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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Robert A. Peterson and David Altounian

This chapter reports the results of an empirical study on the “gender–performance gap,” the alleged difference in business performance between firms started or owned by…

Abstract

This chapter reports the results of an empirical study on the “gender–performance gap,” the alleged difference in business performance between firms started or owned by females and males. Although numerous studies have compared the business performance of firms started by or owned by female and male entrepreneurs, most research to date has employed financial performance metrics and has often produced inconsistent results. The present research compared gender-based business performance by examining self-perceptions of a large sample of female and male Black and Mexican-American entrepreneurs. As such, the present study overcame several limitations of prior gender–performance gap research and addressed entrepreneurial groups seldom studied. While there were no perceptual differences between female and male entrepreneurs surveyed regarding the performance of their respective businesses, Mexican-American entrepreneurs surveyed perceived the performance of their business as being better than Black entrepreneurs surveyed, and this result held for both females and males. Findings from the study provide insights into the perceptions held by Black and Mexican-American female and male entrepreneurs and provide a context for further race and gender studies.

Article
Publication date: 24 November 2022

Rachael Behr and Virgil H. Storr

There is a large literature about crisis entrepreneurship, spanning from necessity, natural disaster and long-term conflict entrepreneurship. This paper situates pandemic…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a large literature about crisis entrepreneurship, spanning from necessity, natural disaster and long-term conflict entrepreneurship. This paper situates pandemic entrepreneurship as a unique form of crisis entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors utilize the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian theories of entrepreneurship to understand pandemic entrepreneurship. Using evidence from the US COVID-19 pandemic, the authors argue that pandemics impact both the “identification” and “action” moments of entrepreneurship.

Findings

The Kirznerian identification moment becomes much more uncertain for entrepreneurs because of fluctuating conditions, such as public health conditions, new potential variants of the virus causing the pandemic, shifting government mandates and rules and so forth. The Schumpeterian action moment becomes more challenging because of the necessity of physical distancing and because, generally, all crises raise the cost of entrepreneurial action. That said, the authors still document considerable entrepreneurship during pandemics as entrepreneurs adapt to the increased uncertainty and costs by rely upon local and customary knowledge.

Research limitations/implications

This research finds that entrepreneurs, depending upon the crisis, face differing constraints. Specifically in times of pandemic, entrepreneurs face difficulty recognizing opportunities because of shifting conditions and acting upon opportunities because of financial and political constraints. This research thus implies that there are large opportunities for alleviation of such constraints if there were to be future variants or pandemics.

Practical implications

Practically speaking, this research affects how people study entrepreneurship. By recognizing the differing constraints that pandemic entrepreneurs face, the authors can better understand the last several years, and can also prepare better policy wise for future pandemics or further variants of COVID-19.

Social implications

Socially, entrepreneurship can be a large factor in recovery from disasters and crises. By recognizing and perhaps alleviating constraints that pandemic entrepreneurs face, future crises could have better responses and recoveries.

Originality/value

Although several studies have examined entrepreneurship during the COVID-19 pandemic, the extant literature on pandemic entrepreneurship remains relatively underdeveloped and has not yet focused on what distinguishes pandemic entrepreneurship from other forms of crisis entrepreneurship. The authors highlight what pandemic entrepreneurship has in common with other forms of crisis entrepreneurship and pinpoint the various ways that is distinct.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 November 2022

Rizwan Tahir

The present study, drawing on boundary theory, attempts to investigate entrepreneurs’ work–life balance (WLB) in terms of how they manage and construct the borders between…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study, drawing on boundary theory, attempts to investigate entrepreneurs’ work–life balance (WLB) in terms of how they manage and construct the borders between their non-work and work lives.

Design/methodology/approach

The current qualitative study is grounded on in-depth interviews with 30 entrepreneurs currently living and working in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). When selecting the interviewees, the authors used purposeful sampling to ensure a diverse sample of interviewees with respect to nationality, age, gender and the nature of their business.

Findings

The findings suggest that most interviewees believe an entrepreneurial career can contribute positively to their lives. However, some individuals question whether it is possible to have some level of WLB while managing entrepreneurial businesses in the UAE’s competitive environment. Further, some entrepreneurs prioritize “work” over “family life,” indicating a love for their work and a lack of desire for any boundaries. Working long hours and managing a successful business over a longer period of time is also found to be negatively related to WLB.

Originality/value

Entrepreneurship has become a desirable career option, thus stimulating much research attention. However, little is known about entrepreneurs’ WLB challenges, especially regarding whether entrepreneurship improves individuals’ WLB. The present study uses boundary theory to understand how subjective insights regarding WLB and effective boundary management might address this gap.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 November 2022

Cedric Hsi-Jui Wu, Ferry Tema Atmaja, Yu-Chien Ko and Revanth Kumar Guttena

The new age of entrepreneurs recognizes crowdfunding as an innovative and effective means of obtaining funding from backers. However, attracting backers is challenging and…

Abstract

Purpose

The new age of entrepreneurs recognizes crowdfunding as an innovative and effective means of obtaining funding from backers. However, attracting backers is challenging and related scholarly knowledge lacking. Therefore, this study investigates the diverse factors influencing backer funding intention in reward-based crowdfunding.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted an online survey of 401 registered backers from two reward-based crowdfunding platforms in Taiwan. Data were analyzed using covariance-based structural equation modeling.

Findings

Results show that entrepreneur activeness has a negative effect on perceived risk but positively, while entrepreneur activeness and platform interactivity have a positive effect on backer engagement and backer value creation. Although it had no significant impact on backer engagement, project novelty positively influenced backer value creation. Perceived risk had no influence on either backer engagement or backer value creation. Backer engagement positively influenced backer value creation and backer funding intention, with the former having a positive impact on the latter.

Originality/value

This study provides a multi-perceptual lens by proposing an integration of diverse factors such as entrepreneurial- (entrepreneur activeness), project- (project novelty and perceived risk) and platform-related characteristics (platform interactivity) as antecedents to backer funding intention. By integrating a service-dominant logic perspective into the stimulus-organism-response model, this study highlights the essence of value creation by perceiving backers as value co-creators.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 October 2022

Stephen Syrett and Janroj Yilmaz Keles

Within the growing study of transnational entrepreneurial practice, existing conceptualisation of diaspora entrepreneurship has often lacked engagement with the…

Abstract

Purpose

Within the growing study of transnational entrepreneurial practice, existing conceptualisation of diaspora entrepreneurship has often lacked engagement with the particularities of the diaspora condition. This paper seeks to advance theoretical understanding and empirical study of diaspora entrepreneurship through identifying the processes that generate diaspora entrepreneurship across economic, social and political spheres.

Design/methodology/approach

To analyse the relationship between the development of venture activity and diaspora (re)production, in depth, qualitative biographical analysis was undertaken with UK-based diaspora entrepreneurs embedded within the particular contexts of the Sri Lankan Tamil and Kurdish diasporas. Skilled and active diaspora entrepreneurs were purposively selected from these extreme case contexts to explore their entrepreneurial agency within and across the business, social and political realms.

Findings

Results identified key dimensions shaping the development of diaspora entrepreneurship. These comprised the role of diaspora context in shaping opportunity frameworks and the mobilisation of available resources, and how venture activity served to sustain collective diaspora identity and address diaspora interests. These findings are used to produce an analytical model of the generation of diaspora entrepreneurship to serve as a basis for discussing how heterogeneous and hybrid entrepreneurial strategies emerge from and shape the evolving diaspora context.

Originality/value

By placing the reproduction of social collectivity centre-stage, this paper identifies the particularities of diaspora entrepreneurship as a form of transnational entrepreneurship. This recognizes the significance of a contextualised understanding of entrepreneurial diversity within wider processes of diaspora development, which has important implications for policy and practice development in homeland and settlement areas.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 28 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2022

Minhajul Islam Ukil

This study aims to investigate how entrepreneurial anxiety develops during the entrepreneurial intention stage in a developing country such as Bangladesh, where doing…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how entrepreneurial anxiety develops during the entrepreneurial intention stage in a developing country such as Bangladesh, where doing business has long been a challenge, and examine how individuals manage their entrepreneurial anxiety. Indeed, understanding how anxiety is formed when individuals decide to start a business has been a challenge, because such a decision is influenced by both individual and contextual factors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies thematic analysis to examine how individuals experience and react to entrepreneurial anxiety in a developing country context when they make a decision to start a business using data from 30 in-depth semistructured interviews with 20 aspiring and 10 active entrepreneurs. All participants are Bangladeshi nationals.

Findings

Consistent with earlier studies, the findings of this study revealed that entrepreneurial anxiety is regarded as a type of distress, doubt, fear, uneasiness and worry. Moreover, 11 distinct sources of entrepreneurial anxiety were identified, suggesting that some individuals develop problem-focused coping strategies to stay firm on their decision to start a business as planned, whereas others procrastinate.

Research limitations/implications

The findings add new dimensions to the theory of entrepreneurial anxiety and offer practical implications for aspiring entrepreneurs, policymakers, parents and society as a whole.

Originality/value

This study contributes to an underexplored area of emotion in entrepreneurship by conceptualizing how entrepreneurial anxiety develops during a specific stage of the entrepreneurial process, that is, entrepreneurial intention.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2022

Rizwan Tahir

This study aims to understand how religion impacts the everyday activities of Muslim entrepreneurs in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand how religion impacts the everyday activities of Muslim entrepreneurs in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative research is grounded on in-depth interviews with 50 entrepreneurs presently living and working in the UAE. When selecting the interviewees, the authors used purposeful sampling to ensure a diverse sample of interviewees with respect to nationality, age, gender and the nature of their business.

Findings

It was found that religion for these Muslim entrepreneurs is highly individualized, leading to our initial impressions that work and religion have no relationship. Nevertheless, following deeper investigation, it was found that religion does shape the everyday entrepreneurial activities of these entrepreneurs. More precisely, the entrepreneurial activities of these Muslim entrepreneurs are impacted by a desire to re-explain their work in religious terms, leading to conflicts between work and religion.

Originality/value

In todays’ competitive environment in the UAE, the workplace is increasingly consuming a considerable amount of individuals’ time, becoming more fundamental to their identity, and incorporating more life factors. However, the aspects impacting work have not been extensively researched, particularly the impact of religion on entrepreneurial endeavors, which represents a different type of work. The current study endeavors to fill this crucial research gap, and by doing so, we bring empirical attention to the relationship proposed yet largely ignored in prior studies.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2022

Vânia Maria Jorge Nassif and Márcia Maria Garçon

This paper aims to understand resilience in entrepreneurial behavior and the major adversities faced by women entrepreneurs and identify theoretical and empirical bases…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand resilience in entrepreneurial behavior and the major adversities faced by women entrepreneurs and identify theoretical and empirical bases that support the use of the integrative approach as appropriate to studies of resilience in women entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

In this exploratory-theoretical study, the authors adopted a narrative review of the literature on Female Entrepreneurship, Business and Resilience. The databases researched were: Web of Science, Social Citation Index and Scopus, of which 52 were submitted to analysis through techniques of comparison and contrast between theory, classical studies and applied research.

Findings

The study illuminates the concept of resilience aligned with entrepreneurship and the major adversities of female entrepreneurship. It also indicates the competence of the integrative approach in investigating and analyzing resilience as a complex, functional and emotional phenomenon between women entrepreneurs and their business environment.

Research limitations/implications

This study indicates that the integrative approach can offer an explanatory device about the relationships between affectivity and cognition in the resilient behavior of women when encountering difficulties in the entrepreneurial process. It also indicates paths for future research that can empirically prove the degree of these constructs in the resilient behavior of women entrepreneurs, having the difficulties related to the gender stereotype as a point of interest.

Practical implications

The contribution to the managerial field is to alert women entrepreneurs about the need to understand the role of affectivity and cognition in facing adversity to strengthen their resilient behavior.

Social implications

The contribution to the managerial field is to alert women entrepreneurs about the need to understand the role of affectivity and cognition in facing adversity to strengthen their resilient behavior.

Originality/value

This study provides original evidence that cognitive and affective aspects influence women’s entrepreneurial behavior with the same degree of importance. Therefore, they must be investigated jointly. This discovery brings relevance to theoretical and empirical studies on this topic.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2022

Olufunmilola (Funmi) Ojediran, Allan Discua Cruz and Alistair Anderson

The aim of this study is to better understand how black women utilize capital to frame their entrepreneurial identities in order to become legitimate and thus challenge…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to better understand how black women utilize capital to frame their entrepreneurial identities in order to become legitimate and thus challenge institutional norms. To achieve this, the study draws on perspectives on legitimacy, identity and capital and focuses on the well-established wine industry in South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

Using in-depth qualitative data from semi-structured interviews, this study delves into the lived experiences of nine black women entrepreneurs and three stakeholders in the South African wine industry. Such a context is unique because of the aspects of exclusion and segregation of black women. The data were supplemented with associated secondary material and were analysed using the constant comparative technique.

Findings

This study reveals dissonance, that is, a misfit, between black women's social identities and their entrepreneurial self-identities in the South African wine industry; the study uncovers that specific capital forms allow framing their identity through heroical self-description, exploiting professionalism and enacting new roles to alter the perception of what is socially legitimate in the wine industry.

Originality/value

This study contributes to understanding by highlighting that black women entrepreneurs in the wine industry rebel against the expectation that they must fit into a predetermined role. The study highlights the relevance of legitimacy, identity and capital theoretical perspectives to study an underexplored context and unpack how black women challenge the barriers that affect their entrepreneurial identities in their quest to become legitimate. The value of this study revolves around revealing the underexplored connection between entrepreneurial identity and legitimacy through actions taken by black women entrepreneurs when reworking the role(s) tied to their social identities. The findings suggest the importance of capital, particularly cultural capital, in how black women entrepreneurs become legitimate in the wine industry. Avenues for further research are offered.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2022

Muhammad Shehryar Shahid, Peter Rodgers, Natalia Vershinina, Mashal E. Zehra and Colin C. Williams

Informal entrepreneurship is seen as a direct outcome of either the failure of formal institutions or the asymmetry between formal and informal institutions. These two…

Abstract

Purpose

Informal entrepreneurship is seen as a direct outcome of either the failure of formal institutions or the asymmetry between formal and informal institutions. These two viewpoints are so far debated as alternative theoretical explanations for the prevalence of informal entrepreneurship. In this paper, the authors offer a theoretically integrative approach to further advance the institutional perspective of informal entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Using face-to-face surveys of 322 street entrepreneurs from Lahore, Pakistan, the authors deploy the hitherto unused partial least square approach (PLS) to structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze data within the field of informal entrepreneurship.

Findings

The empirical findings strongly support the theoretical propositions of the new institutional perspective that the authors present in their paper. The authors find no direct impact of factors like procedural justice, redistributive justice and public sector corruption (i.e. formal institutional failings) on the formalization intentions of street entrepreneurs. Their findings demonstrate that the relationship between formal institutional failings and formalization intentions can only be explained through the mediating role of institutional asymmetry (i.e. tax morality).

Research limitations/implications

From a policy perspective, the authors find that if they can encourage street entrepreneurs to obtain a local-level registration as the first step toward formalization, it will significantly increase their chances to opt for higher national-level registrations.

Originality/value

This paper presents a unique attempt to further understand the context of street entrepreneurship through the theoretical lens of the institutional theory. In doing so, it synthesizes the arguments of existing institutional perspectives and further develops the institutional theory of informal entrepreneurship. Moreover, the paper develops the concept of “formalization intentions”.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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