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The main objective of this study is to examine whether firms follow the financing hierarchy as suggested by the Pecking Order Theory (POT). The External Funds Needed (EFN…
The main objective of this study is to examine whether firms follow the financing hierarchy as suggested by the Pecking Order Theory (POT). The External Funds Needed (EFN) model offers a financing hierarchy that can be used for examining the POT. As far as the EFN considers growth of sales as a driver for changing capital structure, it follows that shall firms plan for a sustainable growth of sales, a sustainable financing can be reached and maintained. This study uses data about the firms listed in two indexes: Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA30) and NASDAQ100. The data cover quarterly periods from June 30, 1999, to March 31, 2012. The methodology includes (a) cointegration analysis in order to test for model specification and (b) causality analysis in order to show the generic and mutual associations between the components of EFN. The results conclude that (a) in the majority of the cases, firms plan for an increase in growth sales but not necessarily to approach sustainable rate; (b) in cases of observed and sustainable growth of sales, firms reduce debt financing persistently; (c) firms use equity financing to finance sustainable growth of sales in the long run only, while in the short run, firms use internal financing, that is, retained earnings as a flexible source of financing; and (d) the EFN model is quite useful for examining the hierarchy of financing. This study contributes to the related literature in terms of utilizing the properties of the EFN model in order to examine the practical aspects of the POT. These practical considerations are extended to examine the use of the POT in cases of observed and sustainable growth rates. The findings contribute to the current literature that there is a need to offer an adjustment to the financing order suggested by the POT. Equity financing is the first source of financing current and sustainable growth of sales, followed by retained earnings, and debt financing is the last resort.
This paper aims to investigate the impact of debt maturity on the relationship between financial leverage and future financing constraints. Moreover, it attempts to…
This paper aims to investigate the impact of debt maturity on the relationship between financial leverage and future financing constraints. Moreover, it attempts to analyze the moderating role of short-term debt and the mediating role of future financing constraints in the relationship between financial leverage and future investment.
To test the moderating role of debt maturity, all the observations are divided into two groups based on short-term debt to total debt ratio. Moreover, Sobel, Aroian and Goodman tests are used to analyze the mediating role of future financing constraints. The sample used in this research includes firms listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange from 2006 to 2018.
It is shown that financial leverage is inversely (positively) related to future financing constraints for firms with higher (lower) use of short-term debt and, short-term debt moderates the relation between financial leverage and future investment. The findings also indicate that future financing constraints carry the influence of financial leverage to future investment.
In an imperfect market where financing is not independent of investment, it is highly required to carry out some studies on the role of different financing scenarios in firms and their impacts on future financing and investment; therefore, this paper is conducted to address one of the most important issues in the capital market, which is almost the pioneer study in this field.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of debt financing on both performance and systematic risk in Amman Stock Exchange listed firms. The authors focus the…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of debt financing on both performance and systematic risk in Amman Stock Exchange listed firms. The authors focus the study to analyze the differences between services and industrial firms in one sense and the differences between international and domestic firms in the other sense, as the study depends on the geographical distribution of sales to classify the nationality of firms.
The study sample includes all listed Jordanian firms in Amman Stock Exchange from 2005 to 2013 for both industrial and services sectors. Using panel data techniques, fixed effects regression with modified Driscoll-Kraay standard error as a remedy for heteroscedasticity problem is employed.
The results show that there is a significant negative impact of debt financing on the firm’s performance, where the sector and the sales nationality play an important role. Moreover, the results indicate that there is a significant positive impact of debt financing on the firm’s systematic risk. Taking the sector and sales nationality into consideration, the authors find that the debt financing has no significant impact on the systematic risk of services firms and domestic firms. Additionally, the findings indicate that services firms and international firms are, on average, more riskier than industrial firms and domestic firms, respectively.
The paper provides a visibility on the comparison between international and local firms in Jordan in terms of the impact of debt financing on the financial performance and systematic risk in one research.
The main purpose of this paper is to empirically examine how firm-specific (idiosyncratic) and macroeconomic risks affect the external financing decisions of UK…
The main purpose of this paper is to empirically examine how firm-specific (idiosyncratic) and macroeconomic risks affect the external financing decisions of UK manufacturing firms. The paper also explores the effect of both types of risk on firms' debt versus equity choices.
The paper uses a firm-level panel data covering the period 1981-2009 drawn from the Datastream. Multinomial logit and probit models are estimated to quantify the impact of risks on the likelihood of firms' decisions to issue and retire external capital and debt versus equity choices, respectively.
The results suggest that firms considerably take into account both firm-specific and economic risk when making external financing decisions and debt-equity choices. Specifically, the results from multinomial logit regressions indicate that firms are more (less) likely to do external financing when firm-specific (macroeconomic) risk is high. The results of probit model reveal that the propensity to debt versus equity issues substantially declines in uncertain times. However, firms are more likely to pay back their outstanding debt rather than to repurchase existing equity when they face either type of risk. Of the two types of risk, firm-specific risk appears to be more important economically for firms' external financing decisions.
The findings of the paper are equally useful for corporate firms in making value-maximizing financing decisions and authorities in designing effective fiscal and monetary policies to stabilize macroeconomic conditions. Specifically, the findings emphasize on the stability of the overall macroeconomic environment and firms' sales/earnings, which would result stability in firms' capital structure that help smooth firms' investments and production.
Unlike prior empirical studies that mainly focus on examining the impact of risk on target leverage, this paper attempts to examine the influence of firm-specific and macroeconomic risk on firms' external financing decisions and debt-equity choices.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of financing the outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) by building a three-level framework residing on host…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of financing the outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) by building a three-level framework residing on host country market imperfections, ownership advantages of parent firm investing abroad and the industry to which it belongs.
The paper used random effects probit model.
Parent debt financing of OFDI by Indian parent firms is driven by the credit market development of the host country, the uniqueness of the industry to which parent firm belongs and systematic risk. Debt-oriented firms are found to invest more via parent debt.
The limitations of this study are as follows: –first, time period before 2008 could not be considered due to unavailability of data in the public domain. Second, the characteristics of foreign affiliates that spread across diverse host countries have not been factored in. Third, in the case of parent’s industry-level determinants, financial sector has not been included because the financing and risk-taking strategy of this sector are quite different from other sectors. Finally, the present study assumes financing decision to be centralized in the multinational system at the parent firm.
The practical implications of this study are as follows: first, industry innovativeness must be taken as a guide by the Indian MNEs to finance their OFDI and they must provide equity. Second, the study suggests that Indian MNEs rely on their existing capital structure while financing their OFDI. Third, parent firms are found to follow the industry norms. Fourth, parent firms must finance their OFDI by considering the development of credit market in the host country. Fifth, host government must focus on improving the credit market development of their economy and not just reducing tax rates to attract FDI into their economy.
Empirically examining internal flows in a multinational system has limited the research in the area of financing the OFDI. The paper is one of the first attempts to formally develop a model of factors that shape financing of OFDI in case of one such emerging market – India.
- Emerging market multinationals
- Outward foreign direct investment
- Parent debt
- Internal capital market
- Random effects
- Probit model
- Emerging economy
- Strategy tripod
- Institutional environment
- Industry environment
- Resource-based view
- Credit market development
- Systematic risk
- Legal environment
- Financial environment
- Growth opportunities
- R&D intensity
- advertising intensity
– This study aims to investigate the impact of outside financing (equity and debt financing) on the quality of financial reporting in Iran.
This study aims to investigate the impact of outside financing (equity and debt financing) on the quality of financial reporting in Iran.
Sample includes the companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange – 152 companies in a period of four years during 2010-2013. Data were analyzed by using multiple linear regressions with the benefits of the combined data.
The results indicates that there is a positive relationship between the quality of financial reporting based on the qualitative characteristics of the theoretical principles of the Iranian Financial Accounting Standards Board and debt financing. Moreover, there is a negative relationship between the quality of financial reporting based on the Dechow and Dichev (2002) model and debt financing. Additionally, there is a negative relationship between the quality of financial reporting (based on the qualitative characteristics of the theoretical principles of the Iranian Financial Accounting Standards Board as well as the Dechow and Dichev models) and equity financing.
Financial statements as the output of the accounting system has always been considered by the investors, the creditors and the government; nonetheless, its dependability in making decisions has always been doubted because of using the accrual principle in the calculation of the reported figure in the statements and, consequently, the possibility of being manipulated by the managers as well as the likelihood of conflict of interest among the managers and the shareholders.
There is a wealth of literature on the financing structure of a company. For this reason, the authors considered it useful to present a theoretical and empirical…
There is a wealth of literature on the financing structure of a company. For this reason, the authors considered it useful to present a theoretical and empirical literature review of classical and new theories of the financial structure. The purpose of this study is to realize on a panel of 15 nonfinancial Moroccan companies listed on the Casablanca Stock Exchange, over a period of 11 years.
The results obtained indicate that only a few variables from financial theory have an important role in the financing policy of Moroccan companies. The authors have presented the positive role of size and self-financing on the debt ratio. The analysis of the effects of profitability shows in this study that it is negative related on the debt ratio which asserts the predictions of the pecking order theory. Also, the age of the company and the growth opportunities explain the level of indebtedness.
Econometric analysis is used to ascertain the nature of the financial structure of listed companies. For this purpose, a large number of companies listed on the Casablanca stock exchange were used.
The authors have presented the positive role of size and self-financing on the debt ratio. Regarding the influence of profitability, this analysis shows that it is negative related on the debt ratio which asserts the predictions of the pecking order theory. Also, the age of the company and the growth opportunities explain the level of indebtedness.
This study examines the financing methods used by corporations to acquire real estate for their operations. It also examines the opinion of managers about the factors that…
This study examines the financing methods used by corporations to acquire real estate for their operations. It also examines the opinion of managers about the factors that they consider in choosing financing methods. The data were provided by a survey questionnaire that was sent to members of the International Association of Corporate Real Estate Executives. It was found that companies rely on internal financing (operating cash flows) and external financing such as long‐term leasing, joint ventures, property mortgages and sale/leaseback arrangements. The top‐ranked methods of finance include operating cash flows, property mortgages, leasing and sales/leasebacks. Use of real estate investment trusts, collateralised mortgage obligations and mortgage‐backed securities were the lowest‐ranked forms of financing. Managers tend to look at tax advantages of debt and availability of cash flows in deciding which financing methods to use, rather than theoretical corporate finance factors such as bankruptcy cost. There were significant differences in opinion by industry and by company size regarding the use of cash flows and the impact of debt financing on common stock prices.