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Book part

Jan Babecký, Luboš Komárek and Zlatuše Komárková

The global financial crisis of 2007/2008 interrupted the process of financial integration observed in the European Union since the beginning of the 2000s. This paper…

Abstract

The global financial crisis of 2007/2008 interrupted the process of financial integration observed in the European Union since the beginning of the 2000s. This paper empirically analyzes whether financial integration resumed, focusing on the period 2002–2015 and employing the indicators of the speed and the level of integration. The analysis covers four financial markets (the money, foreign exchange, bond, and equity markets) of the selected inflation-targeting Central European economies (the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland), representatives of new euro area countries (Slovenia and Slovakia) and the selected advanced Western European economies (Austria, Germany, Portugal) with the euro area. The results reveal that the global financial crisis caused mainly a temporary price divergence of the financial markets in the analyzed countries vis-à-vis the euro area. By 2015 the situation on the financial markets returned gradually to the pre-crisis degree of integration with the euro area for most of the countries and markets; however, there are signs of fragmentation on the government bond markets.

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Economic Imbalances and Institutional Changes to the Euro and the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-510-8

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Article

Nuruzzaman Arsyad

This paper aims to seek to find answers to three questions. First, is there any possibility of long-term cointegration between East and Southeast Asian equity markets? If…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to seek to find answers to three questions. First, is there any possibility of long-term cointegration between East and Southeast Asian equity markets? If so, how many cointegrating equations are there? Second, what are the short-term causal relationships between equity markets in East and Southeast Asia? Third, what is the East Asia’s most influential equity market toward their Southeast counterparts, and vice versa?

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses Johansen's (1988) cointegration method to test long-run relationships among East and Southeast Asian equity markets. With regards to short-run causal relationships, this study uses Granger-causality test as well as the forecast variance decomposition method.

Findings

Johansen test proves that there is cointegration between East and Southeast Asian equity markets, but the integration process is not complete. Cointegrating vector also provides evidence that member countries of ASEAN+3 respond differently to external shocks. With regards to short-run causal direction, this study finds that Japan Granger-causes all equity markets in Southeast Asia, while Singapore and Vietnam Granger-cause all equity markets in East Asia. These results imply that Japan is the market with most linkages in Southeast Asia, while Singapore and Vietnam are the markets with most linkages to East Asia. Furthermore, forecast variance decomposition reveals that Japan is the East Asia’s most influential equity markets, while Singapore is the most influential equity market in Southeast Asia. This study suggests that policymakers in East and Southeast Asian countries to synchronize the capital market standards and regulations as well as to reduce the barriers for capital mobility to spur the regional equity market integration.

Research limitations/implications

Increasing integration of East and Southeast Asian capital markets forces policymakers in ASEAN+3 countries to synchronize monetary policies, as it has been found that regionally integrated capital markets reduce the degree of independent monetary policy (Logue et al., 1976). It is therefore important for policymakers in East and Southeast Asian countries to assess the possibility of stock market integration within this region to anticipate the future risks associated with economic integration as well as to build collective regional institutions (Wang, 2004). Click and Plummer (2005) also argued that integrated stock markets is more efficient than nationally segmented equity markets, and the efficiency of Asian capital markets has been questioned in particular after the 1997 Asian financial crises. Yet, the empirical evidence on the extent of financial integration among ASEAN+3 member countries has been limited and inconclusive. This study is therefore an attempt to investigate the recent development of ASEAN+3 equity markets integration.

Practical implications

This study focuses its attention on the existence and the extent of financial integration in East and Southeast Asia region, and it provides evidence that equity market integration in ASEAN+3 is far from complete, and for that reason, there is a need for policymakers in ASEAN+3 member countries to synchronize their standards and regulations. Furthermore, the policymakers in East and Southeast Asia can gain benefit from this study, as it provides the evidence that ASEAN+3 member countries respond differently to policy shocks, which may hinder the development of regional financial integration as well as the policy effectiveness of region-wide authority in ASEAN+3.

Originality/value

This research is different from previous studies, as it puts the regional financial integration within the context of ASEAN+3 frameworks. Unlike previous research that considers East and Southeast Asian countries as an individual entity, this research considers East and Southeast Asia into two different blocks, following Tourk (2004) who documented that negotiation process for ASEAN+3 financial integration is conducted in sub-regional level (ASEAN vs East Asia), rather than national level (country per country basis). Second, this study covers the period after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. As suggested in Wang (2014), that the degree of stock market integration tends to change around the periods marked by financial crises, the updated study on Asian financial integration in the aftermath of 1997 financial crises is important to document the development of regional financial integration.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article

Anil Perera and J. Wickramanayake

The purpose of this paper is to examine financial market integration in major South Asian financial markets: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Also to identify…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine financial market integration in major South Asian financial markets: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Also to identify the required policy interactions and structural changes vital for broader economic integration.

Design/methodology/approach

This research opted for an empirical study employing co‐integration and causality techniques using a sample of stock and bond market data for major South Asian countries.

Findings

Empirical results show that both stock and bond returns are co‐integrated, indicating common stochastic trends. Stock market integration appears to be much stronger compared to the less developed and data deficient bond markets.

Research limitations/implications

The study relies on widely cited empirical methodology. However, adopting alternative specifications and also allowing for time variant factors while examining inter‐linkages between stock and bond markets seem to be appropriate for robustness of results.

Practical implications

Increased integration would help in reducing arbitrage opportunities in these financial markets, having implications for market participants and promoting economic growth through financial deepening, in general. Since the degree of integration is dependent on policy and institutional infrastructure, ongoing efforts to develop financial sectors and reforms would need to be accelerated to further strengthen the degree of convergence between securities markets.

Originality/value

The paper fulfills an identified need to examine financial market integration in the SAARC region, using data for both stock and bond markets. This is the first study to use bond market data for SAARC countries and it also adds to the limited literature of bond market integration.

Details

South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-4457

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Book part

Takashi Matsuki, Kimiko Sugimoto and Yushi Yoshida

We examine how the degree of regional financial integration in African stock markets has evolved over the last eleven years. Despite increasing regional economic…

Abstract

We examine how the degree of regional financial integration in African stock markets has evolved over the last eleven years. Despite increasing regional economic cooperation, the process of stock market integration has been slow. To facilitate growth via developed financial markets but keep financial stability risk at a minimum, further regional integration should be promoted, and mild capital controls on non-African investors may be necessary. A Diebold-Yilmaz spillover analysis is applied to ten African stock markets for the period between August 2004 and January 2015. We examine spillovers among four regions and among individual countries. Regional integration, as measured by total spillovers in Africa, is increasing but remains very low. These spillovers were temporarily heightened during the global financial crisis. Cross-regional spillovers are high between Northern and Southern Africa. Asymmetric capital controls on African and non-African investors must be considered to foster further regional integration and to mitigate financial stability risk. This is one of the few studies to address the construction of the future architecture of regionally integrated stock markets in emerging countries.

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Book part

Michael Donadelli

This chapter measures financial integration in 10 industries over 4 different periods. We use two robust measures of integration: (i) the Pukthuanthong and Roll (2009)’s…

Abstract

This chapter measures financial integration in 10 industries over 4 different periods. We use two robust measures of integration: (i) the Pukthuanthong and Roll (2009)’s multi-factor R-square and (ii) the Volosovych (2011)’s integration index. Both measures, based on PCA, indicate that the difference between the level of integration over the period 2009–2012 (“Post-Lehman” era) and the level of integration over the period 1994–1998 (“Post-Liberalizations” era) is relatively high. In addition, the level of financial integration across international equity markets decreased during the late 1990s. This suggests that de jure integration does not necessarily improve de facto integration. Overall, our findings give rise to a “diversification benefits-insurance benefits trade-off.”

Details

Risk Management Post Financial Crisis: A Period of Monetary Easing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-027-8

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Article

Arun Kumar Misra and Jitendra Mahakud

Financial sector reform measures, which were initiated in 1991, have provided some degree of maturity and integration of different segments of India's financial markets

Abstract

Purpose

Financial sector reform measures, which were initiated in 1991, have provided some degree of maturity and integration of different segments of India's financial markets. The purpose of this paper is to articulate the impact of financial sector reform measures on integration of various segments of financial markets in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper surveys various methodologies for measurement of financial integration and uses the recently developed technique of co‐integration in a VAR framework to assess the extent of integration of various segments of India's financial markets.

Findings

The paper concludes that the financial market integration is inconclusive in India. Only a few segments of money market, Gilt market and foreign exchange market are integrated. Interest rate parity does not hold in India's case, which indicates poor evidence in support of international integration of domestic financial markets. Similarly, the analysis of the relationship between domestic saving and domestic investment does not support international integration. The study of co‐integration of Nasdaq and Bombay sensitive index (BSE), also revealed absence of international integration.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to non‐availability of time series data, the paper could not consider the mutual fund market, pension market and various derivatives markets in the overall process of assessment of financial integration. However, the impact on the findings is minimal, as these markets are not so far developed in India.

Practical implications

The findings have significant practical implications particularly in the formulation of policies on management and interventions in the money market, foreign exchange and equity markets and in the overall formulation of monetary policy for the economy.

Originality/value

This paper presents a quite comprehensive research study on financial integration in India and is original, particularly in the area of application of the co‐integration technique for assessment of financial integration.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article

Tung Dao Nguyen and Pana Elisabeta

The strategic partnership between China and ASEAN has resulted in significant financial reforms at the country and regional level. The scale and pace of these changes call…

Abstract

Purpose

The strategic partnership between China and ASEAN has resulted in significant financial reforms at the country and regional level. The scale and pace of these changes call for systematic assessments of their bearing on the development and integration of financial markets in this region. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the level of financial integration of the equity markets in China and ASEAN4 countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand) for the period 2004-2014.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the β and σ convergence, dynamic conditional correlation, and wavelet correlation to assess the degree, trend, and change across different time scales of the integration of China-ASEAN4 equity markets. Using two measures of change in return per unit risk and variance, we assess the difference in diversification benefits between an equity portfolio China-ASEAN4 and China-EU.

Findings

The authors find that financial integration across China-ASEAN4 equity markets fluctuated between a moderate level before and after the recent crisis and a higher level during the crisis. The results indicate that investors achieve higher diversification benefits from a cross-industry than a cross-country investment strategy within this region.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should investigate whether local factors and existing cultural and political differences explain the weak to moderate level of integration of China and emerging ASEAN equity markets.

Practical implications

A good understanding of the degree and evolution of the regional financial integration may be used by investors to allocate capital efficiently when adding ASEAN4 equities to a portfolio of Chinese equities.

Social implications

Systematic assessments of the regional financial integration contribute to the effort to mitigate the ensuing cross-border financial contagion during crises.

Originality/value

The authors argue that that the increase in correlations of CHINA-ASEAN4 equity markets during the recent crisis does not reflect a permanent shift in the dynamic of the dominant markets in the region. While investors achieve higher diversification benefits from a cross-industry than a cross-country investment strategy within this region, the diversification benefits are lower for long-term than short-term investors.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 42 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

Nicholas Addai Boamah

The purpose of this paper is to explore the co-movements among emerging markets. The authors, additionally, investigate the driven force of the within emerging markets

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the co-movements among emerging markets. The authors, additionally, investigate the driven force of the within emerging markets integration. The authors provide evidence of volatility clustering, leverage effect and time-varying integration of emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used dynamic conditional correlation techniques to estimate the time-varying conditional correlations among emerging markets. The cross-sectional and time series variations in the within emerging markets correlations are then described by various market and economic factors.

Findings

The authors show that investment, domestic credit to the private sector and import of financial services have a positive relation within emerging markets co-movements. However, claim on central government, current account balance and financial services exports have a negative relation with the integration among emerging markets. Evidence is also provided that liquidity and market depth explain the correlation between emerging markets.

Originality/value

The findings show that emerging markets ability to convert domestic assets into investments appears to be the single most important factor influencing with in emerging markets integration. The findings indicate that across-emerging markets diversification potential exists.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article

Umm E. Habiba, Shen Peilong, Wenlong Zhang and Kashif Hamid

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cointegration and volatility spillover dynamics between the USA and South Asian stock markets, namely, India, Pakistan and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cointegration and volatility spillover dynamics between the USA and South Asian stock markets, namely, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The main objective of this study is to provide the knowledge about integration of financial market and volatility spillovers before, during and after global financial crisis to investors, fund managers and policy-makers.

Design/methodology/approach

The Johansen and Juselius cointegration test, Granger Causality test and bivaraite EGARCH model have been applied in this study to examine integration and volatility spillovers between selected stock markets.

Findings

The findings show that long-term integration between the USA market and South Asian emerging stock markets. It is found that USA stock market has causal relationship with emerging stock markets in short-term. The findings of EGARCH model reveal that asymmetric volatility spillover effects significant in all selected stock markets in pre, during and post-crisis periods. Furthermore, significant volatility spillover is found from stock markets of USA to all selected South Asian markets during and post-crisis periods. However, volatility spillovers from USA to India and Sri-Lanka markets are significant, while insignificant in case of Pakistani market in pre-crisis period. Overall, we find that returns and volatility spillover effects are higher in financial crisis period as compared to non-financial crisis period.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper have important implications for investors, portfolio managers and policy-makers. They can take potential benefits from international portfolio diversification by considering all these facts. The understanding and knowledge of across volatility transmission help them to maximize the gains from diversification and minimize the risk. Policy-makers can develop such strategies which protect the markets of these economies from future financial crisis.

Originality/value

Although in finance literature numerous studies have been conducted on integration between different stock markets, most of the studies investigated the integration and volatility spillovers between developed stock markets. However, many studies also analyzed the integration among emerging stock markets in literature review but it is hard to find studies in the context of South Asian stock markets on the effect of global financial crisis on stock markets. The main contribution of this study is to investigate the stock markets integration and volatility transmission between the USA and South Asia by considering the effect of recent 2007 US subprime financial crisis.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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