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Article

Nick Drydakis

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the long-term correlates of bullying in school with aspects of functioning in adult employment outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the long-term correlates of bullying in school with aspects of functioning in adult employment outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Bullying is considered and evaluated as a proxy for unmeasured productivity, and a framework is provided that outlines why bullying might affect employment outcomes through differences in skills and traits. Using Bivariate and Heckit models the paper employs a variety of specifications and finds several interesting patterns.

Findings

By utilising the 2008 Greek Behavioural Study data set the regression outcomes suggest that labour force participation, employment rate and hourly wages are negatively affected by bullying. In addition, men, homosexuals, immigrants, unmarried people, those having higher negative mental health symptoms, and those having lower human capital are more negatively affected by bullying in terms of labour force participation, employment probability and hourly wages. Moreover, Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions suggest that labour force participation gaps, employment gaps and hourly wage gaps between minority and majority groups, especially for gay men and the disabled, can be explained by bullying incidents.

Practical implications

It seems likely that having been a victim of bullying also has economic implications later in life due to withdrawal from the labour market and lower wages.

Originality/value

The retrospective bullying index used in the current study measured the combined and ordered effect of the duration and intensity of bullying, which generates 17 outcomes that ultimately capture a large range of alternative options. In addition, the author suggested that bullying might be understood as a productivity trait that provides a direct input into the production process, which might drive abilities or traits and influence adult employment outcomes. Contemporary economic analysis suggests that cognitive and non-cognitive skills are important factors that affect labour productivity through reasoning ability and productivity.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article

Joanna Poon

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive picture of characteristics affecting the employment outcomes and patterns for real estate graduates in Australia…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive picture of characteristics affecting the employment outcomes and patterns for real estate graduates in Australia. Furthermore, this paper benchmarks the characteristics affecting employment prospects of real estate graduates against those of built environment graduates.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this paper were collected by the Australian Graduate Survey (AGS). Dimensionality reduction was used to prepare the dataset for the courses listed in the AGS data, in order to develop the simplified classifications of courses used to conduct the analysis in this paper. Dimensionality reduction was also used to prepare the dataset for the analysis of the employment outcomes and patterns for real estate and built environment graduates. Descriptive and statistical analysis methods were used to identify the difference in characteristics, such as gender, age, attendance type, mode of study, degree levels and English proficiency, for real estate and built environment graduates, the level of the influence of these characteristics on their employment outcomes and patterns and the statistical relationship between individual characteristics and employment outcomes as well as employment patterns of the graduates.

Findings

English proficiency was found to be an important factor for real estate and built environment graduates for securing employment and it has a statistically significant impact on the employment outcomes and patterns for the graduates. Despite the fact that age and attendance type have no statistical impact on employment outcomes for real estate and built environment graduates, they were found to have statistical significant impact on their employment patterns.

Originality/value

This is pioneering research which used official government data, such as AGS data, to provide a reliable and thorough picture of the employment outcomes and patterns for real estate and built environment graduates.

Details

Property Management, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Abstract

In this paper we use a large linked employer-employee data set on German establishments between 1993 and 2012 to investigate how the gender composition of the top layer of management affects a variety of establishment and worker outcomes. We use two different measures to identify the gender composition of the top layer based on direct survey data: the fraction of women among top managers, and the fraction of women among working proprietors. We document the following facts: (a) There is a strong negative association between the fraction of women in the top layer of management and several establishment outcomes, among them business volume, investment, total wage bill per worker, total employment, and turnover; (b) Establishments with a high fraction of women in the top layer of management are more likely to implement female-friendly policies, such as providing childcare facilities or promoting and mentoring female junior staff; (c) The fraction of women in the top layer of management is also negatively associated with employment and wages, both male and female, full-time and part-time. However, all of these associations vanish when we include establishment fixed effects and establishment-specific time trends. This reveals a substantial sorting of female managers across establishments: small and less productive establishments that invest less, pay their employees lower wages, but are more female-friendly are more likely to be led by women.

Details

Gender Convergence in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-456-6

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Article

Joanna Poon and Michael Brownlow

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether gender has an impact on real estate and built environment graduates’ employment outcomes, employment patterns and other…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether gender has an impact on real estate and built environment graduates’ employment outcomes, employment patterns and other important employment related issues, such as pay, role, contract type and employment opportunity in different states of a country.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this paper has been collected from the Australian Graduate Survey (AGS). Data from the years 2010-2012 was combined into a single data set. Dimensionality reduction was used to prepare the data set for the courses listed in AGS data, in order to develop the simplified classifications for real estate and built environment courses which are used to conduct further analysis in this paper. Dimensionality reduction was also used to prepare data set for the further analysis of the employment outcomes and patterns for real estate graduates. Descriptive and statistical analysis methods were used to identify the impact of gender on the employment outcomes, employment patterns and other important employment related issues, such as pay, role, contract type and location of job, for real estate graduates in Australia. This paper also benchmarks the employment result of real estate graduates to built environment graduates.

Findings

Recent male built environment graduates in Australia are more likely to gain full-time employment than females. The dominant role for recent female built environment graduates in Australia is a secretarial or administrative role while for the male it is a professional or technical role. Male real estate and built environment graduates are more likely to have a higher level of salary. Gender also has an impact on the contract type. Male built environment graduates are more likely to be employed on a permanent contract. On the other hand, gender has no impact on gaining employment in different states, such as New South Wales and Queensland, in Australia. The finding of this paper reinforces the view of previous literature, which is that male graduates have a more favourable employment outcomes and on better employment terms. The finding also shows that graduate employment outcomes for real estate and built environment graduates in Australia are similar to that in other countries, such as the UK, where equivalent studies have been published.

Originality/value

This is pioneering research that investigates the impact of gender on employment outcomes, employment patterns and other employment related issues for real estate graduates and built environment graduates in Australia.

Details

Property Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article

Pauline Dibben, Geoffrey Wood and Rachel O’Hara

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate existing evidence on whether return to work interventions achieve employment outcomes and are cost effective in order to better…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate existing evidence on whether return to work interventions achieve employment outcomes and are cost effective in order to better inform those needing accommodations at work, as well as their line managers and trade union representatives, occupational health specialists and HR managers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a systematic narrative review to evaluate the evidence on the employment outcomes and cost effectiveness of return to work initiatives.

Findings

Evidence on interventions for musculoskeletal conditions such as lower back pain indicates that certain forms of intervention such as vocational rehabilitation and workplace-based rehabilitation facilitate outcomes such as employment, reduced sick leave and effective return to work. However, there is very little evidence on whether these interventions are cost effective. More generally there are glaring gaps in evidence on cardio-respiratory (heart and breathing) and mental health conditions with regard to both employment outcomes and the cost of interventions.

Research limitations/implications

This systematic review has critical and timely implications for both knowledge development and practice. While highlighting methodological limitations in the existing research base, it also presents avenues for further research on return work strategies and the factors inhibiting and facilitating their adoption and effective operation.

Originality/value

Although there is much existent literature on the return to work process, far less attention has been paid to the employment outcomes and cost effectiveness of interventions. This paper highlights the interventions for musculoskeletal conditions such as lower back conditions that may result in positive employment outcomes, with implications for practice. However, it also highlights gaps in evidence on the employment outcomes and cost effectiveness of interventions for cardio-respiratory (heart and breathing) and mental health conditions.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article

Ting Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the value of extended time span coverage of state longitudinal education and workforce data system to inform and improve the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the value of extended time span coverage of state longitudinal education and workforce data system to inform and improve the effectiveness of future high impact expenditure decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

It used an analytical 29-year data file created by the author that links seven already-in-place education and workforce administrative record sources. Relying on the path dependency theory, multi-level mixed-effect logistic and multi-level mixed-effect linear regression models are used to test three hypotheses.

Findings

The findings are consistent with the hypotheses: inclusion of the multiple steps along a post-secondary education pathway and prior job histories are both critical to understanding workforce outcomes mechanisms; it takes time for the employment outcome effect to be evident and strong following education attainment.

Practical implications

The study concludes with research limitations and implications for decision makers to call for retaining and investing in administrative records with extended time span coverage, particularly for the already-in-place historical administrative records.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the first to demonstrate the value of extended time span coverage in a longitudinal state integrated data system through econometric modeling, using longitudinally integrated data linking seven administrative records covering continuously for 29 years. No matter for prior education or employment pathway, it is only through extended time span coverage that employment outcomes can be well measured and the rich nuances interpreting the mechanisms of education return on investment can be revealed.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article

Andrew Atherton, Dongxu Wu and Zhongmin Wu

The purpose of this paper is to understand whether the personal capital of the entrepreneur positively or negatively affects outcomes from self-employment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand whether the personal capital of the entrepreneur positively or negatively affects outcomes from self-employment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from the UK’s longitudinal household surveys (BHPS, UKLHS) between 1991 and 2014 were analysed. Relationships between age, education, health and family status, income earned and hours worked were tested.

Findings

Entrepreneurs with higher levels of personal capital enjoyed higher incomes. However, those with lower levels of personal capital were more likely to have negative returns from self-employment, and so experience it as “self-exploitation”.

Research limitations/implications

A basis for understanding different outcomes from self-employment was developed and tested.

Practical implications

Specific characteristics of continuing and new entrepreneurs were identified that are positively associated with beneficial outcomes from self-employment.

Originality/value

Positive and negative outcomes from self-employment are explained. The notion of personal capital is developed as an explanatory framework for variable outcomes from self-employment.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Book part

Marjorie L. Baldwin

Mental disorders are common and associated with substantial levels of work disability. Relative to persons with most types of physical impairments, persons with mental…

Abstract

Mental disorders are common and associated with substantial levels of work disability. Relative to persons with most types of physical impairments, persons with mental disorders have lower employment rates and lower mean wages, and experience greater discrimination in the workplace (Baldwin, 1999, 2000; Baldwin & Johnson, 1995, 2000). Persons with mental disorders have lower socioeconomic status, on average, and greater risk of living in poverty, than persons with physical disorders (Dohrenwend et al., 1992). By 1999, mental disorders had supplanted back cases as the health condition most frequently cited in employment discrimination charges filed under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Moss et al., 1999).

Details

Research on Employment for Persons with Severe Mental Illness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-286-3

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Article

Mark Heil

This paper reviews economic studies on the effects of various aspects of finance on labour market outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper reviews economic studies on the effects of various aspects of finance on labour market outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a systematic literature review that reviews the weight of the evidence on the relationships between specific elements of finance and labour outcomes. The review is divided into three major sections: (1) job quantity and job quality; (2) distributional effects; and (3) resilience and adaptability.

Findings

Finance interacts with labour market institutions to jointly determine labour outcomes. Firm financial structures influence their labour practices – highly leveraged firms show greater employment volatility during cyclical fluctuations, and leverage strengthens firm bargaining power in labour negotiations. Bank deregulation has mixed impacts on labour depending upon the state of prior bank regulations and labour markets. Leveraged buyouts tend to dampen acquired-firm job growth as they pursue labour productivity gains. The shareholder value movement may contribute to short-termism among corporate managers, which can divert funds away from firm capital accumulation toward financial markets, and crowd out productive investment. Declining wage shares of national income in most OECD countries since 1990 may be driven in part by financial globalisation. The financial sector contributes to rising income concentration near the top of the distribution in developed countries. The availability of finance is associated with increased reallocation of labour, which may either enhance or impede productivity growth. Finally, rising interest rate environments and homeowners with mortgage balances that exceed their home's value may reduce labour mobility rates.

Originality/value

This review contributes to the understanding of the effects of finance on labour by reviewing and synthesising a large volume of literature.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article

Claire Curran, Martin Knapp and Jennifer Beecham

This paper brings together findings from current research into mental health and employment from an economic perspective. The economic impact of reduced employment and…

Abstract

This paper brings together findings from current research into mental health and employment from an economic perspective. The economic impact of reduced employment and productivity for people with mental health problems is described from both individual and societal viewpoints. Interventions reported to have an impact on employment are considered, looking at both clinical interventions that have reported employment outcomes and interventions that have as their primary target the improvement of employment outcomes. The paper also describes the impact of common mental health problems on employment and productivity and reports the findings of some studies in this area. However, the quantity and quality of economic information in this area are limited.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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