicit and implicit domestic country bias (DCB) across different types of products and in the context of two countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies in two countries are conducted to examine the inconsistencies in implicit and explicit DCB. The first study collected data through mall intercept survey method in Taiwan and identified 189 valid respondents. The second study applied a mixed (within and between subjects) factorial experiment in China using 200 subjects.

Findings

Results show that explicit and implicit attitudes are moderately related to each other. The results also confirm that ethnic product typicality can explain inconsistencies in both explicit and implicit DCB. For ethnically typical products, DCB is more pronounced in consumers’ explicit attitudes than in consumers’ implicit attitudes. On the contrary, for ethnically atypical goods, DCB makes itself present in both explicit and implicit attitudes.

Originality/value

The results shed new light on DCB and confirm that the bias could divaricate between explicit and implicit attitudes in the case of ethnically typical products.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Jens Agerström and Dan‐Olof Rooth

The aim of this paper is to examine whether Swedish employers implicitly/automatically hold negative attitudes toward Arab‐Muslims, an ethnic minority group subjected to…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine whether Swedish employers implicitly/automatically hold negative attitudes toward Arab‐Muslims, an ethnic minority group subjected to substantial labor market discrimination in Sweden and, more specifically, associate members of this minority group with lower work productivity, as compared with native Swedes.

Design/methodology/approach

Adapted versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998) designed to measure implicit attitudes and productivity stereotypes toward Arab‐Muslims were used. Corresponding explicit measures were administered.

Findings

The results clearly show that employers have stronger negative implicit attitudes toward Arab‐Muslims relative to native Swedes as well as implicitly perceiving Arab‐Muslims to be less productive than native Swedes. Notably, the explicit measures reveal much weaker negative associations.

Practical implications

Since Arab‐Muslims are automatically perceived as being less productive, the present findings suggest that negative implicit productivity stereotypes could have significant effects on labor market outcomes, such as when employers make hiring decisions. Given that many hiring decisions are presumably based on “gut‐feelings”, implicit attitudes and stereotypes, more so than their explicit counterparts, may exert a substantial impact on how employers contemplate and make decisions regarding human resources.

Originality/value

Whereas traditional research has focused on self‐conscious, explicit work‐related attitudes toward various ethnic minority groups, the study offers a novel approach to understanding work‐related prejudice.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 30 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Andra D. Rivers Johnson

The role of implicit provider bias in mental health care is an important issue that continues to be of concern in the twenty-first century for the Black/African American…

Abstract

The role of implicit provider bias in mental health care is an important issue that continues to be of concern in the twenty-first century for the Black/African American community. Access to mental health and quality care remains elusive as members of this social group lack access to mental health screening, diagnosis, and attention due to institutional and cultural barriers. Supporting the position that implicit and explicit provider bias exists in the mental health profession, this chapter will explore how implicit provider bias is an intractable institutional barrier that prevents Black/African Americans from accessing mental health and quality care. A review of the implications related to mental health outcomes with Black/African American clients will also be explored.

A brief overview of the Black/African American cultural responses to implicit provider bias will be discussed later in this chapter. There will be an exploration of the ways to help identify, address, and eliminate implicit provider bias using evidence-based personal and community engagement strategies that promote mental health wellness within the Black/African American community. Implications for best practices in Black/African American mental health will also be addressed to eradicate the risk of unethical or medical malpractice with Black/African American clients, reduce the mental health disparity experienced by Blacks/African Americans, and create mental health equity for this population.

Details

The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2018

Francisco Sarabia-Andreu and Francisco J. Sarabia-Sánchez

The purpose of this paper is to recognise the role of implicit and explicit attitudes on organic wine purchase intention and to segment consumers using these variables.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to recognise the role of implicit and explicit attitudes on organic wine purchase intention and to segment consumers using these variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a two-part Web survey (n = 690) in Spain: an Implicit Association Test followed by a questionnaire on explicit attitudes, purchase intention and demographic data. Validity and reliability of these attitudes are contrasted using confirmatory factor analysis, attitude relationships with purchase intention using multiple linear regression analysis, and segments using k-means cluster and discriminant analyses.

Findings

The authors improve the measurement of explicit attitudes explaining organic wine purchase intention. Only attitudes towards intrinsic attributes and arousal feelings significantly explain purchase intention. Two attitudinal segments are detected, one showing moderate purchase intention with high explicit attitudinal levels and high consumption of organic wine and the other showing low levels of purchase intention and explicit attitudes, consuming mainly conventional wines. Neither segment shows any relevant differences in implicit attitudes.

Practical implications

The analysis offers information on attitudes that contribute to explain Spanish consumer purchase intention in a wine sector notable for focusing more on making quality products than by knowing its market.

Originality/value

The authors offer deeper understanding of the influence of attitudes on organic wine purchase intention. This paper also presents an attitudinal segmentation of consumers.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 24 December 2020

Thorsten Teichert, Philipp Wörfel and Claire-Lise Ackermann

Snacking typically occurs as an automatic, consciously uncontrolled process which can lead to unintended health consequences. Grounded cognition informs about the…

Abstract

Purpose

Snacking typically occurs as an automatic, consciously uncontrolled process which can lead to unintended health consequences. Grounded cognition informs about the multifaceted drivers of such automatic consumption processes. By integrating situation-, stimulus-, and person-specific factors, this study provides a holistic account of snacking.

Design/methodology/approach

A combined psychophysiological and behavioral experiment is conducted wherein participants can casually snack chocolate while participating in a survey setting. Implicit cognitions are assessed with the Implicit Association Test. The percentage of consumed chocolate serves as dependent variable in a Tobit regression with predictors at situation, stimulus and person level.

Findings

Chocolate snacking is positively influenced by personal craving tendencies, implicit food associations and situational contingency. We condense the results into an overarching framework in line with grounded cognition literature.

Practical implications

The multidimensional framework can guide consumer protection efforts to reduce excessive snacking habits based on situation, stimulus and person.

Originality/value

This study integrates theory from social cognition, consumer research, and behavioral food research and, thereby, extends the existing body of knowledge on grounded cognitions underlying snacking consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

I. Putu Gede Sukaatmaja

The purpose of the paper is to comparatively analyse explicit and implicit attitudes of visitors from sun and beach destinations towards two types of visual conservation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to comparatively analyse explicit and implicit attitudes of visitors from sun and beach destinations towards two types of visual conservation messages: persuasive and prohibitive.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative empirical investigation of transversal section was carried out using a structured questionnaire. The geographic area of study is located in the Mexican Riviera Maya. The data was collected between the months of September 2016 to January 2017 from a total of 129 actual visitors of 12 different nationalities. Student t tests analyses were conducted to measure difference between explicit and implicit attitudes towards both types of messages.

Findings

Persuasive visual messages of conservation shown to be effective at both, explicit and implicit, levels, while prohibitive ones were less effective than persuasive ones ay implicit level, corroborating that the persuasive messages are more effective than prohibitive ones, and that the implicit measurements tend to offer information that is not always revealed by explicit means.

Practical implications

Results can be exploited by those who are tasked with maintaining a delicate balance between tourism and the environment to achieve greater impact in developing the attitudes they need to show to their tourists, through the design and creation of persuasive conservation, even barrier, visual messages that are able to draw well to the visitors' subconscious and unconscious.

Originality/value

Persuasive visual messages of conservation are produced to be effective at both explicit and implicit levels. However, inhibiting messages prove to be less effective with regard to persuasive messages at the implicit level, which reinforces that persuasive messages are more effective. Effective than the prohibitive ones and that the Implicit measurements offer information that is not always disclosed by explicit means. Persuasive messages aim at persuading and the recipient is not interested on the message. There is a possibility that the recipient will react negatively. Therefore, messages should be prepared using an indirect approach.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 41 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2020

Yongyong Yang, Wendian Shi, Beina Zhang, Youming Song and Dezhen Xu

The purpose of this paper is to explore the structure, implicit attitude and consequences of followers' implicit followership theories in the Chinese cultural context…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the structure, implicit attitude and consequences of followers' implicit followership theories in the Chinese cultural context through three studies. Study 1 explores the structure of followers' implicit followership theories. Study 2 examines the implicit attitude of followers towards followers' implicit followership theories. Study 3 verifies the impact of followers' implicit followership theories on the quality of collegial relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for study 1 (n = 321) and study 3 (n = 243) were collected through an online self-report questionnaire, and the data for study 2 (n = 30) were collected through the go/no-go association task.

Findings

The structure of followers' implicit followership theories includes two dimensions: positive followership prototypes and negative followership prototypes. Followers' implicit attitudes were more likely to match positive followership prototypes than negative followership prototypes. Positive followership prototypes had a significantly positive impact on the quality of collegial relationships, whereas negative followership prototypes had a significantly negative impact on the quality of collegial relationships.

Research limitations/implications

The psychology and behaviour of employees can be better understood by exploring followers' implicit followership theories.

Practical implications

Employees hold a relatively positive implicit attitude towards followers. Therefore, managers should provide positive feedback to improve employees' positive self-cognition so that employees can better serve the organization and better promote its development.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the few studies to explore followers' implicit followership theories in the Chinese cultural context.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Lawrence Soley

This paper aims to examine the use of projective techniques for published marketing and management research in the USA. The paper emphasizes the influence that McClelland…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the use of projective techniques for published marketing and management research in the USA. The paper emphasizes the influence that McClelland, Atkinson, Clark and Lowell's study, The Achievement Motive (1953), has had on subsequent research. That work applied quantitative analysis to responses obtained using projective techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

The approaches used in this paper consist of descriptive historical methods and a literature review. The historical analysis was conducted using Kuhn's 1967 conception of paradigms, showing that the paradigm from which projective techniques emerged – psychoanalysis – failed to gather many adherents outside the discipline of psychology. The paradigm failed to gain adherents in US colleges of business, although there are some exceptions. One exception is managerial motivation research, which built on the traditions of The Achievement Motive. The literature review suggests that, despite lacking institutional bases that could be used to develop new adherents to the paradigm, projective techniques were used by a number of researchers, but this research was marginalized, criticized or misunderstood by adherents of the dominant paradigm, positivism.

Findings

Some of the criticism directed at projective techniques research by positivists involves criticism of the paradigm's assumption that humans have an unconscious, and a belief that projective techniques are unreliable and invalid. This paper points out that a growing number of cognitive psychologists now accept the existence of an unconscious, and measure it using the “implicit association test.” This paper argues that the IAT is an associational test is the tradition of word association. Moreover, the literature review shows that projective techniques are much more reliable than critics contend, and exhibit greater predictive validity than many positivist instruments.

Research limitations/implications

As with all literature reviews, this one does not include every published research study using projective techniques. As a consequence, the conclusions may not be generalizable to the studies excluded from the analysis.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the few to assemble the literature on projective techniques used in several disciplines, and draw conclusions from these about the applicability of the techniques to market research.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

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