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Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2017

Raphael Bar-El, Ilanit Gavious, Dan Kaufmann and Dafna Schwartz

The literature documents a shortage in the supply of external funding to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in general and to innovative SMEs in particular. This…

Abstract

The literature documents a shortage in the supply of external funding to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in general and to innovative SMEs in particular. This study separates cognitive from financial constraints on innovative SMEs’ growth opportunities. Using data gathered through in-depth interviews with the CEOs of 115 SMEs, we reveal that over and above a problem with supply, there exists a twofold problem on the demand side. Specifically, we document that there is a tendency for these companies to avoid approaching external funding sources, especially ones that gear their investments toward innovation. Our results reveal a cognitive bias (over-pessimism) affecting the entrepreneurs’ (lack of) demand for external financing over and above other firm-specific factors. CEO tenure — our proxy for human and social capital — is significantly lower (higher) in firms that did (did not) pursue external funding. This finding may provide some support for our hypothesis regarding the cognitive bias and over-pessimism of the more veteran CEOs who have had negative experiences regarding recruiting external resources. The impact of this entrepreneurial cognition is shown to be economically detrimental to the enterprise. Nevertheless, the negative effects are not limited to the micro level, but have implications at the macro level as well, due to under-realization of the potential for employment, productivity, and growth of the firms comprising the vast majority of the economy.

Details

Human Capital and Assets in the Networked World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-828-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 January 2014

Abdul Rashid

The main purpose of this paper is to empirically examine how firm-specific (idiosyncratic) and macroeconomic risks affect the external financing decisions of UK…

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Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to empirically examine how firm-specific (idiosyncratic) and macroeconomic risks affect the external financing decisions of UK manufacturing firms. The paper also explores the effect of both types of risk on firms' debt versus equity choices.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a firm-level panel data covering the period 1981-2009 drawn from the Datastream. Multinomial logit and probit models are estimated to quantify the impact of risks on the likelihood of firms' decisions to issue and retire external capital and debt versus equity choices, respectively.

Findings

The results suggest that firms considerably take into account both firm-specific and economic risk when making external financing decisions and debt-equity choices. Specifically, the results from multinomial logit regressions indicate that firms are more (less) likely to do external financing when firm-specific (macroeconomic) risk is high. The results of probit model reveal that the propensity to debt versus equity issues substantially declines in uncertain times. However, firms are more likely to pay back their outstanding debt rather than to repurchase existing equity when they face either type of risk. Of the two types of risk, firm-specific risk appears to be more important economically for firms' external financing decisions.

Practical implications

The findings of the paper are equally useful for corporate firms in making value-maximizing financing decisions and authorities in designing effective fiscal and monetary policies to stabilize macroeconomic conditions. Specifically, the findings emphasize on the stability of the overall macroeconomic environment and firms' sales/earnings, which would result stability in firms' capital structure that help smooth firms' investments and production.

Originality/value

Unlike prior empirical studies that mainly focus on examining the impact of risk on target leverage, this paper attempts to examine the influence of firm-specific and macroeconomic risk on firms' external financing decisions and debt-equity choices.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 January 2012

Susan Coleman and Alicia Robb

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which various theories of capital structure “fit” in the case of new technology‐based firms.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which various theories of capital structure “fit” in the case of new technology‐based firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data from the Kauffman Firm Survey, a longitudinal data set of over 4,000 firms in the USA. Descriptive statistics and multivariate results are provided.

Findings

The authors' findings reveal that new technology‐based firms demonstrate different financing patterns than firms that are not technology‐based.

Research limitations/implications

Although some support was found for both the Pecking Order and Life Cycle theories, the results also indicate that technology‐based entrepreneurs are both willing and able to raise substantial amounts of capital from external sources.

Practical implications

Technology‐based entrepreneurs need external sources of equity, in particular, in order to launch and grow their firms.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, this is the first article to test specific theories of capital structure using a large sample of new technology‐based firms in the USA.

Article
Publication date: 20 May 2021

Xiangyuan Meng, Xue Li, Wenyan Xiao and Jie Li

The authors provide firm-level evidence that external financing affects international trade in a way different from internal financing.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors provide firm-level evidence that external financing affects international trade in a way different from internal financing.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors separate new entrants from incumbent exporters and investigate the roles of external and internal financing in export market participation and export quantity.

Findings

The authors find that external financing is of particular importance, as well as internal financing, in helping a firm become a new exporter. By contrast, external financing, unlike internal financing, is not significantly important for an incumbent exporter to stay in the international market. Regarding export quantity, a firm's internal financing is positively associated with more export quantity, whereas external financing is not.

Originality/value

The authors’ findings are consistent with the existence of significant fixed cost for entering the export market and external financing is particularly needed to cover such cost. Meanwhile, the financial need for maintaining the export status is much less and can be satisfied via internal financing.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2021

Ehsan Poursoleyman, Gholamreza Mansourfar and Sazali Abidin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between debt structure and future external financing and investment. Furthermore, it aims to analyze the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between debt structure and future external financing and investment. Furthermore, it aims to analyze the association between debt structure and future financial performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Volume, maturity, possessing collateral and having priority at the settlement date are the dimensions of debt structure that have been employed in this paper. The sample consists of 1,060 firm-year observations from Tehran Stock Exchange corporations during the period 2009–2018.

Findings

The findings reveal that greater reliance on financial leverage (debt volume) and short-term debt are associated with increases in future debt financing as well as future equity financing. Moreover, these two dimensions of debt structure are positively related to future investment. This paper also shows that the positive impact of financial leverage and short-term debt on future financing and investment can finally lead to a favorable financial performance. Regarding other dimensions of debt structure, the results suggest that although collateralized debt with the priority option at the settlement date enhances future external financing, this type of debt can ultimately lead to a reduction in future investment and financial performance. Finally, the findings indicate that uncollateralized debt exacerbates future financial performance.

Research limitations/implications

Financial performance can be affected by several factors, including available funds, investment amount, investment efficiency and managerial capability. However, this paper only considers the investment amount and external financing as the channels through which debt structure improves future financial performance. This study has the potential to contribute to one of the most important issues in finance and business fields, despite its probable trivial drawbacks.

Practical implications

Financing strategies as one of the most controversial topics have been meticulously scrutinized in this paper and practical implications are made to facilitate the process of decision-making regarding the optimal type of debt financing.

Originality/value

This study extends the literature by analyzing the direct link between debt structure and firm performance in firms domiciled in developing markets.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Tae-Nyun Kim

– This paper aims to propose several factors which can explain the negative relationship between financial constraints and investment-cash flow sensitivity.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose several factors which can explain the negative relationship between financial constraints and investment-cash flow sensitivity.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses traditional fixed effects model and minimum distance panel estimation by Erickson and Whited (2000) to estimate investment-cash flow sensitivity in the cash flow-augmented investment equation. In addition, principal component analysis is used to construct a financial constraints measure.

Findings

First, it was found that substitutability between cash holdings and free cash flow can partially explain why financially constrained firms do not depend on cash flow as heavily as we expect. Second, it was confirmed that the level of net external financing can also partially explain the investment-cash flow sensitivity puzzle. Furthermore, it was argued that the influence of cash holdings and external financing on investment-cash flow sensitivity is caused by the low level of internal cash flow for financially constrained firms. This argument is supported by our findings from an examination of investment-cash flow sensitivity for bank-dependent firms during the recession periods.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by suggesting possible partial explanations for the contradictory relationship between investment-cash flow sensitivity and financial constraints.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2011

Dalia Marciukaityte and Samuel H. Szewczyk

We examine whether discretionary accruals of firms obtaining substantial external financing can be explained by managerial manipulation or managerial overoptimism. Insider…

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Abstract

We examine whether discretionary accruals of firms obtaining substantial external financing can be explained by managerial manipulation or managerial overoptimism. Insider trading patterns and press releases around equity and debt financing suggest that managers are more optimistic about their firms around debt financing. Consistent with earlier studies, we find that discretionary current accruals peak when firms obtain equity financing. However, we also find that discretionary accruals peak when firms obtain debt financing. Moreover, discretionary accruals are higher for firms that rely on debt rather than on equity financing. The results are robust to controlling for firm characteristics, excluding small and distressed firms, and using alternative measures of discretionary accruals. These findings support the hypothesis that managerial overoptimism distorts financial statements of firms obtaining external financing.

Details

Review of Behavioural Finance, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Xiaogang Bi and Agyenim Boateng

This paper aims to investigate the effects of external sources of finance and ownership type on the value creation of Chinese acquiring firms.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effects of external sources of finance and ownership type on the value creation of Chinese acquiring firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The data set consists of domestic-listed mainland Chinese firms engaged in domestic mergers and acquisitions during the period 2004–2012. Standard event study methodology and cross-sectional regression analysis are used to examine the relationship between external finance, ownership type and value creation of the acquiring firms.

Findings

This paper finds that whereas bank financing is positively related to the firm value of privately-owned enterprises (POEs), bank financing has a negative but insignificant influence on the firm value of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Moreover, equity financing has a negative and significant effect on the value creation of SOE acquirers, however, this appears not to be the case of POEs.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that the capital markets in China take into consideration the discriminatory and cheap access to bank loans available to SOEs as negative signals to stock markets, which cause capital markets to punish SOEs through price depreciation. Conversely, capital markets reward POEs in respect of Chinese banks’ discrimination against POEs in bank financing.

Practical implications

The results suggest that the capital markets in China take into account the discriminatory and cheap access to bank loans available to SOEs as negative signals to stock markets, which cause capital markets to punish SOEs through price depreciation. Conversely, capital markets reward POEs in respect of Chinese banks’ discrimination against POEs in bank financing.

Originality/value

The results of this study show that external sources of finance and ownership type influence acquiring firm value in an environment where the corporate governance system is weak and the banking sector is dominated by state banks. Further reforms in the financial sector, particularly, in the corporate governance system appear warranted.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Ehsan Poursoleiman, Gholamreza Mansourfar and Sazali Abidin

This paper aims to investigate the impact of debt maturity on the relationship between financial leverage and future financing constraints. Moreover, it attempts to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of debt maturity on the relationship between financial leverage and future financing constraints. Moreover, it attempts to analyze the moderating role of short-term debt and the mediating role of future financing constraints in the relationship between financial leverage and future investment.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the moderating role of debt maturity, all the observations are divided into two groups based on short-term debt to total debt ratio. Moreover, Sobel, Aroian and Goodman tests are used to analyze the mediating role of future financing constraints. The sample used in this research includes firms listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange from 2006 to 2018.

Findings

It is shown that financial leverage is inversely (positively) related to future financing constraints for firms with higher (lower) use of short-term debt and, short-term debt moderates the relation between financial leverage and future investment. The findings also indicate that future financing constraints carry the influence of financial leverage to future investment.

Originality/value

In an imperfect market where financing is not independent of investment, it is highly required to carry out some studies on the role of different financing scenarios in firms and their impacts on future financing and investment; therefore, this paper is conducted to address one of the most important issues in the capital market, which is almost the pioneer study in this field.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Basil Al-Najjar and Dana Al-Najjar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of external financing needs on both firm value and corporate governance mechanisms within the UK SME context. This…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of external financing needs on both firm value and corporate governance mechanisms within the UK SME context. This framework is of importance because of the limited external financial resources SMEs might face.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors consider the endogeneity problem between corporate governance mechanisms and firm value, and hence, the three stages least squares and the instrumental variables based on two stages least squares estimation methods are employed.

Findings

The authors find a positive relationship between external financing needs and firm value. In addition, the authors detect that size and profitability are positively associated with firm value in the sample. Concerning the corporate governance index (CGI), the authors detect that big SMEs and those with low-debt levels have better corporate governance structures.

Originality/value

The authors employ a CGI for the sample which is constructed using ten corporate governance variables. The authors also examine different factors that affect SMEs 2019 governance by applying different models including logistic analysis.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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