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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Marzieh Yari Zanganeh and Nadjla Hariri

The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of emotional aspects in information retrieval of PhD students from the web.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of emotional aspects in information retrieval of PhD students from the web.

Design/methodology/approach

From the methodological perspective, the present study is experimental and the type of study is practical. The study population is PhD students of various fields of science. The study sample consists of 50 students as selected by the stratified purposive sampling method. The information aggregation is performed by observing the records of user’s facial expressions, log file by Morae software, as well as pre-search and post-search questionnaire. The data analysis is performed by canonical correlation analysis.

Findings

The findings showed that there was a significant relationship between emotional expressions and searchers’ individual characteristics. Searchers satisfaction of results, frequency internet search, experience of search, interest in the search task and familiarity with similar searches were correlated with the increased happy emotion. The examination of user’s emotions during searching performance showed that users with happiness emotion dedicated much time in searching and viewing of search solutions. More internet addresses with more queries were used by happy participants; on the other hand, users with anger and disgust emotions had the lowest attempt in search performance to complete search process.

Practical implications

The results imply that the information retrieval systems in the web should identify emotional expressions in a set of perceiving signs in human interaction with computer, similarity, face emotional states, searching and information retrieval from the web.

Originality/value

The results explicit in the automatic identification of users’ emotional expressions can enter new dimensions into their moderator and information retrieval systems on the web and can pave the way of design of emotional information retrieval systems for the successful retrieval of users of the network.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Diane Rasmussen Pennington

– The purpose of this paper is to explore how both producers and consumers of user-created music videos on YouTube communicate emotional information.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how both producers and consumers of user-created music videos on YouTube communicate emotional information.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 150 filmic documents containing fan-generated versions of U2’s “Song for Someone” were purposively collected. The author used discourse analysis to understand the types of videos created, the communication of emotional information from both the producers and the consumers, the social construction of emotion in the filmic documents, and elements of intertextuality that represented emotion.

Findings

Fans created videos containing cover versions, original versions of the song with new visual content, and tutorials about how to play the song. Producers of cover versions communicated emotional information, especially tenderness, through facial expression, their surroundings, and corresponding musical elements. Producers’ visual content expressed emotion through meaningful photographs and sad stories. Producers’ descriptions revealed emotion as well. Emotions were individually experienced and socially constructed. Consumers conveyed emotion through likes, dislikes, and expressive positive comments. Intertextuality communicated passion for U2 through tour references, paraphernalia displays, band photographs, imitating the band, and musical mashups.

Practical implications

Information science can work towards a new generation of multimedia information retrieval systems that incorporate emotion in order to help users discover documents in meaningful ways that move beyond keyword and bibliographic searches.

Originality/value

This is one of the earliest research papers in the area of emotional information retrieval (EmIR).

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Kathrin Knautz and Wolfgang G. Stock

The object of this empirical research study is emotion, as depicted and aroused in videos. This paper seeks to answer the questions: Are users able to index such emotions…

Abstract

Purpose

The object of this empirical research study is emotion, as depicted and aroused in videos. This paper seeks to answer the questions: Are users able to index such emotions consistently? Are the users' votes usable for emotional video retrieval?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors worked with a controlled vocabulary for nine basic emotions (love, happiness, fun, surprise, desire, sadness, anger, disgust and fear), a slide control for adjusting the emotions' intensity, and the approach of broad folksonomies. Different users tagged the same videos. The test persons had the task of indexing the emotions of 20 videos (reprocessed clips from YouTube). The authors distinguished between emotions which were depicted in the video and those that were evoked in the user. Data were received from 776 participants and a total of 279,360 slide control values were analyzed.

Findings

The consistency of the users' votes is very high; the tag distributions for the particular videos' emotions are stable. The final shape of the distributions will be reached by the tagging activities of only very few users (less than 100). By applying the approach of power tags it is possible to separate the pivotal emotions of every document – if indeed there is any feeling at all.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first steps in the new research area of emotional information retrieval (EmIR). To the authors' knowledge, it is the first research project into the collective indexing of emotions in videos.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 67 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Pauline Rafferty and Fawaz Albinfalah

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to consider the possibility of designing a story-based image indexing system based on users’ descriptions of images. It reports a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to consider the possibility of designing a story-based image indexing system based on users’ descriptions of images. It reports a pilot study which uses users’ descriptions of two images.

Design/methodology/approach

Eight interviews were undertaken to investigate storytelling in user interpretations of the images. Following this, storytelling was explored as an indexing input method. In all, 26 research subjects were asked to create stories about the images, which were then considered in relation to conventional story elements and in relation to Hidderley and Rafferty's (2005) image modality model.

Findings

The results of the semi-structured interviews revealed that the majority of interpretations incorporated story elements related to setting, character, plot, literary devices, and themes. The 52 image stories included story elements identified in the first part of the project, and suggested that the image modality model is robust enough to deal with the “writerly” images used in this study. In addition, using storytelling as an input method encourages the use of verbs and connotative level responses.

Originality/value

User indexing is generally based on paradigmatic approaches to concept analysis and interpretation in the form of tagging; the novelty of the current study is its exploration of syntagmatic approaches to user indexing in the form of storytelling. It is a pilot, proof of concept study, but it is hoped that it might stimulate further interest in syntagmatic approaches to user indexing.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 70 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Nicola Ransom and Pauline Rafferty

This study aims to consider the value of user‐assigned image tags by comparing the facets that are represented in image tags with those that are present in image queries…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to consider the value of user‐assigned image tags by comparing the facets that are represented in image tags with those that are present in image queries to see if there is a similarity in the way that users describe and search for images.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample dataset was created by downloading a selection of images and associated tags from Flickr, the online photo‐sharing web site. The tags were categorised using image facets from Shatford's matrix, which has been widely used in previous research into image indexing and retrieval. The facets present in the image tags were then compared with the results of previous research into image queries.

Findings

The results reveal that there are broad similarities between the facets present in image tags and queries, with people and objects being the most common facet, followed by location. However, the results also show that there are differences in the level of specificity between tags and queries, with image tags containing more generic terms and image queries consisting of more specific terms. The study concludes that users do describe and search for images using similar image facets, but that measures to close the gap between specific queries and generic tags would improve the value of user tags in indexing image collections.

Originality/value

Research into tagging has tended to focus on textual resources with less research into non‐textual documents. In particular, little research has been undertaken into how user tags compare to the terms used in search queries, particularly in the context of digital images.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 67 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2017

Morten Hertzum and Pia Borlund

Social question and answer (social Q&A) sites have become a popular tool for obtaining music information. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what users ask about…

Abstract

Purpose

Social question and answer (social Q&A) sites have become a popular tool for obtaining music information. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what users ask about, what experience the questions convey, and how users specify their questions.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 3,897 music questions from the social Q&A site Yahoo! Answers were categorized according to their question type, user experience, and question specification.

Findings

The music questions were diverse with (dis)approval (42 percent), factual (21 percent), and advice (15 percent) questions as the most frequent types. Advice questions were the longest and roughly twice as long as (dis)approval and factual questions. The user experience associated with the questions was most often pragmatic (24 percent) or senso-emotional (12 percent). Pragmatic questions were typically about the user’s own performance of music, while senso-emotional questions were about finding music for listening. Notably, half of the questions did not convey information about the user experience but the absence of such information did not reduce the number of answers. In specifying the questions, the most frequent information was about the music context and the user context.

Research limitations/implications

This study suggests a division of labor between social Q&A sites and search engines for music information retrieval. It should be noted that the study is restricted to one social Q&A site.

Originality/value

Social Q&A sites provide an opportunity for studying what information real users seek about music and what information they specify to retrieve it, thereby elucidating the role of social Q&A in music information seeking.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 73 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Peng Wu, Si Shen, Daqing He and Jia Tina Du

The purpose of this paper is to understand blog users’ negative emotional norm compliance decision-making in crises (blog users’-NNDC).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand blog users’ negative emotional norm compliance decision-making in crises (blog users’-NNDC).

Design/methodology/approach

A belief–desire–intention (BDI) model to evaluate the blog users’-NNDC (the BDI-NNDC model) was developed. This model was based on three social characteristics: self-interests, expectations and emotions. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the BDI-NNDC model by using data retrieved from a popular Chinese social network called “Sina Weibo” about three major crises.

Findings

The BDI-NNDC model strongly predicted the Blog users’-NNDC. The predictions were as follows: a self-interested blog user posted content that was targeting his own interests; a blogger with high expectations wrote and commented emotionally negative blogs on the condition that the numbers of negative posts increased, while he ignored the norm when there was relatively less negative emotional news; and an emotional blog user obeyed the norm based on the emotional intentions of the blogosphere in most of the cases.

Research limitations/implications

The BDI-NNDC model can explain the diffusion of negative emotions by blog users during crises, and this paper shows a way to bridge the social norm modelling and the research of blog users’ activity and behaviour characteristics in the context of “real life” crises. However, the criterion for differentiating blog users according to social characteristics needs to be further revised, as the generalizability of the results is limited by the number of cases selected in this study.

Practical implications

The current method could be applied to predict emotional trends of blog users who have different social characteristics and it could support government agencies to build strategic responses to crises.

Originality/value

This paper supports the creation of normative models and engineering methods to predict blog users’-NNDC and mitigate their effect in real-world crises.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Zhiyi Li, Jiayu Zhu and Xiaolin Li

With the increasing abundance of network resources and big data, multi-modal information search (MMIS) has been paid more and more attention, but the research results of…

Abstract

Purpose

With the increasing abundance of network resources and big data, multi-modal information search (MMIS) has been paid more and more attention, but the research results of MMIS are relatively few. This paper attempts to put forward constructive suggestions for the design of multi-modal information system, so that the system can have a better user experience, help users improve the efficiency of obtaining information and optimize the information service mode.

Design/methodology/approach

A research model of influencing factors is established by using the TAM (technology acceptance model) theory. The influencing factors of users' multi-modal information search behavior (MMISB) are analyzed by using questionnaire, experiment and the structural equation model. On the basis of this, some suggestions are put forward to build the multi-modal search (MMS) system and improve the efficiency of MMIS.

Findings

The research shows that users' MMISB is directly related to their search intention, and the search intention can influence users' cognition of the usefulness and ease of MMIS through their own information search ability and system characteristics. The user's MMIS ability is affected by the demand expression ability and retrieval ability cognition; the user's cognition of system characteristics is affected by the system function and information quality. This shows that the user's MMISB is closely related to the user's cognitive situation, but due to the author's limited time and research ability, only the questionnaire survey method cannot be used to in-depth research and explore the influencing factors of MMIS. Therefore, in the future research, we should combine the interview method to further track the user's emotional factors and scene factors.

Originality/value

For the first time, TAM theory is combined with cross-modal retrieval behavior and the paper explores the influencing factors and evaluation indexes of users' MMISB. The second, the questionnaire was compiled to investigate the influencing factors of the MMISB of the university group, and the reliability analysis, validity analysis, correlation analysis and structural equation model analysis of the survey data are carried out . The survey data and analysis results are original, which can provide a theoretical basis for improving the service level of MMIS.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

PETER INGWERSEN

The objective of the paper is to amalgamate theories of text retrieval from various research traditions into a cognitive theory for information retrieval interaction. Set…

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to amalgamate theories of text retrieval from various research traditions into a cognitive theory for information retrieval interaction. Set in a cognitive framework, the paper outlines the concept of polyrepresentation applied to both the user's cognitive space and the information space of IR systems. The concept seeks to represent the current user's information need, problem state, and domain work task or interest in a structure of causality. Further, it implies that we should apply different methods of representation and a variety of IR techniques of different cognitive and functional origin simultaneously to each semantic full‐text entity in the information space. The cognitive differences imply that by applying cognitive overlaps of information objects, originating from different interpretations of such objects through time and by type, the degree of uncertainty inherent in IR is decreased. Polyrepresentation and the use of cognitive overlaps are associated with, but not identical to, data fusion in IR. By explicitly incorporating all the cognitive structures participating in the interactive communication processes during IR, the cognitive theory provides a comprehensive view of these processes. It encompasses the ad hoc theories of text retrieval and IR techniques hitherto developed in mainstream retrieval research. It has elements in common with van Rijsbergen and Lalmas' logical uncertainty theory and may be regarded as compatible with that conception of IR. Epistemologically speaking, the theory views IR interaction as processes of cognition, potentially occurring in all the information processing components of IR, that may be applied, in particular, to the user in a situational context. The theory draws upon basic empirical results from information seeking investigations in the operational online environment, and from mainstream IR research on partial matching techniques and relevance feedback. By viewing users, source systems, intermediary mechanisms and information in a global context, the cognitive perspective attempts a comprehensive understanding of essential IR phenomena and concepts, such as the nature of information needs, cognitive inconsistency and retrieval overlaps, logical uncertainty, the concept of ‘document’, relevance measures and experimental settings. An inescapable consequence of this approach is to rely more on sociological and psychological investigative methods when evaluating systems and to view relevance in IR as situational, relative, partial, differentiated and non‐linear. The lack of consistency among authors, indexers, evaluators or users is of an identical cognitive nature. It is unavoidable, and indeed favourable to IR. In particular, for full‐text retrieval, alternative semantic entities, including Salton et al.'s ‘passage retrieval’, are proposed to replace the traditional document record as the basic retrieval entity. These empirically observed phenomena of inconsistency and of semantic entities and values associated with data interpretation support strongly a cognitive approach to IR and the logical use of polyrepresentation, cognitive overlaps, and both data fusion and data diffusion.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Minsoo Park

The purpose of this paper is to explore the general nature of human multiple information task behavior in Web information seeking and retrieval contexts and identify the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the general nature of human multiple information task behavior in Web information seeking and retrieval contexts and identify the factors that influence the processes of prioritizing mul.tiple information tasks.

Design/methodology/approach

Experiments were conducted in a laboratory setting to collect data from multiple sources including search logs, think aloud reports during the searches and interviews, questionnaires, and post-search interviews. Quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques were both used.

Findings

The findings of this study reveal that effort, time and perception may all be necessary factors in producing good performance in dynamic and complex information situations, but how the author effectively manages the emotions ultimately yields successful performance. High mental effort, even when accompanied by productive time management, is not sufficient to produce high performance unless the author effectively deal with the emotions and feelings in such situations.

Originality/value

A comprehensive understanding of the affective, cognitive, and physical processes underlying the human multiple information task behavior is vital if the author is to design emotionally intelligent information systems that can support people when managing dynamic and complex information situations in hi-tech environments.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 67 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

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