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Book part
Publication date: 3 July 2018

Azza Shafei

The six member nations of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have witnessed a significant jump in the quality of education since only the 1970s—becoming sovereign because…

Abstract

The six member nations of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have witnessed a significant jump in the quality of education since only the 1970s—becoming sovereign because of boom in oil resources and petrodollar prevalence—to the extent that the level of their higher education system nearly fulfills all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) standards. Among successful criteria undertaken by the most GCC universities are establishing partnerships with other foreign universities in developed countries and following international organizations’, such as UNESCO and the World Bank, recommendations by focusing on establishing knowledge economies in line with globalization. Looking into the GCC success stories, the focus of this research paper is Egypt, after the country’s last revolution on January 25, 2011. The Arab Republic of Egypt has a strategic location worldwide, is a vital peace keeper, especially in the Middle East and the Arab region, and has a rich oriental heritage: cultural, social, and traditional, in addition to its unique pharaonic history. Suggested selection of some tools of assessment would be elaborated in the Methodology section to assess the quality of national tertiary education. This chapter aimed at generally highlighting some aspects of evolution of national post-secondary system during the last two decades in an effort to come up with findings and recommendations to promote country’s higher education system. As in many other developing countries, in Egypt the university constitutes a social and political hope, and is one of the pillars of social mobility and economic development for the country. However, professional endeavors are repeatedly turned down in finding a suitable job or at least entering the labor market, resulting in a rise in unemployment rate. This is due to, on the one hand, the nature of the labor market, hence the fact that the supply of graduates exceeds the market demand for them, and on the other hand, the negatively affected quality of higher education, especially in the public sector, mainly being overloaded, which produces weak qualified potential employees. This—among other factors—contributes to the downfall of country’s economy. Many who graduate from a stronger private system encounter difficulties in either being classified as overqualified, and hence get refused and are unemployed, or are placed in a position that under evaluates their capabilities, and hence with time lose enthusiasm or escape (brain drain). In conclusion, conducting a comparison between Egypt’s private and public universities, as expected beforehand, would be in favor of the former because of having better facilities and qualified faculty, earning higher salaries, in addition to the use of advanced equipment and technology in academic research. Therefore, this research intended to expand in future the comparison to include other countries from the Middle East and North Africa region—similar to Egypt in its economic and social compositions—for mutual benefits of learning from the best practices and successful models.

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Cross-nationally Comparative, Evidence-based Educational Policymaking and Reform
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-767-8

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2008

Mary Tyler E. Holmes

The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges facing the higher education system in Egypt particularly in the area of education quality. It builds upon several…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges facing the higher education system in Egypt particularly in the area of education quality. It builds upon several existing studies conducted in Egypt to make the case for improving education outcomes while analyzing the social, political, and economic ramifications of the current higher education system.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples were drawn from existing studies conducted in Egypt by experts in the education field.

Findings

Results suggest that the higher education admissions process should become more competitive thereby limiting the number of enrollments. More resources should be devoted towards higher education with a particular emphasis on workforce development and Egypt should seek the help of donor agencies and experts to advise and reform the system.

Research limitations/implications

The findings were based on existing literature and were not conducted in Egypt which somewhat limited qualitative analysis.

Originality/value

A contribution is made to the literature as the research reinforces the view that the lack of quality in the higher education system fails to prepare graduates to the workforce and impacts on the social stability of Egypt. By questioning aspects of the current higher education system and calling for more freedom of research and expression, the research raises interesting questions about the impact of closed societies on education systems.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2015

Ray Langsten

Since the 1960s, Egypt has sought to increase equality in access to higher education. Data show that completion of pre-tertiary education has become more equal. However…

Abstract

Since the 1960s, Egypt has sought to increase equality in access to higher education. Data show that completion of pre-tertiary education has become more equal. However, this trend toward equality did not extend to higher education. Rather, entry to higher education has become more unequal during this period, principally due to tracking at the secondary level. Secondary track is highly correlated with wealth: students from the poorest families overwhelming attend technical education; most children from wealthy families attend general (academic) secondary. Lucas (2001) has called this relationship between wealth and tracking “Effectively Maintained Inequality.”

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Mitigating Inequality: Higher Education Research, Policy, and Practice in an Era of Massification and Stratification
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-291-7

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Abstract

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Explaining Growth in the Middle East
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44452-240-5

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Rahel Schomaker

This study aims to analyze the quality of the Egyptian accreditation system. With a view on the high competition in the domestic labor market as well as with regards to…

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2210

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the quality of the Egyptian accreditation system. With a view on the high competition in the domestic labor market as well as with regards to the international competitiveness of Egyptian graduates and the potential role of Egyptian universities in the international market for higher education, a high quality of study programmes and the provision of skills which meet the employers’ needs is a pressing issue for policymakers in Egypt, in particular in the light of the recent and ongoing transformation process.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a triangulation of document analysis and semi-structured interviews, the authors analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the system of accreditation as well as current measures to improve quality in higher education and provide policy implications for further action undertaken by Egyptian policymakers to improve the accreditation system.

Findings

First, the authors provide a sound overview of the newly established accreditation system in Egypt and analyze the role of the National Authority of Educational Quality Assurance and Accreditation within this process. Second, the paper addresses the structural shortcomings as well as implementation problems of the current accreditation system which limit the capacity of the national accreditation agency to provide accreditation for all institutions of higher education in Egypt and to ensure the overall quality of higher education. The role of peer reviewers is of pivotal importance in this context. A specific problem which has not been analyzed so far is the role of religious institutions, the so-called Al-Azhar institutions, in the accreditation process, and the consequences this will have for further developments in accreditation.

Practical implications

The paper concludes with providing policy implications at the backdrop of the ongoing political transformation process in Egypt.

Originality/value

The paper provides the first comprehensive analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the Egyptian accreditation system and contributes to the understanding of the pivotal role of peer reviewers in this process. Also, for the first time, the challenges regarding accreditation of Al-Azhar institutions are targeted.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Galal M.H. Afifi

This research aims to be one of the earliest studies to investigate tourism e‐learning in Egypt, thus, it will initially shed light on the current standing of e‐learning in

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2116

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to be one of the earliest studies to investigate tourism e‐learning in Egypt, thus, it will initially shed light on the current standing of e‐learning in Egypt before proceeding to: identify the present status of e‐learning in Egyptian tourism higher education; explore the potential advantages and drawbacks of using e‐learning in tourism higher education; and explore the suitability of e‐learning for tourism higher education.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this research have been collected by adopting a combination of “content analysis” and “semi‐structured interviews”. However, a pilot study was initially conducted before applying the main methods of research.

Findings

Despite the relative newness of the Egyptian e‐learning experiment, the Egyptian government has succeeded in establishing the required infrastructure for e‐leaning. However, deficiencies still exist especially regarding qualifying the Egyptian academics to participate efficiently in the e‐learning process. Regarding application, tourism e‐learning is applied to a limited extent in Egypt at the present time, as only seven public colleges are currently providing some e‐learning services, which are mostly of a simple nature. Tourism private colleges are currently languid concerning the application of e‐learning despite the potentiality of success especially with regard to serving international students.

Originality/value

Despite the importance of both tourism and tourism education for a country such as Egypt. this research is the first to investigate the applicability of tourism e‐learning in Egypt.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Jason Nunzio Dorio

In this chapter, I will first conceptualize social movement theory before examining the importance of student movements and student activism. I then will link social…

Abstract

In this chapter, I will first conceptualize social movement theory before examining the importance of student movements and student activism. I then will link social movement theory to the university in Egypt. Next, I will contextualize university activism by describing the authoritarian structures of Egypt’s university system. Then, using secondary data sources, I will characterize university activism during the three transitional political periods (under the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SACF), under President Morsi, and after the ousting of Morsi), and conclude with a discussion on the implications of student activism on future university reform.

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The Power of Resistance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-462-6

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Suzanna Elmassah, Marwa Biltagy and Doaa Gamal

Higher education institutions (HEIs) should play a fundamental role in achieving the international 2030 sustainable development (SD) agenda. Quality education is the…

Abstract

Purpose

Higher education institutions (HEIs) should play a fundamental role in achieving the international 2030 sustainable development (SD) agenda. Quality education is the fourth of the sustainable development goals (SDGs), and one of the targets related to this is to ensure that by 2030 all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote SD. Therefore, the SDGs provide a motive for HEIs to integrate SD concepts into their day-to-day practices. This study aims to introduce a framework for HEIs’ sustainable development assessment. Such a framework guides HEIs and educational leaders to support their countries’ commitments to achieving the SDGs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents the results of a case study analysis of the role and successful techniques of HEIs in achieving SD in three countries, namely, Germany, Japan and Egypt. Primary data was collected by semi-structured interviews with three Cairo University officials, while secondary data was collected by reviewing the universities' official websites, reports, publications and related papers. This study introduces a novel framework for HEIs' SD analysis and assessment, which guides HEIs and educational leaders to support SD to fulfill their countries' commitments to achieving the SDGs. This framework is based on the following five categories: strategic direction and institutional working practices, supporting students, supporting university staff competencies, supporting society's stakeholders and networking and sustainable campus. Consideration is given to the potential role of HEIs to support SD in each of these areas.

Findings

Cairo University could learn from the novel and pioneer practices of the Leuphana University of Lüneburg, and the University of Tokyo to fill in the gaps it has in different roles. It can also put more effort into adopting the suggested higher education programs of Egypt's Vision 2030.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is limited to a case analysis comparing three countries, Germany, Japan and Egypt. Second, this study has not considered school education, which is equally essential in countries' SD.

Practical implications

HEIs can use the framework and the findings in this paper to evaluate their current roles in supporting SD, identify the gaps and take actions accordingly to address their weaknesses.

Originality/value

The paper compares three universities, one in each of the case study countries. It draws conclusions that identify ways in which the paper's framework and findings can guide SD practice in HEIs internationally, especially those in the developing world.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Sherif Kamel

Business schools are becoming invaluable platforms linking academia, business and industry. The constantly changing nature of markets requires a continuous and iterative…

Abstract

Purpose

Business schools are becoming invaluable platforms linking academia, business and industry. The constantly changing nature of markets requires a continuous and iterative dialog between business schools and other constituents including the government, the private sector and the civil society to guarantee that business and management education is catering for local and global market needs. The purpose of this paper is to address the growing role of business schools in transforming the society, building on the experience of the school of business of the American University in Cairo, and its impact in preparing the business leaders and entrepreneurs who can make a difference in society through rigorous and adaptive business and management education while addressing the elements of governance, accreditation, internationalization, and relevance, creativity and innovation in research.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, desk research is coupled with sharing of the development of the accreditation journey of American University in Cairo (AUC) School of Business and the lessons learned over the last 15 years.

Findings

While undergoing multiple accreditations, the school should effectively and efficiently manage the timeline, otherwise the maintenance of all accreditations could end up in one year, and that could be really challenging, a situation faced by the school during the academic year 2016–2017. While having a task force or a committee is mandatory, for the long-term development and sustainability of a continuous improvement culture, an office for academic assessment and accreditation is a must. For the school, the office helps create and embed the culture that accreditation is a journey and not a destination. Accreditation as a process should involve all school stakeholders on and off campus including faculty, staff, students, alumni, advisory boards, employers and the university administration; they should all be engaged and their buy-in through creating a sense of ownership and empowerment is invaluable. Throughout the accreditation journey, nothing is more important than communication, a school can never have enough of it. While the accreditation process needs a strong, transparent, effective leadership style, a bottom-up approach aligning and motivating the school’s different constituents is essential. For accreditation and continuous improvement to be sustainable, it should be driven and guided by a unified school-wide strategy addressing and catering to its different objectives. Accreditation is all about an invaluable triangle of building blocks, including an informed human capital, a respected and well-thought process and a timely, accurate and efficient wealth of data and knowledge about the school.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations are primarily the focus on the case of Egypt and AUC School of Business. Obviously, there is no one size that fits all, but there are lessons learned that could be replicated and tested in business schools located in similar environments.

Practical implications

The study presents the experience of the governance model at AUC School of Business with both internal council of the school of business and external board of advisors.

Social implications

The study presents the implications of the school on the society and the role, directions, guidelines that accreditation and continuous improvement introduce to the curriculum.

Originality/value

Historical background of business and management education at large in Egypt and Middle East North Africa is coupled with the overview of the school of business, sharing the challenges and opportunities of accreditation and continuous improvement.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2019

Yasmin Khodary

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the quality of a political science program in an Egyptian private university through assessing three particular dimensions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the quality of a political science program in an Egyptian private university through assessing three particular dimensions: knowledge of political science core facts and theories; reading comprehension skills; and critical thinking (CT).

Design/methodology/approach

A case study research approach was used. The study relies also on a quantitative methodology. Quantitative data were collected from students in the second and fourth years of political science to assess their knowledge of core political science facts and theories, reading comprehension and CT through the online California Critical Thinking Skills Test.

Findings

Unlike the results of core knowledge and reading comprehension, positive results were found with regard to students’ CT. The levels of students’ CT increased from 0 percent in Year 2 to 18 percent in Year 4. Variables such as the school GPA, non-Egyptian high school degree and not meeting professors during office hours were found statistically significant to higher levels of CT.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of the study was the relatively small samples’ size. However, while the samples might look small on the surface, they represent, in reality, between 49 and 59 percent of the students enrolled in Years 2 and 4.

Practical implications

Despite its pilot nature, this study provides some insight into the quality of private political science education in Egypt through assessing the degree it contributes to political science students’ knowledge, reading comprehension and CT and through investigating the most statistically significant variables.

Originality/value

Whilst several studies have investigated the quality of higher education programs, very limited literature attempted to assess the quality of political science education, in particular.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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