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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Robert A. Peterson and David Altounian

This chapter reports the results of an empirical study on the “gender–performance gap,” the alleged difference in business performance between firms started or owned by…

Abstract

This chapter reports the results of an empirical study on the “gender–performance gap,” the alleged difference in business performance between firms started or owned by females and males. Although numerous studies have compared the business performance of firms started by or owned by female and male entrepreneurs, most research to date has employed financial performance metrics and has often produced inconsistent results. The present research compared gender-based business performance by examining self-perceptions of a large sample of female and male Black and Mexican-American entrepreneurs. As such, the present study overcame several limitations of prior gender–performance gap research and addressed entrepreneurial groups seldom studied. While there were no perceptual differences between female and male entrepreneurs surveyed regarding the performance of their respective businesses, Mexican-American entrepreneurs surveyed perceived the performance of their business as being better than Black entrepreneurs surveyed, and this result held for both females and males. Findings from the study provide insights into the perceptions held by Black and Mexican-American female and male entrepreneurs and provide a context for further race and gender studies.

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

Willy Das and Satyasiba Das

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and compare what criteria novice and habitual entrepreneurs use while adding members to the founding team.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and compare what criteria novice and habitual entrepreneurs use while adding members to the founding team.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses conjoint analysis (CA) to provide the order of preference for the “choice attributes.” The logic of CA is that even if two or more attributes influence the choice, it is unlikely that those attributes will have equal importance for founders with different entrepreneurial experiences.

Findings

This paper found a significant difference in the ranking of the attributes by novice and habitual entrepreneurs. In novice entrepreneurs, the effect of direct ties in the form of kinship ties has the highest preference, followed by prior social contact and prior work relations. However, personal friendships and resource dependency received lesser importance than interpersonal attraction because of the similarity in vision, beliefs and values. Habitual entrepreneurs, however, valued resource dependency and prior work relations more than kinship ties. Also, unlike novice entrepreneurs, habitual entrepreneurs sought cofounders from their indirect ties.

Practical implications

There has been an explosion of interest and funding for programs that help entrepreneurs establish a cofounding team. The authors inform these programs related to the decision concerning assisting novice and habitual entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

While prior studies examined a single attribute at a time, the strength of this study lies in simultaneously tapping all attributes, along with multiple indicators for each attribute. Additionally, this study distinguishes the selection criteria of cofounders based on the entrepreneurial expertise of the lead founder.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 May 2022

Brajaballav Kar and Yimer Ayalew Ahmed

This study aims to compare the outcome of support extended by the family and kin for new firms. The authors specially consider business performance, challenges, demography…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare the outcome of support extended by the family and kin for new firms. The authors specially consider business performance, challenges, demography and personality traits of entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire was used to collect responses on the socio-demography aspects of the entrepreneur, family, kin, business performance, personality traits and perceived challenges were collected from 350 young entrepreneurs of South Wollo province of Ethiopia. The ANOVA test for continuous variables and the Krukal–Walis test for nominal variables were conducted to find differences across eight groups with family and kin, their occupation (business/non-business) and extended support (yes/no).

Findings

Only 40% of entrepreneurs reported support, non-business families support entrepreneurial effort more compared to business families. Support is associated with perceived business performance and sociocultural challenges, but not with revenue. Entrepreneurs with less age, education and prior experience received more support compared to others. Entrepreneurs with higher need-for-achievement traits reported less support. Interestingly, entrepreneurs from business backgrounds are likely to perform better, with or without support.

Research limitations/implications

The extension of support to entrepreneurship depends on socioeconomic, demography, or personality-related factors and their interactions. The study did not investigate support from peers, an extended network, or the nature of support.

Social implications

Family and kin support influences entrepreneurial persistence, overcoming the sociocultural challenges and arresting quit intention among entrepreneurs at the initial stages of a venture.

Originality/value

The influence of immediate family or a network represents extremes, overlooking the role of kin. This study fills this gap and extends understanding of the role of kin in the context of Ethiopian young entrepreneurs.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 April 2022

Diego Matricano

Diversity in entrepreneurship has become a noteworthy topic of research since consistent differences – and few similarities, if any – exist among entrepreneurial profiles…

Abstract

Purpose

Diversity in entrepreneurship has become a noteworthy topic of research since consistent differences – and few similarities, if any – exist among entrepreneurial profiles. The present paper aims to compare different entrepreneurial profiles managing innovation processes in new technology-based firms (NTBFs). In particular, attention is focussed on young entrepreneurs who are in a critical phase of their lifelong learning, the school-to-work transition.

Design/methodology/approach

Statistical elaborations are based on data retrieved from Italian Ministry of Economic Development in January 2021 and carried out through stochastic frontier analyses. Respectively, 1,699 young entrepreneurs, 1,079 female entrepreneurs, 205 ethnic entrepreneurs and 8,224 stereotyped entrepreneurs are considered.

Findings

Factors affecting the performance of innovation processes managed in NTBFs are the same for stereotyped and female entrepreneurs, but they consistently differ for young and ethnic entrepreneurs. Achieved results are not in the position to offer a complete analysis of the phenomenon but – hopefully – can corroborate a very interesting and up-to-date research path that merits further development. In particular, young entrepreneurs disclose an unexpected skills mismatch that should be investigated in-depth.

Originality/value

Most contributions offer a narrow view of entrepreneurial profiles since they focus on one profile per time. The present paper, instead, considers four entrepreneurial profiles and compares them. Moreover, young entrepreneurs reveal an unexpected skills mismatch that underlines the relevance of specific activities of on-the-job training and apprenticeships in order to try to overcome it and improve the results achievable by young entrepreneurs.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2022

Yalin Wang, Yaokuang Li and Juan Wu

This paper aims to investigate female founders’ digital identities (i.e. the founder’s online self-representation) and explore how female founders’ digital identities…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate female founders’ digital identities (i.e. the founder’s online self-representation) and explore how female founders’ digital identities affect crowdfunding performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Leveraging a data set of 3,125 Kickstarter crowdfunding campaigns launched by women between 2014 and 2019, this study uses the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) topic model to investigate female founders’ digital identities and explore their impacts on crowdfunding performance via logistic and Tobit regression analyses.

Findings

This study finds that on crowdfunding platforms, female founders display four main types of digital identities: educational practitioner, experienced entrepreneur, creative innovator and life dreamer. Moreover, our results reveal the differential influences of these identities on crowdfunding performance. Specifically, the experienced entrepreneur or educational practitioner portrayal may benefit fundraising; the life dreamer portrayal may hinder it; and the creative innovator portrayal may have no significant effect.

Practical implications

This study suggests how women can use their digital identities to improve their crowdfunding performance, indicating a fruitful way to overcome female entrepreneurial financing hurdles in the digital age.

Originality/value

This study highlights the digital identities of female founders engaged in crowdfunding, enriching the emerging research on digital identity in entrepreneurship and crowdfunding. Furthermore, the application of the LDA topic model in the study enlightens future research on leveraging big data analytic methods to examine female entrepreneurship in the digital economy context.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Jing Huang, Ruoyu Yu, Shengxiong Wen, Zelin Tong and Nan Zhou

It is unattainable that entrepreneurs engage equivalent resources in public and private morality because of the limitation of resources. This study aims to conduct…

Abstract

Purpose

It is unattainable that entrepreneurs engage equivalent resources in public and private morality because of the limitation of resources. This study aims to conduct experiments to test how entrepreneurial deviation in morality affects legitimacy perception of consumers to entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted secondary data analysis and experiment to test how entrepreneurial deviation in morality affects legitimacy perception of consumers to entrepreneurs.

Findings

The experimental results show that entrepreneurial deviation in morality negatively affects legitimacy perceptions of consumers to entrepreneurs. Specifically, when public moral is higher than private moral, consumers have negative perceptions of pragmatic legitimacy to entrepreneurs, because consumers perceive deviation behaviors disobey the norm “Li”. However, entrepreneurial private morality excels public morality, consumers have negative perceptions of social legitimacy to entrepreneurs because consumers perceive deviation behaviors disobey the norm “Qing”. Moreover, the authors examined entrepreneurial values moderate the effects of moral deviation and legitimacy perceptions.

Originality/value

This study expands the ethical marketing of entrepreneurs from the perspective of the deviation between public morality and private morality.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2022

Stuti Haldar and Tulika Tripathi

India has acquired global leadership in renewable energy (RE) deployment because of its commitment to achieve 175 GW of installed capacity by 2022. Entrepreneurship driven…

Abstract

Purpose

India has acquired global leadership in renewable energy (RE) deployment because of its commitment to achieve 175 GW of installed capacity by 2022. Entrepreneurship driven by innovation and policy push is essential for energy sector transition. Despite policy focus on the diffusion of RE technology, there are several challenges that plague innovation and RE entrepreneurship development in Gujarat, India. Hence, the purpose of this study is to apply an empirical approach to identify major challenges faced by RE entrepreneurs operating in Gujarat.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical correlational analysis has been taken up to explore individual- and firm-level characteristics of 54 RE entrepreneurs in Gujarat across six districts. Moreover, challenges faced by them related to policy and market have been investigated. Gujarat has been selected as the study area, as it has an installed capacity of 11,000 MW and houses around 11% of the total RE potential of the country.

Findings

Major challenges faced by RE entrepreneurs in Gujarat comprise of financial risks, market incumbency, low profitability, uncertainty of demand and lack of skilled labour.

Practical implications

This study offers an empirical grounding to policymakers for fostering an ecosystem of entrepreneurship and innovation specific to RE sector in India and other developing nations.

Originality/value

This study is unique, as previous studies on sustainability-driven entrepreneurship are majorly theoretical and lack empirical foundations. Moreover, there are even lesser quantitative studies exploring challenges to RE entrepreneurship specific to India.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Jonathan Kimmitt, Vesna Mandakovic and Pablo Muñoz

Social entrepreneurs engage in action because social entrepreneurs want to solve social problems. Consequently, to see more social entrepreneurship in contexts with the…

Abstract

Purpose

Social entrepreneurs engage in action because social entrepreneurs want to solve social problems. Consequently, to see more social entrepreneurship in contexts with the most severe social problems is expected. This paper argues that this is an oversimplification of the problem-action nexus in social entrepreneurship and that action does not necessarily correspond to the observed scale of social problems. Drawing on the theoretical framing of crescive conditions, this relationship is affected by forms of public investment as institutions that distinctively promote engagement and public interest amongst social entrepreneurs. Thus, this paper assesses the relationship between varying levels of social problems and social entrepreneurship action (SEA) and how and to what extent public investment types – as more and less locally anchored crescive conditions – affect this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses are tested with a series of random-effects regression models. The data stem from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor's (GEM) 2015 social entrepreneurship survey and Chile's 2015 National Socioeconomic Characterisation Survey (CASEN). The authors combined both data sets and cross-matched individual-level data (action and investment) with commune-level data (social problem scale) resulting in unique contextualised observations for 1,124 social entrepreneurs.

Findings

Contrary to current understanding, this study finds that SEA is positively associated with low-social problem scale. This means that high levels of deprivation do not immediately lead to action. The study also finds that locally anchored forms of investment positively moderate this relationship, stimulating action in the most deprived contexts. On the contrary, centralised public investment leads to increased social entrepreneurial action in wealthier communities where it is arguably less needed.

Originality/value

The findings contribute to the literature on SEA in deprived contexts, social and public investment as well as policy-level discussion and broader issues of entrepreneurship and social problems.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 April 2022

Irina Nikolskaja Roddvik, Birgit Leick and Viktor Roddvik

This paper aims to present a historical case study of Norwegian transnational entrepreneurs (1880s–1930s) and the ecosystems that they founded in Russia’s Arctic…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a historical case study of Norwegian transnational entrepreneurs (1880s–1930s) and the ecosystems that they founded in Russia’s Arctic periphery. Drawing from the contemporary transnational entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial ecosystem literature, and inspired by AnnaLee Saxenian’s concept of “brain circulation,” this study explores the journey and impact of these entrepreneurs in a time of evolving political turbulence.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies a mixed-methodology approach, drawing from nine qualitative interviews held in 2021 and secondary material, including historical books, a podcast, videos and archival data.

Findings

The Norwegian entrepreneurs were both “pulled” by and “pushed” to the Russian region, their “New America,” where they could apply their personal skills and exploit their rich social and financial capital to establish a local entrepreneurial ecosystem. However, radical political change altered the context, which led many of the entrepreneurs to re-migrate to Norway.

Research limitations/implications

This paper demonstrates the role of the political context for contemporary entrepreneurship and management research, as transnational entrepreneurs and international expatriates remain vulnerable to political change.

Practical implications

Public-policy actors and managers in companies need to support highly-skilled transnational entrepreneurs, including expatriates, in a setting with turbulence, crisis and even war, to foster the sustainable contribution of entrepreneurial migrants to regional economic development across different countries.

Originality/value

This paper presents an original, novel case study on the historical role of transnational entrepreneurs across different cultural settings, their impact on a foreign peripheral location, including social-network building and evolving political change in the historical context. The findings are relevant for contemporary management literature.

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2022

Mohamad Hjeij

This study aims to explore the heuristics applied by tech entrepreneurs in the Middle East during the opportunity evaluation process.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the heuristics applied by tech entrepreneurs in the Middle East during the opportunity evaluation process.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case-based methodology was applied, which consisted of semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurial experts from different cities in the Middle East. Qualitative data analysis was then performed with inductive thematic coding using the Eisenhardt method.

Findings

The results suggest that entrepreneurs mostly use six heuristics to evaluate opportunities quickly. Three of them are related to the opportunity as an abstract idea, and three are connected with the person (s) involved in the opportunity. In addition, entrepreneurs in the Middle East were more interested in the personal characteristics of the opportunity presenter than in the opportunity itself.

Research limitations/implications

Identifying the heuristics applied by experts may neglect the perspective of the community of entrepreneurs as a whole. Hence, future research should target a wider segment of entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the effect of applying such heuristics on the strategic growth of startups remains an open question.

Practical implications

The identified heuristics are aligned with the hands-on approach of entrepreneurship and can be applied as a decision-making technique for aspiring entrepreneurs who seek to succeed in this region.

Originality/value

This study explores the under-examined topic of heuristics in opportunity evaluation within the regional context of the Middle East, which has also been scarcely investigated. It sheds light on the importance of cultural factors in identifying the cognitive shortcuts used in a business context.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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