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Applying Partial Least Squares in Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-700-9

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Article

Ahmet Usakli and Kemal Gurkan Kucukergin

The purpose of this study is to review the use of partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in the field of hospitality and tourism and thereby to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review the use of partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in the field of hospitality and tourism and thereby to assess whether the PLS-SEM-based papers followed the recommended application guidelines and to investigate whether a comparison of journal types (hospitality vs tourism) and journal qualities (top-tier vs other leading) reveal significant differences in PLS-SEM use.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 206 PLS-SEM based papers published between 2000 and April 2017 in the 19 SSCI-indexed hospitality and tourism journals were critically analyzed using a wide range of guidelines for the following aspects of PLS-SEM: the rationale of using the method, the data characteristics, the model characteristics, the model assessment and reporting the technical issues.

Findings

The results reveal that some aspects of PLS-SEM are correctly applied by researchers, but there are still some misapplications, especially regarding data characteristics, formative measurement model evaluation and structural model assessment. Furthermore, few significant differences were found on the use of PLS-SEM between the two fields (hospitality and tourism) and between the journal tiers (top-tier and other leading).

Practical implications

To enhance the quality of research in hospitality and tourism, the present study provides recommendations for improving the future use of PLS-SEM.

Originality/value

The present study fills a sizeable gap in hospitality and tourism literature and extends the previous assessments on the use of PLS-SEM by providing a wider perspective on the issue (i.e. includes both hospitality and tourism journals rather than the previous reviews that focus on either tourism or hospitality), using a larger sample size of 206 empirical studies, investigating the issue over a longer time period (from 2000 to April, 2017, including the in-press articles), extending the scope of criteria (guidelines) used in the review and comparing the PLS-SEM use between the two allied fields (hospitality and tourism) and between the journal tiers (top-tier and other leading).

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International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Joseph F. Hair, Marko Sarstedt and Christian M. Ringle

Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is an important statistical technique in the toolbox of methods that researchers in marketing and other social…

Abstract

Purpose

Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is an important statistical technique in the toolbox of methods that researchers in marketing and other social sciences disciplines frequently use in their empirical analyses. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on several misconceptions that have emerged as a result of the proposed “new guidelines” for PLS-SEM. The authors discuss various aspects related to current debates on when or when not to use PLS-SEM, and which model evaluation metrics to apply. In addition, this paper summarizes several important methodological extensions of PLS-SEM researchers can use to improve the quality of their analyses, results and findings.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper merges literature from various disciplines, including marketing, strategic management, information systems, accounting and statistics, to present a state-of-the-art review of PLS-SEM. Based on these findings, the paper offers a point of orientation on how to consider and apply these latest developments when executing or assessing PLS-SEM-based research.

Findings

This paper offers guidance regarding situations that favor the use of PLS-SEM and discusses the need to consider certain model evaluation metrics. It also summarizes how to deal with endogeneity in PLS-SEM, and critically comments on the recent proposal to adjust PLS-SEM estimates to mimic common factor models that are the foundation of covariance-based SEM. Finally, this paper opposes characterizing common concepts and practices of PLS-SEM as “out-of-date” without providing well-substantiated alternatives and solutions.

Research limitations/implications

The paper paves the way for future discussions and suggests a way forward to reach consensus regarding situations that favor PLS-SEM use and its application.

Practical implications

This paper offers guidance on how to consider the latest methodological developments when executing or assessing PLS-SEM-based research.

Originality/value

This paper complements recently proposed “new guidelines” with the aim of offering a counter perspective on some strong claims made in the latest literature on PLS-SEM. It also clarifies some misconceptions regarding the application of PLS-SEM.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part

Mehmet Mehmetoglu

Tourism research contains a large share of consumer behavior-orientated studies using multidimensional constructs (exogenous/endogenous). Accordingly, scholars have mainly…

Abstract

Tourism research contains a large share of consumer behavior-orientated studies using multidimensional constructs (exogenous/endogenous). Accordingly, scholars have mainly made use of a two-step approach that can be referred to as PCA-MLR (principal component analysis and then ordinary least squares multiple linear regression analysis) to examine the relationships among exogenous and endogenous constructs in a statistical model. Although this two-step approach has contributed to the advancement of tourism research, it still suffers from a number of drawbacks which can readily be overcome by a so-called second-generation statistical tool, namely, partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The current chapter explains and illustrates (with an application to tourism data) the advantages (e.g., several layers of estimations, suiting small sample sizes, robustness to multicollinearity, model-based clustering, etc.) of PLS-SEM both from a statistical and practical point of view. Finally, an elucidation is also provided for suggesting PLS-SEM as an alternative to PCA-MLR instead of COV-SEM (covariance-based structural equation modeling). The chapter concludes by proposing that PLS-SEM is a reliable and flexible statistical approach that is of high value, in particular, for applied research.

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Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-936-3

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Article

Gabriel Cepeda-Carrion, Juan-Gabriel Cegarra-Navarro and Valentina Cillo

Structural equation modelling (SEM) has been defined as the combination of latent variables and structural relationships. The partial least squares SEM (PLS-SEM) is used…

Abstract

Purpose

Structural equation modelling (SEM) has been defined as the combination of latent variables and structural relationships. The partial least squares SEM (PLS-SEM) is used to estimate complex cause-effect relationship models with latent variables as the most salient research methods across a variety of disciplines, including knowledge management (KM). Following the path initiated by different domains in business research, this paper aims to examine how PLS-SEM has been applied in KM research, also providing some new guidelines how to improve PLS-SEM report analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

To ensure an objective way to analyse relevant works in the field of KM, this study conducted a systematic literature review of 63 publications in three SSCI-indexed and specific KM journals between 2015 and 2017.

Findings

Our results show that over the past three years, a significant amount of KM works has empirically used PLS-SEM. The findings also suggest that in light of recent developments of PLS-SEM reporting, some common misconceptions among KM researchers occurred mainly related to the reasons for using PLS-SEM, the purposes of PLS-SEM analysis, data characteristics, model characteristics and the evaluation of the structural models.

Originality/value

This study contributes to that vast KM literature by documenting the PLS-SEM-related problems and misconceptions. Therefore, it will shed light for better reports in PLS-SEM studies in the KM field.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article

Faizan Ali, S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, Marko Sarstedt, Christian M. Ringle and Kisang Ryu

Structural equation modeling (SEM) depicts one of the most salient research methods across a variety of disciplines, including hospitality management. Although for many…

Abstract

Purpose

Structural equation modeling (SEM) depicts one of the most salient research methods across a variety of disciplines, including hospitality management. Although for many researchers, SEM is equivalent to carrying out covariance-based SEM, recent research advocates the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) as an attractive alternative. The purpose of this paper is to systematically examine how PLS-SEM has been applied in major hospitality research journals with the aim of providing important guidance and, if necessary, opportunities for realignment in future applications. Because PLS-SEM in hospitality research is still in an early stage of development, critically examining its use holds considerable promise to counteract misapplications which otherwise might reinforce over time.

Design/methodology/approach

All PLS-SEM studies published in the six SSCI-indexed hospitality management journals between 2001 and 2015 were reviewed. Tying in with the prior studies in the field, the review covers reasons for using PLS-SEM, data characteristics, model characteristics, the evaluation of the measurement models, the evaluation of the structural model, reporting and use of advanced analyses.

Findings

Compared to other fields, the results show that several reporting practices are clearly above standard but still leave room for improvement, particularly regarding the consideration of state-of-the art metrics for measurement and structural model assessment. Furthermore, hospitality researchers seem to be unaware of the recent extensions of the PLS-SEM method, which clearly extend the scope of the analyses and help gaining more insights from the model and the data. As a result of this PLS-SEM application review in studies, this research presents guidelines on how to accurately use the method. These guidelines are important for the hospitality management and other disciplines to disseminate and ensure the rigor of PLS-SEM analyses and reporting practices.

Research limitations/implications

Only articles published in the SSCI-indexed hospitality journals were examined and any journals indexed in other databases were not included. That is, while this research focused on the top-tier hospitality management journals, future research may widen the scope by considering hospitality management-related studies from other disciplines, such as tourism research or general management.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by providing hospitality researchers with the updated guidelines for PLS-SEM use. Based on a systematic review of current practices in the hospitality literature, critical methodological issues when choosing and using the PLS-SEM were identified. The guidelines allow to improve future PLS-SEM studies and offer recommendations for using recent advances of the method.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article

Wynne Chin, Jun-Hwa Cheah, Yide Liu, Hiram Ting, Xin-Jean Lim and Tat Huei Cham

Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) has become popular in the information systems (IS) field for modeling structural relationships between latent…

Abstract

Purpose

Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) has become popular in the information systems (IS) field for modeling structural relationships between latent variables as measured by manifest variables. However, while researchers using PLS-SEM routinely stress the causal-predictive nature of their analyses, the model evaluation assessment relies exclusively on criteria designed to assess the path model's explanatory power. To take full advantage of the purpose of causal prediction in PLS-SEM, it is imperative for researchers to comprehend the efficacy of various quality criteria, such as traditional PLS-SEM criteria, model fit, PLSpredict, cross-validated predictive ability test (CVPAT) and model selection criteria.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review was conducted to understand empirical studies employing the use of the causal prediction criteria available for PLS-SEM in the database of Industrial Management and Data Systems (IMDS) and Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ). Furthermore, this study discusses the details of each of the procedures for the causal prediction criteria available for PLS-SEM, as well as how these criteria should be interpreted. While the focus of the paper is on demystifying the role of causal prediction modeling in PLS-SEM, the overarching aim is to compare the performance of different quality criteria and to select the appropriate causal-predictive model from a cohort of competing models in the IS field.

Findings

The study found that the traditional PLS-SEM criteria (goodness of fit (GoF) by Tenenhaus, R2 and Q2) and model fit have difficulty determining the appropriate causal-predictive model. In contrast, PLSpredict, CVPAT and model selection criteria (i.e. Bayesian information criterion (BIC), BIC weight, Geweke–Meese criterion (GM), GM weight, HQ and HQC) were found to outperform the traditional criteria in determining the appropriate causal-predictive model, because these criteria provided both in-sample and out-of-sample predictions in PLS-SEM.

Originality/value

This research substantiates the use of the PLSpredict, CVPAT and the model selection criteria (i.e. BIC, BIC weight, GM, GM weight, HQ and HQC). It provides IS researchers and practitioners with the knowledge they need to properly assess, report on and interpret PLS-SEM results when the goal is only causal prediction, thereby contributing to safeguarding the goal of using PLS-SEM in IS studies.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 120 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Content available
Article

Joseph F. Hair, Jeffrey J. Risher, Marko Sarstedt and Christian M. Ringle

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the considerations and metrics required for partial least squares structural equation

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the considerations and metrics required for partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis and result reporting. Preliminary considerations are summarized first, including reasons for choosing PLS-SEM, recommended sample size in selected contexts, distributional assumptions, use of secondary data, statistical power and the need for goodness-of-fit testing. Next, the metrics as well as the rules of thumb that should be applied to assess the PLS-SEM results are covered. Besides presenting established PLS-SEM evaluation criteria, the overview includes the following new guidelines: PLSpredict (i.e., a novel approach for assessing a model’s out-of-sample prediction), metrics for model comparisons, and several complementary methods for checking the results’ robustness.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides an overview of previously and recently proposed metrics as well as rules of thumb for evaluating the research results based on the application of PLS-SEM.

Findings

Most of the previously applied metrics for evaluating PLS-SEM results are still relevant. Nevertheless, scholars need to be knowledgeable about recently proposed metrics (e.g. model comparison criteria) and methods (e.g. endogeneity assessment, latent class analysis and PLSpredict), and when and how to apply them to extend their analyses.

Research limitations/implications

Methodological developments associated with PLS-SEM are rapidly emerging. The metrics reported in this paper are useful for current applications, but must always be up to date with the latest developments in the PLS-SEM method.

Originality/value

In light of more recent research and methodological developments in the PLS-SEM domain, guidelines for the method’s use need to be continuously extended and updated. This paper is the most current and comprehensive summary of the PLS-SEM method and the metrics applied to assess its solutions.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article

Gohar F. Khan, Marko Sarstedt, Wen-Lung Shiau, Joseph F. Hair, Christian M. Ringle and Martin P. Fritze

The purpose of this paper is to explore the knowledge infrastructure of methodological research on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) from a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the knowledge infrastructure of methodological research on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) from a network point of view. The analysis involves the structures of authors, institutions, countries and co-citation networks, and discloses trending developments in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on bibliometric data downloaded from the Web of Science, the authors apply various social network analysis (SNA) and visualization tools to examine the structure of knowledge networks of the PLS-SEM domain. Specifically, the authors investigate the PLS-SEM knowledge network by analyzing 84 methodological studies published in 39 journals by 145 authors from 106 institutions.

Findings

The analysis reveals that specific authors dominate the network, whereas most authors work in isolated groups, loosely connected to the network’s focal authors. Besides presenting the results of a country level analysis, the research also identifies journals that play a key role in disseminating knowledge in the network. Finally, a burst detection analysis indicates that method comparisons and extensions, for example, to estimate common factor model data or to leverage PLS-SEM’s predictive capabilities, feature prominently in recent research.

Originality/value

Addressing the limitations of prior systematic literature reviews on the PLS-SEM method, this is the first study to apply SNA to reveal the interrelated structures and properties of PLS-SEM’s research domain.

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