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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 May 2021

Khizran Zehra and Sadia Usmani

Refugee entrepreneurship is increasing because of the increased influx of refugees around the globe. This leaves us with the question that how refugees integrate…

1124

Abstract

Purpose

Refugee entrepreneurship is increasing because of the increased influx of refugees around the globe. This leaves us with the question that how refugees integrate economically in the host country in the presence of all social, emotional and economic constraints. Existing literature suggests looking into the role of social capital to address refugee economic integration, particularly in developing nations. To acknowledge this call, this paper aims to explore the impact of family social capital on the economic integration process. Particularly, this study has investigated the Afghan refugee entrepreneurial activities and the integration process of Afghan refugees in economic and social spaces in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is rooted in 18 in-depth interviews with five participants that run small businesses in the city of Rawalpindi in Pakistan.

Findings

The findings revealed Afghan refugee entrepreneurs, develop a different type of family social capital i.e. horizontal and vertical social capital. Afterward, when the acculturation pace up across refugees’ generations then they accumulate bridging social capital gradually. The process of economic integration happens in different stages as also shown in the existing literature. Based on (Berry, 2003; Evansluong et al., 2019; Khulman, 1991) economic integration process this paper has discussed three main stages (entry in labor market, gradual integration and gradual sub-merging in host society) of Afghan refugee economic integration in Pakistan and further this study has shown how different steps are arranged within these stages to smoothen the integration process.

Research limitations/implications

With this research, this paper calls for a more nuanced approach to address the challenges that are faced by refugees during their economic integration. Future research on Afghan economic and social integration can contribute to a better understanding of refugee settlement, well-being and self-sufficient status in host countries. One of the limitations of the study is the focus on male participants because female Afghan refugees do not work mostly because of strong patriarchal structures observed in refugee Afghan groups.

Practical implications

Most Afghan entrepreneurs consider them as Pakistani and do not want to repatriate to Afghanistan. This provides an opportunity for Pakistani policymakers to provide regulations and opportunities to Afghan entrepreneurs who want to stay in Pakistan and contribute to their family well-being and economic income generation and employment in Pakistan.

Social implications

The role of the family acts as a means to refugee entrepreneurs’ integration in the host country. Strong migration networks and dense family configurations are a source of pride, responsibility, resilience and self-esteem for Afghan refugees to start and expand their businesses.

Originality/value

This study provides the opportunity to explore the under-researched role of family social capital in the migrant and refugee entrepreneurship literature.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

61927

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Partha Gangopadhyay, Mamun Billah and Siddharth Jain

Economic and financial integration (hereafter, economic integration) among economies has been a fertile area of research. Yet, what we argue is that economic integration

Abstract

Economic and financial integration (hereafter, economic integration) among economies has been a fertile area of research. Yet, what we argue is that economic integration needs new thoughts to adequately model the recent challenges to the global economy by developing a new index/measure of economic integration. The new index will not only shed invaluable insights into the drivers of economic integration between Australia and the Middle East but will also help craft economic, trade, and commercial policies to achieve the desired type of integration with Australia's trading partners. Our analysis is undertaken on a cross section of 140 countries for the year 2011, to understand the causes and indicators of integration. Our model combines changes in real GDP, per capita GDP, percentage of educational expense, and gender inequality as causal factors to explain integration as a latent variable. We use three indicators of integration: (1) a standard measure of economic integration, (2) exports and imports as a percentage of GDP, (3) flows of foreign direct investment. We then explore the linkages between these indicators, or manifestations of integration, and a number of its possible causes. In terms of the new index we rank 140 nations and note that Australia is ranked among the top 20 nations in terms of integration with the global economy. Except Israel and Oman, Australia's trade partners in the Middle East have little integration with the global economy. In a similar vein, we also find that Australia's northern neighbors – especially Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, India – are yet to get well-integrated with the global economy. As a result, we argue, Australia can lead these countries from Southeast Asia and the Middle East to form closer ties with the global economy via Australia and, by doing so, Australia can create unprecedented economic and social benefit.

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Danko Tarabar

The purpose of this paper is to empirically uncover the relationship between economic integration and levels of entrepreneurial activity across 24 EU countries between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically uncover the relationship between economic integration and levels of entrepreneurial activity across 24 EU countries between 2004 and 2012. The deepening of EU integration corresponds to increases in the size and competitiveness of domestic markets as member states reorient economic activity toward the larger, competitive single market. Spillovers of both economic and political dimensions of integration in the common market on micro firm and self-employment are considered. The paper contributes to the understanding of the hypothesized relationship between globalization and the rise of entrepreneurial economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses fixed effects linear regression models to estimate the marginal effects of economic integration on entrepreneurial activity. Several dependent variables and controls for social, economics, and institutional context are used to confirm the robustness of the results.

Findings

The paper finds that increased economic activity of member countries within the EU common market, as well as institutional compliance and integration in the European Monetary Union and Schengen Agreement are positively and significantly associated with the rise of entrepreneurship. Notably, it is found that a standard deviation increase in economic and political integration is associated with, respectively, 16 and 7.2 percent increase in micro firm density. Some preliminary evidence on the quality of the arising entrepreneurial activity are also given.

Originality/value

The paper takes stock of existing descriptive and theoretical literature on global economic integration and entrepreneurship to uncover, for the first time, the empirical relationship between entrepreneurship and levels of economic and political integration within the EU bloc.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2018

Tatre Jantarakolica and Korbkul Jantarakolica

For the past decades, issues concerning the impact of economic integration on financial integration, especially exchange rate integration, has been criticized among…

Abstract

For the past decades, issues concerning the impact of economic integration on financial integration, especially exchange rate integration, has been criticized among several regions such as ASEAN. This chapter intends to: (i) test for the exchange rate integration among the ASEAN-5, including Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand, using panel data techniques; and (ii) determine the impact of economic integration on the level of exchange rate integration among the ASEAN-5 countries. The purchasing power parity (PPP) is tested using panel unit root tests on monthly data. The results confirm the PPP among the ASEAN-5 countries due to lower transaction costs from ASEAN agreements. The chapter applies Multivariate GARCH (M-GARCH) models using daily data to determine the level of exchange rate integration among the ASEAN-3, including Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The results of panel cointegration tests using quarterly data of economic integration and exchange rate integration confirm the impact of international trade openness on exchange rate integration. With free trade agreements leading to lower trade barriers, lower transaction costs, and low transportation costs, the economic integration among ASEAN countries practically leads to a higher degree of exchange rate integration. The findings imply that trade liberalization has the strongest effect on the real exchange rate. As such, regulators of ASEAN countries should pay more attention to the exchange rate policies of each other because of the interdependence of their exchange rates.

Details

Banking and Finance Issues in Emerging Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-453-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2015

Yih-chyi Chuang

This chapter investigates the evolution of cross-strait economic relations and Asian regional integration and its implications for future development in the region. Trade…

Abstract

This chapter investigates the evolution of cross-strait economic relations and Asian regional integration and its implications for future development in the region. Trade and investment in Asia is fundamentally market-driven, and cross-border FDI is the major driving force. This investment-induced trade explained the cross-strait economic relations and intensive trade in intra-industry and intra-regional trade in Asia. The rise of China in 1990s with the assistance of Taiwanese firms further accelerated the trend of integration by forming regional production networks. However, after 2000 institutional arrangement like bilateral or plural-lateral FTA emerged to normalize and institutionalize the de facto economic integration. RCEP and TPP have evolved as the two major platforms for Asian regional cooperation with two key players, China and the United States, on each side. We argue that in the long run the win-win solution that the two platforms will further merge into FTAAP, which benefits all participants including China and the United States. However, in the short run, based on its 50 years of developmental experience, Taiwan can play an important role to promote and consolidate Asian regional integration as a technology provider and resource coordinator for the region and a risk buffer for entering Chinese market. We thus propose a roadmap for Taiwan and China to jointly participate in regional integration process. In the intermediate run, Asian economies need to change the structure toward more regional-centered trade in final goods through domestic consumption market in order to reduce the dependence on Western markets and mitigate any loss may arise from external shocks.

Details

Asian Leadership in Policy and Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-883-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Minh Hue Nguyen, Anh Chi Phan and Yoshiki Matsui

This study seeks to investigate the impact of supply chain integration (SCI) practices on economic performance in Vietnamese enterprises.

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to investigate the impact of supply chain integration (SCI) practices on economic performance in Vietnamese enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on data collected from 144 Vietnamese enterprises, this study employs partial least squares path modeling to analyze the direct and indirect relationships among external integration, information integration, process integration and economic performance.

Findings

Analytical results indicate that of the three SCI practices, external integration has a significant and positive impact on economic performance. Process integration and information integration, on the one hand, reveal insignificant direct impact on economic performance, and on the other, show significant indirect effect on economic performance through external integration.

Originality/value

This study sheds new light on the contribution of SCI to economic performance in developing economies and offers suggestions for not only local management but also foreign investors on the efficient allocation of resources to achieve higher economic performance.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Designing the New European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-863-6

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Amzad Hossain Kamal Naser

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the GCC integration.

1431

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the GCC integration.

Design/methodology/approach

Both descriptive and comparative analyses are used. In order to measure the effectiveness, indicators like trends of trade, FDI inflows, joint venture project activities and technology diffusion are considered.

Findings

The analyses revealed that the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) regularly reviews the collective process of all the proposals to be executed. It also conducts an in‐depth analysis of all issues concerning the GCC states and their societies. The analyses also showed increasing trends in exports and imports, and high‐tech manufacturing after implementing customs union. In the same fashion, the number of joint venture projects, total capital investment and capital investment per project increase dramatically after executing customs union. The analysis further shows that the investment in large‐scale joint venture projects increases during the same period. The paper finds a sharp increase in FDI during the period between 2001 and 2004; within this period, the customs union has been implemented. This increased FDI is mainly due to the fact that the GCC attains enlarged domestic market size and stable economic growth after the GCC integration. The GCC integration also contributes to improve the push and pull factors of FDI that have further attracted increased FDI. The paper shows that the GCC countries have adapted and deployed new technology considerably quickly during the period 1999 to 2005 compared with the 1990s.

Practical implications

The study noticed improvements in all indicators as well as the push and pull factors that enhance effectiveness of the GCC integration. To attain more effective regional integration, a periodic review of all the issues concerning the GCC states and their societies in light of the advancement taking place in the Arab world and international arenas is vital.

Originality/value

The study finds that the effectiveness of the GCC integration is progressive. The integrators that measure effectiveness such as trends of trade, FDI inflows, joint venture project activities and technology diffusion show increasing trends.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Galina N. Semenova, Elena I. Larionova, Oleg G. Karpovich, Sergei V. Shkodinsky and Fatima M. Ouroumova

The purpose of the work consists in studying social integration as a factor of economic growth. The authors focus on experience and perspectives of developing countries…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the work consists in studying social integration as a factor of economic growth. The authors focus on experience and perspectives of developing countries, as they show the highest rate of economic growth and have high potential of its acceleration.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors determine the interconnection between the processes of social integration in the four distinguished manifestations with the help of regression analysis and determine the level of homogeneity of data selections for each studied indicator with the help of variation analysis. Scenario analysis of future perspectives of the change of economic growth depending on the influence of the factor of social integration in the unity of its distinguished types is performed. Monte Carlo method is used for forecasting of change of the values of indicators of social integration.

Findings

It is substantiated that social integration is an important factor of economic growth. At the same time, the influence of this factor on economic growth of developing countries is ambiguous. Due to the offered proprietary classification of social integration according to the criterion of involved subjects, it is possible to establish that such types of social integration as integration of social groups, integration of business and society and integration of state and society have a positive influence. However, individual's integration into society has a negative influence.

Originality/value

The research contributes to development of economics by substantiating the significance of the social integration factor for economic growth and specifies the logic of management of this factor, which should be flexible. The perspectives of developing countries in acceleration of the rate of economic growth based on managing the factor of social integration are rather wide and envisage the increase of society's inclusion and the level of consumer consciousness and more active involvement of population into state management in the digital economy.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 41 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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