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Article

Jack K. Ito and Céleste M. Brotheridge

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the stages of group development are path‐dependent or whether a stage can have a direct influence beyond an adjacent…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the stages of group development are path‐dependent or whether a stage can have a direct influence beyond an adjacent stage; to test a model that distinguishes between task and process characteristics; and to examine the validity of the Group Development Assessment.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 204 public servants responded to questionnaires pertaining to their respective teams. Their responses to the Group Development Assessment were analyzed through the use of confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling.

Findings

This study found that, in general, teams follow a predictable pattern of growth (i.e. they grow up one stage at a time), but their ability to grow is influenced by how well they addressed previous challenges. Path dependency was partly supported since the prior stage was generally the strongest predictor of the subsequent stage. The findings on path dependency are consistent with pendular models since changes in an earlier stage can have significant effects on later stages. Support was found for the separation of tasks and process behaviors. The Group Development Assessment was reasonably reliable, and its items generally classified into their corresponding stages.

Research limitations/implications

The finding that, at a given moment, a variable such as dependency has a strong independent relationship with interdependence is consistent with a short time lag. However, a longitudinal study is needed to assess such lags.

Practical implications

As a group meets the challenges of a stage and moves forward, the assumptions or the foundations laid before need to be supported; otherwise the group may regress.

Originality/value

The study tests a group development model and offers recommendations for group interventions.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article

Martin Stack and Myles Gartland

This paper, applies the concept of path creation to a historical case. Path creation arose in part as a response to perceived weaknesses regarding the limited role of firm…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper, applies the concept of path creation to a historical case. Path creation arose in part as a response to perceived weaknesses regarding the limited role of firm agency in the path dependency literature.

Design/methodology/approach

This essay uses the path creation methodology to explain why and how specific features of the American brewing industry's regulatory framework were devised during prohibition (1920‐1933) and implemented upon the repeal of prohibition in 1933. The study draws upon a series of primary sources, including firm publications and government reports.

Findings

It shows that path creation is a useful way to examine the design and implementation of industry‐level regulatory systems. It argues that rather than passively waiting and hoping for a beneficial set of rules, the largest national breweries in America actively set about to shape the regulatory environment in which they and their competitors operated.

Originality/value

The study is valuable on two levels. First, it helps explicate how and why the brewing industry's current regulatory system emerged. Second, and more broadly, it shows how the path creation thesis can be usefully adopted to interpret firm and managerial actions across time periods and industries.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

The Development of Socialism, Social Democracy and Communism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-373-1

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Article

Kanana Ezekiel, Vassil Vassilev, Karim Ouazzane and Yogesh Patel

Changing scattered and dynamic business rules in business workflow systems has become a growing problem that hinders the use and configuration of workflow-based…

Abstract

Purpose

Changing scattered and dynamic business rules in business workflow systems has become a growing problem that hinders the use and configuration of workflow-based applications. There is a gap in the existing research studies which currently focus on solutions that are application specific, without accounting for the universal logical dependencies between the business rules and, as a result, do not support adaptation of the business rules in real time. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

To tackle the above problems, this paper adopts a bottom-up approach, which puts forward a component model of the business process workflows and then adds business rules which have clear logical semantics. This allows incremental development of the workflows and semantic indexing of the rules which govern them during the initial acquisition.

Findings

The paper introduces an event-driven model for development of business workflows which is purely logic-based and can be easily implemented using an object-oriented technology, together with a model of the business rules dependencies which supports incremental semantic indexing. It also proposes a two-level inference mechanism as a vehicle for controlling the business process execution and the process of adaptation of the business rules at real time based on propagating the dependencies.

Research limitations/implications

The framework is strictly logical and completely domain-independent. It allows to account both synchronous and asynchronous triggering events as well as both qualitative and quantitative description of the conditions of the rules. Although our primary interest is to apply the framework to the business processes typical in the construction industry we believe our approach has much wider potential due to its strictly logical formalization and domain independence. In fact it can be used to control any business processes where the execution is governed by rules.

Practical implications

The framework could be applied to both large business process modelling tasks and small but very dynamic business processes like the typical digital business processes found in online banking or e-Commerce. For example, it can be used for adjusting security policies by adding the capability to adapt automatically the access rights to account for additional resources and new channels of operation which can be very interesting ion both B2C and B2B applications.

Social implications

The potential scope of the impact of the research reported here is linked to the wide applicability of rule-based systems in business. Our approach makes it possible not only to control the execution of the processes, but also to identify problems in the control policies themselves from the point of view of their logical properties – consistency, redundancies and potential gaps in the logics. In addition to this, our approach not only increases the efficiency, but also provides flexibility for adaptation of the policies in real time and increases the security of the overall control which improves the overall quality of the automation.

Originality/value

The major achievement reported in this paper is the construction of a universal, strictly logic-based event-driven framework for business process modelling and control, which allows purely logical analysis and adaptation of the business rules governing the business workflows through accounting their dependencies. An added value is the support for object-oriented implementation and the incremental indexing which has been possible thanks to the bottom-up approach adopted in the construction of the framework.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article

Charles Booth

Does history matter in strategy? The lack of attention given to historical perspectives in the mainstream literature suggests that it does not. Recently, however, authors…

Abstract

Does history matter in strategy? The lack of attention given to historical perspectives in the mainstream literature suggests that it does not. Recently, however, authors have argued that historical forces do affect the strategic management of organizations, and have highlighted their importance through the concept of “path dependence”. I review the literature on path dependence and argue that a conception of the complexities of historical understanding is required in a dynamic understanding of organizations. To highlight these complexities, I review an important theme in twentieth century historiography: the possibilities and problems presented by counterfactual analysis. Despite some serious objections to counterfactual thinking, this method may yield benefits for both managers and theorists. I conclude that to do justice to the importance of history in organizations, we must follow Collingwood in engaging, not with the question “Shall I be a historian or not?”, but rather with the question, “How good a historian shall I be?”.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article

Jose-Luis Usó-Domenech, Josué Antonio Nescolarde-Selva and Miguel Lloret-Climent

The purpose of this paper is the study of the causal relationship. The concept called “naive” causality can be stated more generally as the belief (or knowledge) that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is the study of the causal relationship. The concept called “naive” causality can be stated more generally as the belief (or knowledge) that results follow actions, and that these results are not random, but are consistently linked with causes. The authors have thus formed a very general and precarious concept of causality, but one that appropriately reflects the meaning of causality at the level of common sense.

Design/methodology/approach

Mathematical and logical development of the causality in complex systems.

Findings

There are three aspects of rationality that give the human mind a unique vision of reality: quantification: reduction of phenomena to quantitative terms; cause and effect: causal relationship, which allows predicting; and the necessary and valid use of (deterministic) mechanical models. This work is dedicated to the second aspect, that of causality, but at present leaves aside the discussion of possibility-necessity, proposing a modification to philosophical synthesis of causality specified by Bunge (1959), with contributions made by Patten et al. (1976) and LeShan and Margenau (1982).

Originality/value

Causality is an epistemological category, because it concerns the experience and knowledge of the human subject, without being necessarily a property of reality.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

The Development of Socialism, Social Democracy and Communism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-373-1

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Article

Niels Ole Finnemann

– The purpose of this paper is to improve comprehension of some of the intricate interrelations between research libraries, the role of media and the knowledge production system.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve comprehension of some of the intricate interrelations between research libraries, the role of media and the knowledge production system.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper establishes arguments from a historical analysis of stages in the conceptual development of digital media and stages in the digitization of library functions. The historical approach leads to some discussions and forecasts of the future of research libraries.

Findings

Digital media have a disruptive, revolutionary potential, but path dependency is often a modifying component in the historical development. This is demonstrated in different stages of the development of the interrelationship between digitization, digital media and research libraries. Digital media become disruptive due to the strength of the historical dynamic, rather than as a result of particular agencies. Today the historical dynamic has reached a point where all institutions concerned with knowledge handling will have to redefine themselves. Research libraries are gradually incorporated into a number of new “research infrastructures” which are being built around different kinds of data materials, and each research library may specialize according to some sort of coordinated criteria.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates new openings to a theoretical and conceptual understanding of the interrelationship between digital media and developments of research libraries.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 70 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Ioana Barbantan, Mihaela Porumb, Camelia Lemnaru and Rodica Potolea

Improving healthcare services by developing assistive technologies includes both the health aid devices and the analysis of the data collected by them. The acquired data…

Abstract

Purpose

Improving healthcare services by developing assistive technologies includes both the health aid devices and the analysis of the data collected by them. The acquired data modeled as a knowledge base give more insight into each patient’s health status and needs. Therefore, the ultimate goal of a health-care system is obtaining recommendations provided by an assistive decision support system using such knowledge base, benefiting the patients, the physicians and the healthcare industry. This paper aims to define the knowledge flow for a medical assistive decision support system by structuring raw medical data and leveraging the knowledge contained in the data proposing solutions for efficient data search, medical investigation or diagnosis and medication prediction and relationship identification.

Design/methodology/approach

The solution this paper proposes for implementing a medical assistive decision support system can analyze any type of unstructured medical documents which are processed by applying Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks followed by semantic analysis, leading to the medical concept identification, thus imposing a structure on the input documents. The structured information is filtered and classified such that custom decisions regarding patients’ health status can be made. The current research focuses on identifying the relationships between medical concepts as defined by the REMed (Relation Extraction from Medical documents) solution that aims at finding the patterns that lead to the classification of concept pairs into concept-to-concept relations.

Findings

This paper proposed the REMed solution expressed as a multi-class classification problem tackled using the support vector machine classifier. Experimentally, this paper determined the most appropriate setup for the multi-class classification problem which is a combination of lexical, context, syntactic and grammatical features, as each feature category is good at representing particular relations, but not all. The best results we obtained are expressed as F1-measure of 74.9 per cent which is 1.4 per cent better than the results reported by similar systems.

Research limitations/implications

The difficulty to discriminate between TrIP and TrAP relations revolves around the hierarchical relationship between the two classes as TrIP is a particular type (an instance) of TrAP. The intuition behind this behavior was that the classifier cannot discern the correct relations because of the bias toward the majority classes. The analysis was conducted by using only sentences from electronic health record that contain at least two medical concepts. This limitation was introduced by the availability of the annotated data with reported results, as relations were defined at sentence level.

Originality/value

The originality of the proposed solution lies in the methodology to extract valuable information from the medical records via semantic searches; concept-to-concept relation identification; and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and further investigations. The REMed solution introduces a learning-based approach for the automatic discovery of relations between medical concepts. We propose an original list of features: lexical – 3, context – 6, grammatical – 4 and syntactic – 4. The similarity feature introduced in this paper has a significant influence on the classification, and, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, it has not been used as feature in similar solutions.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article

Toni Ryynänen and Annaleena Hakatie

The aim of this paper is to investigate, in detail, an unsuccessful food development project that took place in 2008-2010. The case is studied from the viewpoint of an…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate, in detail, an unsuccessful food development project that took place in 2008-2010. The case is studied from the viewpoint of an interpretive paradigm. This article concentrates on constructing the critical elements that led to a food development project failure. The plan was to have a traditional Finnish dish updated and introduced as a mass produced high-end convenience food. The project included new convenience food development, packaging design, consumer market research and a sensory study to back up the food product development on behalf of a newly established company. Theoretical grounds for the case are based on the new product development (NPD) research process in the food sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The method applied is an explorative single within-case study. The research data were mainly obtained from qualitative materials that ranged from marketing plans to case study field notes compiled by the researchers. Quantitative data were also obtained from various types of materials but to a lesser extent.

Findings

The results of the study show that the failure of new product development was connected to the factors identified in classic NPD research. In addition, five phenomena that contributed to product development failure were constructed: path-dependency; “information condensations”; the illusion of mutual knowledge and understanding; practices of problem definition; and window-of-opportunity effects. The results are presented in a form of analytical generalisation that can be applied, with certain restrictions, to other contexts for new food product development.

Originality/value

Failure rates of NPD have remained the same for the last 30 years in the food sector. Failed NPD projects can be valuable assets for the food industry when properly analysed. Examination of successful NPD projects has provided valuable lists of success factors, but knowledge on phenomena having an effect on NPD failure is needed.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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