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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1997

Chi‐nien Chung

In this paper, I demonstrate an alternative explanation to the development of the American electricity industry. I propose a social embeddedness approach (Granovetter…

Abstract

In this paper, I demonstrate an alternative explanation to the development of the American electricity industry. I propose a social embeddedness approach (Granovetter, 1985, 1992) to interpret why the American electricity industry appears the way it does today, and start by addressing the following questions: Why is the generating dynamo located in well‐connected central stations rather than in isolated stations? Why does not every manufacturing firm, hospital, school, or even household operate its own generating equipment? Why do we use incandescent lamps rather than arc lamps or gas lamps for lighting? At the end of the nineteenth century, the first era of the electricity industry, all these technical as well as organizational forms were indeed possible alternatives. The centralized systems we see today comprise integrated, urban, central station firms which produce and sell electricity to users within a monopolized territory. Yet there were visions of a more decentralized electricity industry. For instance, a geographically decentralized system might have dispersed small systems based around an isolated or neighborhood generating dynamo; or a functionally decentralized system which included firms solely generating and transmitting the power, and selling the power to locally‐owned distribution firms (McGuire, Granovetter, and Schwartz, forthcoming). Similarly, the incandescent lamp was not the only illuminating device available at that time. The arc lamp was more suitable for large‐space lighting than incandescent lamps; and the second‐generation gas lamp ‐ Welsbach mantle lamp ‐ was much cheaper than the incandescent electric light and nearly as good in quality (Passer, 1953:196–197).

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 17 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Wu Chen

Puts forward a new method for decomposing relational schemas by using semi‐equivalence relations based on pansystems methodology. A necessary and sufficient condition is…

Abstract

Puts forward a new method for decomposing relational schemas by using semi‐equivalence relations based on pansystems methodology. A necessary and sufficient condition is obtained for determining whether there exists a subschema logically available in a given relational schema decomposition.

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Kybernetes, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Digital Media and the Greek Crisis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-328-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2019

Kirsty Penrice, Philip Birch and Stephan McAlpine

The purpose of this paper is to explore the motives a person adopts in order to engage in hate-related behaviours within a prison setting. A subsidiary aim of the study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the motives a person adopts in order to engage in hate-related behaviours within a prison setting. A subsidiary aim of the study was to compare this cohort of prisoners with prisoners who have been convicted for aggravated racism in the community.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to gather data, an exploratory research design was adopted, utilising the method of semi-structured interviews. In total, a number of nine interviews were conducted. Qualitative analysis was then employed allowing for an examination of meaning in relation to the motives behind the commission of hate crimes to occur.

Findings

The findings revealed the presence of racist beliefs and attitudes in both groups involved in the study. Further similarities between the two groups included the perception of inequality and beliefs about racism. The differences between the two groups included poor emotional regulation and an inability to manage beliefs and subsequent behaviours about people from different ethnic groups, with those in custody seeming to be more reactive.

Practical implications

The findings provide a preliminary insight into enhancing inmate safety. The environmental implications begin to reveal the complexity of hate-related behaviours in custody. There are differences between the context of hate crime committed in a prison environment compared to that committed in the community that require different solutions for addressing such behaviour. Further implications are considered in the final section of the paper.

Originality/value

A large body of research has been conducted on prison violence, seldom does this research examine this issue within the context of hate crime. This preliminary study offers an insight into prison-based hate crime.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1995

Sang Mun Kim

Considers whether Gödel’s results preclude the possibility or the impossibility of the artificial intelligence (AI) thesis; and also what the (possible) applications or…

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414

Abstract

Considers whether Gödel’s results preclude the possibility or the impossibility of the artificial intelligence (AI) thesis; and also what the (possible) applications or consequences of them are for AI research. Shows that while the limitative Gödel’s results are shown to preclude neither the possibility nor the impossibility of the AI thesis, they have and will continue to shed significant light on the development of the AI field.

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Kybernetes, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1981

John Diffenbach

Your company may find itself traveling down several different paths at once to reach its goals. The secret of success lies in making sure the roads are compatible. At one…

Abstract

Your company may find itself traveling down several different paths at once to reach its goals. The secret of success lies in making sure the roads are compatible. At one time, selecting the right options was a matter of chance. Today, finding the winning combination is almost a science.

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Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Charles Von Gilsa, Daniel Pacheco Lacerda, Luis Felipe Riehs Camargo, Iberê Guarani Souza and Ricardo Augusto Cassel

The purpose of this paper is to longitudinally assess the technical efficiency and productivity, considering investment projects and technological change, in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to longitudinally assess the technical efficiency and productivity, considering investment projects and technological change, in a second-generation petrochemical company.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) together with the Malmquist index to measure efficiency during the analysis periods. The working method consists of four main phases, namely development of the conceptual model, construction of the mathematical model, application of model to the case, and analysis of the results. The study utilizes a quantitative approach with descriptive goals seeking to evaluate the impacts of technical changes on the operational efficiency and productivity of the production process.

Findings

The use of DEA associated with the Malmquist index proved to be viable for analyzing a single company and identifying efficiency improvements, as well as the impacts of the learning process and the implementation of improvement projects. However, the results of the improvement projects and learning process were not representative and had no statistical significance on the actual change in efficiency of the company during the periods analyzed. For the case in question, the learning process and continuous improvement were not observed during all study periods.

Practical implications

The proposition that the improvement projects and investments implemented increased the efficiency of the company was rejected. Hence, with this work, it was possible to determine that the company unnecessarily invested resources in projects to increase efficiency. Furthermore, the company could have explored more internal resources before making significant investments in increased efficiency.

Originality/value

As for the value of this research in the theoretical and academic scope, this paper advances knowledge on the application of DEA because it proposes to establish an internal reference benchmarking for comparison. The literature contains few studies that analyze organizations using continuous processes, such as petrochemical processes, in longitudinal studies as a function of time, especially with the use of DEA.

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Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

M.H. HEINE

A simple notation for describing the internal structure of a document is presented, and contrasted with other, more conventional notations for describing documents, in…

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51

Abstract

A simple notation for describing the internal structure of a document is presented, and contrasted with other, more conventional notations for describing documents, in particular those related to subject‐classification systems and document description for bibliographic purposes, as well as with document metalanguage codes such as those of SGML. It is suggested such a notation should assist the science of human messaging through (1) permitting hypotheses to be more readily expressed and/or tested concerning document structure, and (2) facilitating the formation of taxonomies of documents based on their structures. Such a notation should also be of practical value in contributing to the processes of document specification, building and testing, and possibly also contribute to new generations of IR systems which link retrieval against record databases to the search systems internal to specific documents. It is suggested that, following formative criticism, professional standards for describing document structure should be sought based on the notation. The notation is at present limited to linear documents, but extensions to it to accommodate documents in non‐linear form (e.g. hypertext documents) and/or existing in physically distributed form, could usefully be constructed. Examples of the application of the notation are provided.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Reza Fallahtafti and Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad

This paper aims to optimise building orientation in Tehran, as well as determining the impact of its shape, relative compactness (RC) and glazing percentage on its…

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1134

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to optimise building orientation in Tehran, as well as determining the impact of its shape, relative compactness (RC) and glazing percentage on its optimised orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

A cubic module was used and a set of 8 of the same module with 16 different formations were analysed for their orientation (360°), the RC (four groups) and the amount of glazing percentage (25, 50 and 75 per cent).

Findings

The results show that the optimised orientation of a building in Tehran strongly depends on its passive solar heat gain elements, their orientation and their position in building; furthermore, glazing percentage amount, amongst the studied factors, plays the most important role in determining a building’s orientation.

Practical implications

The application of the findings of this study in Tehran city planning and also technical details of buildings will lead to a great energy saving in construction sector. Furthermore, the deployment of the proposed design guidelines in construction has explicitly been proven to save a prodigious amount of energy.

Originality/value

The main research question is taken directly from authors’ initiative when working as university professor and research associate. The case study buildings, their morphological configurations and sustainable features have not been presented before in an academic journal.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Maik Lachmann, Arnt Wöhrmann and Andreas Wömpener

The International Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board allow fair value measurement of liabilities. Previous findings from the…

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1919

Abstract

Purpose

The International Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board allow fair value measurement of liabilities. Previous findings from the literature on recognition versus disclosure indicate that recognition of fair value information better serves investors' needs, because it is more likely to facilitate the incorporation of the information into their judgment. In cases of credit risk changes for own liabilities, however, many authors doubt that fair value measurement is beneficial due to its potential counter‐intuitiveness. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into non‐professional investors' processing of fair value information for liabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

A between‐subjects laboratory experiment was employed. Subjects received financial information on three different companies. The authors manipulated the accounting treatment of liabilities between the three groups. Subjects ranked three companies according to their economic performance. The authors then compared these rankings to the companies' actual performance.

Findings

The results of the experiment indicate that non‐professional investors are less likely to acquire the information of credit risk changes when liabilities are not measured at fair value. Additionally, evidence was found that fair value measurement is to some extent counter‐intuitive for non‐professional investors.

Research limitations/implications

A main limitation is that our experiment concentrates on liabilities and abstracts from interactions of both sides of the balance sheet.

Originality/value

This is the first study to analyze in detail non‐professional investors' information processing of liabilities measured at fair value.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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