Since the 1960s, Egypt has sought to increase equality in access to higher education. Data show that completion of pre-tertiary education has become more equal. However, this trend toward equality did not extend to higher education. Rather, entry to higher education has become more unequal during this period, principally due to tracking at the secondary level. Secondary track is highly correlated with wealth: students from the poorest families overwhelming attend technical education; most children from wealthy families attend general (academic) secondary. Lucas (2001) has called this relationship between wealth and tracking “Effectively Maintained Inequality.”
Norhan Muhab Abdullatif provided valuable research assistance in the preparation of this paper.
Langsten, R. (2015), "Effectively Maintained Inequality: Access to Higher Education in Egypt", Mitigating Inequality: Higher Education Research, Policy, and Practice in an Era of Massification and Stratification (Advances in Education in Diverse Communities, Vol. 11), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 35-51. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-358X20150000011004
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